Publications by authors named "Clifton Curtis"

4 Publications

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Tobacco industry responsibility for butts: a Model Tobacco Waste Act.

Tob Control 2017 01 1;26(1):113-117. Epub 2016 Mar 1.

ChangeLab Solutions, Oakland, California, USA.

Cigarette butts and other postconsumer products from tobacco use are the most common waste elements picked up worldwide each year during environmental cleanups. Under the environmental principle of Extended Producer Responsibility, tobacco product manufacturers may be held responsible for collection, transport, processing and safe disposal of tobacco product waste (TPW). Legislation has been applied to other toxic and hazardous postconsumer waste products such as paints, pesticide containers and unused pharmaceuticals, to reduce, prevent and mitigate their environmental impacts. Additional product stewardship (PS) requirements may be necessary for other stakeholders and beneficiaries of tobacco product sales and use, especially suppliers, retailers and consumers, in order to ensure effective TPW reduction. This report describes how a Model Tobacco Waste Act may be adopted by national and subnational jurisdictions to address the environmental impacts of TPW. Such a law will also reduce tobacco use and its health consequences by raising attention to the environmental hazards of TPW, increasing the price of tobacco products, and reducing the number of tobacco product retailers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2015-052737DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5256370PMC
January 2017

The environmental and health impacts of tobacco agriculture, cigarette manufacture and consumption.

Bull World Health Organ 2015 Dec 22;93(12):877-80. Epub 2015 Oct 22.

Tobacco Free Initiative, World Health Organization, avenue Appia 20, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland .

The health consequences of tobacco use are well known, but less recognized are the significant environmental impacts of tobacco production and use. The environmental impacts of tobacco include tobacco growing and curing; product manufacturing and distribution; product consumption; and post-consumption waste. The World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control addresses environmental concerns in Articles 17 and 18, which primarily apply to tobacco agriculture. Article 5.3 calls for protection from policy interference by the tobacco industry regarding the environmental harms of tobacco production and use. We detail the environmental impacts of the tobacco life-cycle and suggest policy responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2471/BLT.15.152744DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4669730PMC
December 2015

Extended Producer Responsibility and Product Stewardship for Tobacco Product Waste.

Int J Waste Resour 2014 Sep 4;4(3). Epub 2014 Sep 4.

Chief Executive Officer, Cigarette Butt Pollution Project and Professor of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, San Diego State University, USA.

This paper reviews several environmental principles, including Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR), Product Stewardship (PS), the Polluter Pays Principle (PPP), and the Precautionary Principle, as they may apply to tobacco product waste (TPW). The review addresses specific criteria that apply in deciding whether a particular toxic product should adhere to these principles; presents three case studies of similar approaches to other toxic and/or environmentally harmful products; and describes 10 possible interventions or policy actions that may help prevent, reduce, and mitigate the effects of TPW. EPR promotes total lifecycle environmental improvements, placing economic, physical, and informational responsibilities onto the tobacco industry, while PS complements EPR, but with responsibility shared by all parties involved in the tobacco product lifecycle. Both principles focus on toxic source reduction, post-consumer take-back, and final disposal of consumer products. These principles when applied to TPW have the potential to substantially decrease the environmental and public health harms of cigarette butts and other TPW throughout the world. TPW is the most commonly littered item picked up during environmental, urban, and coastal cleanups globally.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2252-5211.1000157DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4597783PMC
September 2014

Perspectives on Tobacco Product Waste: A Survey of Framework Convention Alliance Members' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Beliefs.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2015 Aug 18;12(8):9683-91. Epub 2015 Aug 18.

Graduate School of Public Health, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA 92106, USA.

Cigarette butts (tobacco product waste (TPW)) are the single most collected item in environmental trash cleanups worldwide. This brief descriptive study used an online survey tool (Survey Monkey) to assess knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs among individuals representing the Framework Convention Alliance (FCA) about this issue. The FCA has about 350 members, including mainly non-governmental tobacco control advocacy groups that support implementation of the World Health Organization's (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). Although the response rate (28%) was low, respondents represented countries from all six WHO regions. The majority (62%) have heard the term TPW, and nearly all (99%) considered TPW as an environmental harm. Most (77%) indicated that the tobacco industry should be responsible for TPW mitigation, and 72% felt that smokers should also be held responsible. This baseline information may inform future international discussions by the FCTC Conference of the Parties (COP) regarding environmental policies that may be addressed within FCTC obligations. Additional research is planned regarding the entire lifecycle of tobacco's impact on the environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph120809683DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4555306PMC
August 2015