Publications by authors named "Claudio Singh Solorzano"

5 Publications

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Body image dissatisfaction and interoceptive sensibility significantly predict postpartum depressive symptoms.

J Affect Disord 2022 08 21;311:239-246. Epub 2022 May 21.

Department of Psychology, Sapienza University, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

Background: During pregnancy women experience rapid and unique changes in body weight, shape and size over a relatively short time period. While research focused on the role of external bodily modifications during pregnancy, research on internal bodily variations is missing.

Methods: In a longitudinal study, we recruited healthy pregnant women and measured whether and how depressive symptoms, body image dissatisfaction and the subjective tendency to focus on one's own internal bodily sensations, i.e., interoceptive sensibility, changed during pregnancy and postpartum. Pregnant women filled online self-report questionnaires during pregnancy (i.e. second and third trimester) and after (i.e. six weeks) the delivery, including the Body Areas Satisfaction Scale, the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness, and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale.

Results: While depressive symptoms remained stable in the peripartum, body image dissatisfaction increased in the postpartum compared to the pregnancy period, and interoceptive sensibility increased over pregnancy. Findings showed that the increