Publications by authors named "Cleslei F Zanelli"

23 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

CYP712K4 Catalyzes the C-29 Oxidation of Friedelin in the Maytenus ilicifolia Quinone Methide Triterpenoid Biosynthesis Pathway.

Plant Cell Physiol 2019 Nov;60(11):2510-2522

Department of Plant Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.

The native Brazilian plant Maytenus ilicifolia accumulates a set of quinone methide triterpenoids with important pharmacological properties, of which maytenin, pristimerin and celastrol accumulate exclusively in the root bark of this medicinal plant. The first committed step in the quinone methide triterpenoid biosynthesis is the cyclization of 2,3-oxidosqualene to friedelin, catalyzed by the oxidosqualene cyclase friedelin synthase (FRS). In this study, we produced heterologous friedelin by the expression of M. ilicifolia FRS in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves and in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain engineered using CRISPR/Cas9. Furthermore, friedelin-producing N. benthamiana leaves and S. cerevisiae cells were used for the characterization of CYP712K4, a cytochrome P450 from M. ilicifolia that catalyzes the oxidation of friedelin at the C-29 position, leading to maytenoic acid, an intermediate of the quinone methide triterpenoid biosynthesis pathway. Maytenoic acid produced in N. benthamiana leaves was purified and its structure was confirmed using high-resolution mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. The three-step oxidation of friedelin to maytenoic acid by CYP712K4 can be considered as the second step of the quinone methide triterpenoid biosynthesis pathway, and may form the basis for further discovery of the pathway and heterologous production of friedelanes and ultimately quinone methide triterpenoids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pcz144DOI Listing
November 2019

Determination of in vitro absorption in Caco-2 monolayers of anticancer Ru(II)-based complexes acting as dual human topoisomerase and PARP inhibitors.

Biometals 2019 02 30;32(1):89-100. Epub 2018 Nov 30.

Center of Exact Sciences and Technology, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, SP, 13565-905, Brazil.

Due to their unique and versatile biochemical properties, ruthenium-based compounds have emerged as promising anticancer agents. Previous studies showed that three ruthenium(II) compounds: [Ru(pySH)(bipy)(dppb)]PF (1), [Ru(HSpym)(bipy)(dppb)]PF (2) and Ru[(SpymMe)(bipy)(dppb)]PF (3) presented anticancer properties higher than doxorubicin and cisplatin and acted as human topoisomerase IB (Topo I) inhibitors. Here, we focused our studies on in vitro intestinal permeability and anticancer mechanisms of these three complexes. Caco-2 permeation studies showed that 1 did not permeate the monolayer of intestinal cells, suggesting a lack of absorption on oral administration, while 2 and 3 permeated the cells after 60 and 120 min, respectively. Complexes 2 and 3 fully inhibited Topo II relaxation activity at 125 µM. In previously studies, 3 was the most potent inhibitor of Topo I, here, we concluded that it is a dual topoisomerase inhibitor. Moreover, it presented selectivity to cancer cells when evaluated by clonogenic assay. Thus, 3 was selected to gene expression assay front MDA-MB-231 cells from triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), which represents the highly aggressive subgroup of breast cancers with poor prognosis. The analyses revealed changes of 27 out of 84 sought target genes. PARP1 and PARP2 were 5.29 and 1.83 times down-regulated after treatment with 3, respectively. PARPs have been attractive antitumor drug targets, considering PARP inhibition could suppress DNA damage repair and sensitize tumor cells to DNA damage agents. Recent advances in DNA repair studies have shown that an approach that causes cell lethality using synthetic PARP-inhibiting drugs has produced promising results in TNBC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10534-018-0160-0DOI Listing
February 2019

The polyproline-motif of S6K2: eIF5A translational dependence and importance for protein-protein interactions.

J Cell Biochem 2019 04 15;120(4):6015-6025. Epub 2018 Oct 15.

Laboratory of Biotechnology, School of Applied Sciences, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Limeira, Brazil.

Ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and S6K2 proteins are effectors of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 pathway, which control the process of protein synthesis in eukaryotes. S6K2 is associated with tumor progression and has a conserved C-terminus polyproline rich motif predicted to be important for S6K2 interactions. It is noteworthy that the translation of proteins containing sequential prolines has been proposed to be dependent of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) translation factor. Therefore, we investigated the importance of polyproline-rich region of the S6K2 for its intrinsic phosphorylation activity, protein-protein interaction and eIF5A role in S6K2 translation. In HeLa cell line, replacing S6K2 polyproline by the homologous S6K1-sequence did not affect its kinase activity and the S6K2 endogenous content was maintained after eIF5A gene silencing, even after near complete depletion of eIF5A protein. Moreover, no changes in S6K2 transcript content was observed, ruling out the possibility of compensatory regulation by increasing the mRNA content. However, in the budding yeast model, we observed that S6K2 production was impaired when compared with S6K2∆Pro, after reduction of eIF5A protein content. These results suggest that although the polyproline region of S6K2 is capable of generating ribosomal stalling, the depletion of eIF5A in HeLa cells seems to be insufficient to cause an expressive decrease in the content of endogenous S6K2. Finally, coimmunoprecipitation assays revealed that the replacement of the polyproline motif of S6K2 alters its interactome and impairs its interaction with RPS6, a key modulator of ribosome activity. These results evidence the importance of S6K2 polyproline motif in the context of S6Ks function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.27888DOI Listing
April 2019

Pharmacogenetics-based population pharmacokinetic analysis of gabapentin in patients with chronic pain: Effect of OCT2 and OCTN1 gene polymorphisms.

Basic Clin Pharmacol Toxicol 2019 Mar 11;124(3):266-272. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Department of Natural Products and Toxicology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Araraquara, Brazil.

Gabapentin (GAB) is eliminated unchanged in urine, and organic cation transporters (OCT2 and OCTN1) have been shown to play a role in GAB renal excretion. This prospective clinical study aimed to evaluate the genetic polymorphisms effect on GAB pharmacokinetic (PK) variability using a population pharmacokinetic approach. Data were collected from 53 patients with chronic pain receiving multiple doses of GAB. Patients were genotyped for SLC22A2 c.808G>T and SLC22A4 c.1507C>T polymorphisms. Both polymorphisms' distribution followed the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. An one-compartment model with first-order absorption and linear elimination best described the data. The absorption rate constant, volume of distribution, and clearance estimated were 0.44 h , 86 L, and 17.3 × (estimated glomerular filtration ratio/89.58)  L/h, respectively. The genetic polymorphism SLC22A4 c.1507C>T did not have a significant influence on GAB absorption, distribution or elimination. Due to the low minor allelic frequency of SLC22A2 c.808G>T, further studies require higher number of participants to confirm its effect on GAB renal elimination. In conclusion, GAB clinical pharmacokinetics are strongly influenced by renal function and absorption process, but not by the OCTN1 (SLC22A4 c.1507C>T) polymorphism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bcpt.13126DOI Listing
March 2019

Screening of 2A peptides for polycistronic gene expression in yeast.

FEMS Yeast Res 2018 08;18(5)

Department of Biology and Biological Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Kemivägen 10, Gothenburg 41296, Sweden.

A complexity of pathway expression in yeast compared to prokaryotes is the need for separate promoters and terminators for each gene expressed. Single transcript expression and separated protein production is possible via the use of 2A viral peptides, but detailed characterization to assess their suitability and applications is needed. The present work aimed to characterize multiple 2A peptide sequences to determine suitability for metabolic engineering applications in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We screened 22 peptides placed between fluorescent protein sequences. Cleaving efficiency was calculated by western blot intensity of bands corresponding to the cleaved and uncleaved forms of the reporter. Three out of the 22 sequences showed high cleavage efficiency: 2A peptide from Equine rhinitis B virus (91%), Porcine teschovirus-1 (85%) and Operophtera brumata cypovirus-18 (83%). Furthermore, expression of the released protein was comparable to its monocistronic expression. As a proof-of-concept, the triterpene friedelin was successfully produced in the same yeast strain by expressing its synthase with the truncated form of HMG1 linked by the 2A peptide of ERBV-1, with production titers comparable to monocistronic expression (via separate promoters). These results suggest that these peptides could be suitable for expression and translation of multiple proteins in metabolic engineering applications in S. cerevisiae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsyr/foy036DOI Listing
August 2018

Friedelin in Maytenus ilicifolia Is Produced by Friedelin Synthase Isoforms.

Molecules 2018 Mar 20;23(3). Epub 2018 Mar 20.

Instituto de Química, Univ. Estadual Paulista-UNESP, Rua Prof. Francisco Degni, 55, Quitandinha, Araraquara, SP 14800-060, Brazil.

Triterpenes are interesting compounds because they play an important role in cell homeostasis and a wide variety exhibiting defense functions is produced by plant secondary metabolism. Those same plant secondary metabolites also exhibit biological properties with promising therapeutic potential as anti-inflammatory and antitumor agents. Friedelin is a triterpene ketone with anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective activities and it is a precursor of relevant antitumor quinonemethides. Although many triterpene synthases have been described, only two friedelin synthases were characterized and there is no information about their genomic features and alleles. In the present work, we aimed to identify the gene and new isoforms of friedelin synthase in leaves to be functionally characterized in . The gene sequence analysis elucidated the exon/intron structure and confirmed the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms with four non-synonymous mutations outside the active site of the enzyme. Therefore, two new isoforms were observed and the heterologous production of the enzymes in yeast showed similar production of friedelin. This first description of different alleles of the gene of friedelin synthase in can guide their validation as markers for friedelin-producer specimens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules23030700DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6017009PMC
March 2018

The Combined Use of Proteomics and Transcriptomics Reveals a Complex Secondary Metabolite Network in Peperomia obtusifolia.

J Nat Prod 2017 05 19;80(5):1275-1286. Epub 2017 Apr 19.

Instituto de Química, Universidade Estadual Paulista (Unesp) , Araraquara, SP 14800-060, Brazil.

Peperomia obtusifolia, an ornamental plant from the Piperaceae family, accumulates a series of secondary metabolites with interesting biological properties. From a biosynthesis standpoint, this species produces several benzopyrans derived from orsellinic acid, which is a polyketide typically found in fungi. Additionally, the chiral benzopyrans were reported as racemic and/or as diastereomeric mixtures, which raises questions about the level of enzymatic control in the cyclization step for the formation of the 3,4-dihydro-2H-pyran moiety. Therefore, this article describes the use of shotgun proteomic and transcriptome studies as well as phytochemical profiling for the characterization of the main biosynthesis pathways active in P. obtusifolia. This combined approach resulted in the identification of a series of proteins involved in its secondary metabolism, including tocopherol cyclase and prenyltransferases. The activity of these enzymes was supported by the phytochemical profiling performed in different organs of P. obtusifolia. However, the polyketide synthases possibly involved in the production of orsellinic acid could not be identified, suggesting that orsellinic acid may be produced by endophytes intimately associated with the plant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jnatprod.6b00827DOI Listing
May 2017

Friedelin Synthase from Maytenus ilicifolia: Leucine 482 Plays an Essential Role in the Production of the Most Rearranged Pentacyclic Triterpene.

Sci Rep 2016 11 22;6:36858. Epub 2016 Nov 22.

Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Univ. Estadual Paulista-UNESP, Rod. Araraquara-Jaú km 1, Araraquara, SP 14801-902, Brazil.

Among the biologically active triterpenes, friedelin has the most-rearranged structure produced by the oxidosqualene cyclases and is the only one containing a cetonic group. In this study, we cloned and functionally characterized friedelin synthase and one cycloartenol synthase from Maytenus ilicifolia (Celastraceae). The complete coding sequences of these 2 genes were cloned from leaf mRNA, and their functions were characterized by heterologous expression in yeast. The cycloartenol synthase sequence is very similar to other known OSCs of this type (approximately 80% identity), although the M. ilicifolia friedelin synthase amino acid sequence is more related to β-amyrin synthases (65-74% identity), which is similar to the friedelin synthase cloned from Kalanchoe daigremontiana. Multiple sequence alignments demonstrated the presence of a leucine residue two positions upstream of the friedelin synthase Asp-Cys-Thr-Ala-Glu (DCTAE) active site motif, while the vast majority of OSCs identified so far have a valine or isoleucine residue at the same position. The substitution of the leucine residue with valine, threonine or isoleucine in M. ilicifolia friedelin synthase interfered with substrate recognition and lead to the production of different pentacyclic triterpenes. Hence, our data indicate a key role for the leucine residue in the structure and function of this oxidosqualene cyclase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep36858DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5118845PMC
November 2016

Mapping surface residues of eIF5A that are important for binding to the ribosome using alanine scanning mutagenesis.

Amino Acids 2016 10 7;48(10):2363-74. Epub 2016 Jul 7.

Department of Biological Sciences, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, São Paulo State University-UNESP, Rod Araraquara-Jaú Km01, Araraquara, SP, 14800-903, Brazil.

The translation elongation factor eIF5A is conserved through evolution and is necessary to rescue the ribosome during translation elongation of polyproline-containing proteins. Although the site of eIF5A binding to the ribosome is known, no systematic analysis has been performed so far to determine the important residues on the surface of eIF5A required for ribosome binding. In this study, we used clustered charged-to-alanine mutagenesis and structural modeling to address this question. We generated four new mutants of yeast eIF5A: tif51A-4, tif51A-6, tif51A-7 and tif51A-11, and complementation analysis revealed that tif51A-4 and tif51A-7 could not sustain cell growth in a strain lacking wild-type eIF5A. Moreover, the allele tif51A-4 also displayed negative dominance over wild-type eIF5A. Both in vivo GST-pulldowns and in vitro fluorescence anisotropy demonstrated that eIF5A from mutant tif51A-7 exhibited an importantly reduced affinity for the ribosome, implicating the charged residues in cluster 7 as determinant features on the eIF5A surface for contacting the ribosome. Notably, modified eIF5A from mutant tif51A-4, despite exhibiting the most severe growth phenotype, did not abolish ribosome interactions as with mutant tif51A-7. Taking into account the modeling eIF5A + 80S + P-tRNA complex, our data suggest that interactions of eIF5A with ribosomal protein L1 are more important to stabilize the interaction with the ribosome as a whole than the contacts with P-tRNA. Finally, the ability of eIF5A from tif51A-4 to bind to the ribosome while potentially blocking physical interaction with P-tRNA could explain its dominant negative phenotype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00726-016-2279-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5897047PMC
October 2016

Evidence for a Negative Cooperativity between eIF5A and eEF2 on Binding to the Ribosome.

PLoS One 2016 26;11(4):e0154205. Epub 2016 Apr 26.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista, Department of Biological Sciences, Araraquara, SP, Brazil, 14801.

eIF5A is the only protein known to contain the essential and unique amino acid residue hypusine. eIF5A functions in both translation initiation due to its stimulation of methionyl-puromycin synthesis and translation elongation, being highly required for peptide-bound formation of specific ribosome stalling sequences such as poly-proline. The functional interaction between eIF5A, tRNA, and eEF2 on the surface of the ribosome is further clarified herein. Fluorescence anisotropy assays were performed to determine the affinity of eIF5A to different ribosomal complexes and reveal its interaction exclusively and directly with the 60S ribosomal subunit in a hypusine-dependent manner (Ki60S-eIF5A-Hyp = 16 nM, Ki60S-eIF5A-Lys = 385 nM). A 3-fold increase in eIF5A affinity to the 80S is observed upon charged-tRNAiMet binding, indicating positive cooperativity between P-site tRNA binding and eIF5A binding to the ribosome. Previously identified conditional mutants of yeast eIF5A, eIF5AQ22H/L93F and eIF5AK56A, display a significant decrease in ribosome binding affinity. Binding affinity between ribosome and eIF5A-wild type or mutants eIF5AK56A, but not eIF5AQ22H/L93F, is impaired in the presence of eEF2 by 4-fold, consistent with negative cooperativity between eEF2 and eIF5A binding to the ribosome. Interestingly, high-copy eEF2 is toxic only to eIF5AQ22H/L93F and causes translation elongation defects in this mutant. These results suggest that binding of eEF2 to the ribosome alters its conformation, resulting in a weakened affinity of eIF5A and impairment of this interplay compromises cell growth due to translation elongation defects.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0154205PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4845985PMC
March 2017

Hypocholesterolaemic effect of rat-administered oral doses of the isolated 7S globulins from cowpeas and adzuki beans.

J Nutr Sci 2015 16;4:e7. Epub 2015 Feb 16.

Department of Food and Nutrition , São Paulo State University , Rodovia Araraquara - Jaú , km 1 , 14801-902 , Araraquara , SP , Brazil.

The role of seed proteins, especially soyabean 7S globulins, in controlling dyslipidaemia is widely acknowledged. Amino acid sequence homology among the proteins of this family could reflect similar biological functions in other species. The aim of the present study was to unveil a hypolipidaemic effect of the 7S globulins from cowpeas (7S-C) and adzuki beans (7S-A), administered orally to rats fed a hypercholesterolaemic (HC; high cholesterol and TAG) diet for 28 d. A total of forty-five rats were divided into five groups (nine rats per group): (1) standard (STD) diet; (2) HC diet; (3) HC diet + 7S-C (300 mg/kg per d); (4) HC diet + 7S-A (300 mg/kg per d); and (5) HC diet + simvastatin (SVT; 50 mg/kg per d), as a control. Significant decreases in food intake and final body weight of rats receiving HC + 7S-C and HC + 7S-A diets compared with groups fed the HC and STD diets were observed. Significant decreases in serum total and non-HDL-cholesterol of 7S-C, 7S-A and SVT groups were also observed. HDL-cholesterol levels increased in the 7S-C, 7S-A and SVT groups, while hepatic cholesterol and TAG concentrations were significantly lower than in the HC diet group for the 7S-C-supplemented group only. Faecal excretions of fat and cholesterol in HC diet groups were considerably higher in animals consuming the 7S globulins. The results show that cowpea and adzuki bean 7S globulins promote cholesterol-decreasing effects in hypercholesterolaemic rats even at low dosages, as already observed for other legume seed storage proteins of this family. This main effect is discussed in relation to the possible mechanisms of action.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/jns.2014.70DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4463012PMC
June 2015

The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit L protein interacts with Flavivirus NS5 and may modulate yellow fever virus replication.

Virol J 2013 Jun 22;10:205. Epub 2013 Jun 22.

Laboratório de Pesquisas em Virologia, Departamento de Doenças Dermatológicas, Infecciosas e Parasitárias, Faculdade de Medicina de São José do Rio Preto-FAMERP, Av. Brigadeiro Faria Lima 5416, São José do Rio Preto, SP 15090-000, Brazil.

Background: Yellow fever virus (YFV) belongs to the Flavivirus genus and causes an important disease. An alarming resurgence of viral circulation and the expansion of YFV-endemic zones have been detected in Africa and South America in recent years. NS5 is a viral protein that contains methyltransferase and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domains, which are essential for viral replication, and the interactions between NS5 and cellular proteins have been studied to better understand viral replication. The aim of this study was to characterize the interaction of the NS5 protein with eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit L (eIF3L) and to evaluate the role of eIF3L in yellow fever replication.

Methods: To identify interactions of YFV NS5 with cellular proteins, we performed a two-hybrid screen using the YFV NS5 RdRp domain as bait with a human cDNA library, and RNApol deletion mutants were generated and analyzed using the two-hybrid system for mapping the interactions. The RNApol region involved was segmented into three fragments and analyzed using an eIF3L-expressing yeast strain. To map the NS5 residues that are critical for the interactions, we performed site-direct mutagenesis in segment 3 of the interaction domain (ID) and confirmed the interaction using in vitro assays and in vivo coimmunoprecipitation. The significance of eIF3L for YFV replication was investigated using eIF3L overexpression and RNA interference.

Results: In this work, we describe and characterize the interaction of NS5 with the translation factor eIF3L. The interaction between NS5 and eIF3L was confirmed using in vitro binding and in vivo coimmunoprecipitation assays. This interaction occurs at a region (the interaction domain of the RNApol domain) that is conserved in several flaviviruses and that is, therefore, likely to be relevant to the genus. eIF3L overexpression and plaque reduction assays showed a slight effect on YFV replication, indicating that the interaction of eIF3L with YFV NS5 may play a role in YFV replication.

Conclusions: Although the precise function of eIF3L on interactions with viral proteins is not entirely understood, these results indicate an interaction of eIF3L with YF NS5 and that eIF3L overexpression facilitates translation, which has potential implications for virus replication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1743-422X-10-205DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3698205PMC
June 2013

Enhanced nicotine-seeking behavior following pre-exposure to repeated cocaine is accompanied by changes in BDNF in the nucleus accumbens of rats.

Pharmacol Biochem Behav 2013 Mar 17;104:169-76. Epub 2013 Jan 17.

Laboratory of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Univ. Estadual Paulista UNESP, Rod. Araraquara-Jaú Km 1, 14801-902, Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil.

We investigated the behavioral and molecular interactions between cocaine and nicotine, through evaluating locomotor activity, nicotine intravenous self-administration and gene expression. Locomotor sensitization was induced in male Wistar rats by repeated cocaine (20 mg/kg; i.p.) or saline injections once a day over 7 days. Three days after the last injection, rats were challenged with either saline or cocaine (15 mg/kg; i.p.) and the locomotor activity was measured. The very next day animals received either saline or nicotine (0.4 mg/kg; s.c.) and the locomotor cross-sensitization was tested. Animals were then prepared with intrajugular catheters for nicotine self-administration. Nicotine self-administration patterns were evaluated using fixed or progressive ratio schedules of reinforcement and a 24-h unlimited access binge. Immediately after the binge sessions animals were decapitated, the brains were removed and the nucleus accumbens was dissected. The dynorphin (DYN), μ-opioid receptor (mu opioid), neuropeptide Y (NPY), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tropomyosin-related tyrosine kinase B receptor (TrkB) and corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 1 (CRF-R1) gene expression were measured by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Pretreatment with cocaine caused sensitization of cocaine motor response and locomotor cross-sensitization with nicotine. In the self-administration experiments repeated cocaine administration caused an increase in the nicotine break point and nicotine intake during a 24 h binge session.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pbb.2013.01.007DOI Listing
March 2013

Effect of a calcium hydroxide/chlorhexidine paste as intracanal dressing in human primary teeth with necrotic pulp against Porphyromonas gingivalis and Enterococcus faecalis.

Int J Paediatr Dent 2012 Mar 24;22(2):116-24. Epub 2011 Aug 24.

Department of Orthodontics and Pediatric Dentistry, Araraquara Dental School, UNESP - Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

Background: Intracanal medication is important for endodontic treatment success as it eliminates microorganisms that persist after biomechanical preparation. Aim.  To evaluate the effect of two intracanal medications against Porphyromonas gingivalis and Enterococcus faecalis in the root canals of human primary teeth with necrotic pulp with and without furcal/periapical lesion, using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR).

Design: Thirty-two teeth with necrotic pulp were used. Twelve teeth did not present lesion, and 20 teeth presented radiographically visible furca/periapical lesion. Microbiological samples were collected after coronal access and biomechanical preparation. The teeth were medicated with calcium hydroxide pastes prepared with either polyethylene glycol or chlorhexidine. After 30days, the medication was removed and a third collection was performed. Microbiological samples were processed using qRT-PCR. Data were analysed by Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney tests (α=0.05).

Results: There was no significant difference in the microbiota present in the primary teeth with and without furcal/periapical lesion. Biomechanical preparation was effective in reducing the number of microorganisms (P<0.05). The intracanal medications had similar antibacterial activity.

Conclusion: The association of chlorhexidine with calcium hydroxide did not increase the antibacterial activity of the intracanal medication in the treatment of primary teeth with necrotic pulp with and without furcal/periapical lesion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-263X.2011.01174.xDOI Listing
March 2012

eIF5A interacts functionally with eEF2.

Amino Acids 2012 Feb 6;42(2-3):697-702. Epub 2011 Aug 6.

Department of Biological Sciences, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

eIF5A is highly conserved from archaea to mammals, essential for cell viability and the only protein known to contain the essential amino acid residue hypusine, generated by a unique posttranslational modification. eIF5A was originally identified as a translation initiation factor due to its ability to stimulate the formation of the first peptide bond. However, recent studies have shown that depletion of eIF5A causes a significant decrease in polysome run-off and an increase in the ribosome transit time, suggesting that eIF5A is actually involved in the elongation step of protein synthesis. We have previously shown that the depletion mutant tif51A-3 (eIF5A(C39Y/G118D)) shows a sicker phenotype when combined with the dominant negative mutant eft2 ( H699K ) of the elongation factor eEF2. In this study, we used the eIF5A(K56A) mutant to further investigate the relationship between eIF5A and eEF2. The eIF5A(K56A) mutant is temperature sensitive and has a defect in protein synthesis, but instead of causing depletion of the eIF5A protein, this mutant has a defect in hypusine modification. Like the mutant tif51A-3, the eIF5A(K56A) mutant is synthetic sick with the mutant eft2 ( H699K ) of eEF2. High-copy eEF2 not only improves cell growth of the eIF5A(K56A) mutant, but also corrects its increased cell size defect. Moreover, eEF2 suppression of the eIF5A(K56A) mutant is correlated with the improvement of total protein synthesis and with the increased resistance to the protein synthesis inhibitor hygromycin B. Finally, the polysome profile defect of the eIF5A(K56A) mutant is largely corrected by high-copy eEF2. Therefore, these results demonstrate that eIF5A is closely related to eEF2 function during translation elongation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00726-011-0985-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3245752PMC
February 2012

The small nuclear ribonucleoprotein U1A interacts with NS5 from yellow fever virus.

Arch Virol 2011 Jun 6;156(6):931-8. Epub 2011 Feb 6.

Departamento de Doenças Dermatológicas, Infecciosas e Parasitárias, Faculdade de Medicina de Rio Preto, São José do Rio Preto 15090-000, Brazil.

The flavivirus NS5 protein is one of the most important proteins of the replication complex, and cellular proteins can interact with it. This study shows for the first time that the yellow fever virus (YFV) NS5 protein is able to interact with U1A, a protein involved in splicing and polyadenylation. We confirmed this interaction by GST-pulldown assay and by co-immunoprecipitation in YFV-infected cells. A region between amino acids 368 and 448 was identified as the site of interaction of the NS5 protein with U1A. This region was conserved among some flaviviruses of medical importance. The implications of this interaction for flavivirus replication are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00705-011-0927-xDOI Listing
June 2011

Epigenetic silencing of CRABP2 and MX1 in head and neck tumors.

Neoplasia 2009 Dec;11(12):1329-39

Department of Biology, IBILCE-UNESP, São José do Rio Preto-SP, Brazil.

Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a heterogeneous disease affecting the epithelium of the oral cavity, pharynx and larynx. Conditions of most patients are diagnosed at late stages of the disease, and no sensitive and specific predictors of aggressive behavior have been identified yet. Therefore, early detection and prognostic biomarkers are highly desirable for a more rational management of the disease. Hypermethylation of CpG islands is one of the most important epigenetic mechanisms that leads to gene silencing in tumors and has been extensively used for the identification of biomarkers. In this study, we combined rapid subtractive hybridization and microarray analysis in a hierarchical manner to select genes that are putatively reactivated by the demethylating agent 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5Aza-dC) in HNSCC cell lines (FaDu, UM-SCC-14A, UM-SCC-17A, UM-SCC-38A). This combined analysis identified 78 genes, 35 of which were reactivated in at least 2 cell lines and harbored a CpG island at their 5' region. Reactivation of 3 of these 35 genes (CRABP2, MX1, and SLC15A3) was confirmed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR; fold change, >or=3). Bisulfite sequencing of their CpG islands revealed that they are indeed differentially methylated in the HNSCC cell lines. Using methylation-specific PCR, we detected a higher frequency of CRABP2 (58.1% for region 1) and MX1 (46.3%) hypermethylation in primary HNSCC when compared with lymphocytes from healthy individuals. Finally, absence of the CRABP2 protein was associated with decreased disease-free survival rates, supporting a potential use of CRABP2 expression as a prognostic biomarker for HNSCC patients.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2794514PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1593/neo.91110DOI Listing
December 2009

eIF5A has a function in the elongation step of translation in yeast.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2009 Mar 29;380(4):785-90. Epub 2009 Jan 29.

Department of Biological Sciences, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, São Paulo State University-UNESP, Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas, Rodovia Araraquara-Jaú, km 01, Araraquara, SP 14801-902, Brazil.

The putative translation factor eIF5A is essential for cell viability and is highly conserved throughout evolution. Here, we describe genetic interactions between an eIF5A mutant and a translation initiation mutant (eIF4E) or a translation elongation mutant (eEF2). Polysome profile analysis of single and double mutants revealed that mutation in eIF5A reduces polysome run-off, contrarily to translation initiation mutants. Moreover, the polysome profile of an eIF5A mutant alone is very similar to that of a translation elongation mutant. Furthermore, depletion of eIF5A causes a significant decrease in total protein synthesis and an increase of the average ribosome transit time. Finally, we demonstrate that the formation of P bodies is inhibited in an eIF5A mutant, similarly to the effect of the translation elongation inhibitor cycloheximide. Taken together, these results not only reinforce a role for eIF5A in translation but also strongly support a function for eIF5A in the elongation step of protein synthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2009.01.148DOI Listing
March 2009

Synthetic lethality between eIF5A and Ypt1 reveals a connection between translation and the secretory pathway in yeast.

Mol Genet Genomics 2008 Sep 21;280(3):211-21. Epub 2008 Jun 21.

Department of Biological Sciences, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, São Paulo State University, UNESP, Rod Araraquara-Jaú, km 1, Araraquara, SP, Brazil.

The putative translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) is a small protein, highly conserved and essential in all organisms from archaea to mammals. Although the involvement of eIF5A in translation initiation has been questioned, new evidence reestablished the connection between eIF5A and this cellular process. In order to better understand the function of elF5A, a screen for synthetic lethal gene using the tif51A-3 mutant was carried out and a new mutation (G80D) was found in the essential gene YPT1, encoding a protein involved in vesicular trafficking. The precursor form of the vacuolar protein CPY is accumulated in the ypt1-G80D mutant at the nonpermissive temperature, but this defect in vesicular trafficking did not occur in the tif51A mutants tested. Overexpression of eIF5A suppresses the growth defect of a series of ypt1 mutants, but this suppression does not restore correct CPY sorting. On the other hand, overexpression of YPT1 does not suppress the growth defect of tif51A mutants. Further, it was revealed that eIF-5A is present in both soluble and membrane fractions, and its membrane association is ribosome-dependent. Finally, we demonstrated that the ypt1 and other secretion pathway mutants are sensitive to paromomycin. These results confirm the link between translation and vesicular trafficking and reinforce the implication of eIF5A in protein synthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00438-008-0357-yDOI Listing
September 2008

Structural modeling and mutational analysis of yeast eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A reveal new critical residues and reinforce its involvement in protein synthesis.

FEBS J 2008 Apr 13;275(8):1874-88. Epub 2008 Mar 13.

Department of Biological Sciences, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, São Paulo State University-UNESP, Rodovia Araraquara-Jaú km. 1, Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil.

Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A) is a protein that is highly conserved and essential for cell viability. This factor is the only protein known to contain the unique and essential amino acid residue hypusine. This work focused on the structural and functional characterization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae eIF5A. The tertiary structure of yeast eIF5A was modeled based on the structure of its Leishmania mexicana homologue and this model was used to predict the structural localization of new site-directed and randomly generated mutations. Most of the 40 new mutants exhibited phenotypes that resulted from eIF-5A protein-folding defects. Our data provided evidence that the C-terminal alpha-helix present in yeast eIF5A is an essential structural element, whereas the eIF5A N-terminal 10 amino acid extension not present in archaeal eIF5A homologs, is not. Moreover, the mutants containing substitutions at or in the vicinity of the hypusine modification site displayed nonviable or temperature-sensitive phenotypes and were defective in hypusine modification. Interestingly, two of the temperature-sensitive strains produced stable mutant eIF5A proteins--eIF5A(K56A) and eIF5A(Q22H,L93F)--and showed defects in protein synthesis at the restrictive temperature. Our data revealed important structural features of eIF5A that are required for its vital role in cell viability and underscored an essential function of eIF5A in the translation step of gene expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1742-4658.2008.06345.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5278519PMC
April 2008

eIF5A binds to translational machinery components and affects translation in yeast.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2006 Oct 7;348(4):1358-66. Epub 2006 Aug 7.

Department of Biological Sciences, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, São Paulo State University-UNESP, Araraquara, SP 14801-902, Brazil.

The putative translation factor eIF5A is essential for cell viability and is highly conserved from archebacteria to mammals. Although this protein was originally identified as a translation initiation factor, subsequent experiments did not support a role for eIF5A in general translation. In this work, we demonstrate that eIF-5A interacts with structural components of the 80S ribosome, as well as with the translation elongation factor 2 (eEF2). Moreover, eIF5A is further shown to cofractionate with monosomes in a translation-dependent manner. Finally, eIF5A mutants show altered polysome profiles and are sensitive to translation inhibitors. Our results re-establish a function for eIF5A in translation and suggest a role for this factor in translation elongation instead of translation initiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.07.195DOI Listing
October 2006

Pkc1 acts through Zds1 and Gic1 to suppress growth and cell polarity defects of a yeast eIF5A mutant.

Genetics 2005 Dec 12;171(4):1571-81. Epub 2005 Sep 12.

Department of Biological Sciences, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, São Paulo State University, UNESP, Rodovia Araraquara-Jaú, Km. 01, Araraquara, São Paulo 14801-902, Brazil.

eIF5A is a highly conserved putative eukaryotic translation initiation factor that has been implicated in translation initiation, nucleocytoplasmic transport, mRNA decay, and cell proliferation, but with no precise function assigned so far. We have previously shown that high-copy PKC1 suppresses the phenotype of tif51A-1, a temperature-sensitive mutant of eIF5A in S. cerevisiae. Here, in an attempt to further understand how Pkc1 functionally interacts with eIF-5A, it was determined that PKC1 suppression of tif51A-1 is independent of the cell integrity MAP kinase cascade. Furthermore, two new suppressor genes, ZDS1 and GIC1, were identified. We demonstrated that ZDS1 and ZDS2 are necessary for PKC1, but not for GIC1 suppression. Moreover, high-copy GIC1 also suppresses the growth defect of a PKC1 mutant (stt1), suggesting the existence of a Pkc1-Zds1-Gic1 pathway. Consistent with the function of Gic1 in actin organization, the tif51A-1 strain shows an actin polarity defect that is partially recovered by overexpression of Pkc1 and Zds1 as well as Gic1. Additionally, PCL1 and BNI1, important regulators of yeast cell polarity, also suppress tif51A-1 temperature sensitivity. Taken together, these data strongly support the correlated involvement of Pkc1 and eIF5A in establishing actin polarity, which is essential for bud formation and G1/S transition in S. cerevisiae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1534/genetics.105.048082DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1456085PMC
December 2005

Large-scale transcriptome analyses reveal new genetic marker candidates of head, neck, and thyroid cancer.

Cancer Res 2005 Mar;65(5):1693-9

Departamento de Bioquímica, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, Brazil.

A detailed genome mapping analysis of 213,636 expressed sequence tags (EST) derived from nontumor and tumor tissues of the oral cavity, larynx, pharynx, and thyroid was done. Transcripts matching known human genes were identified; potential new splice variants were flagged and subjected to manual curation, pointing to 788 putatively new alternative splicing isoforms, the majority (75%) being insertion events. A subset of 34 new splicing isoforms (5% of 788 events) was selected and 23 (68%) were confirmed by reverse transcription-PCR and DNA sequencing. Putative new genes were revealed, including six transcripts mapped to well-studied chromosomes such as 22, as well as transcripts that mapped to 253 intergenic regions. In addition, 2,251 noncoding intronic RNAs, eventually involved in transcriptional regulation, were found. A set of 250 candidate markers for loss of heterozygosis or gene amplification was selected by identifying transcripts that mapped to genomic regions previously known to be frequently amplified or deleted in head, neck, and thyroid tumors. Three of these markers were evaluated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR in an independent set of individual samples. Along with detailed clinical data about tumor origin, the information reported here is now publicly available on a dedicated Web site as a resource for further biological investigation. This first in silico reconstruction of the head, neck, and thyroid transcriptomes points to a wealth of new candidate markers that can be used for future studies on the molecular basis of these tumors. Similar analysis is warranted for a number of other tumors for which large EST data sets are available.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-3506DOI Listing
March 2005
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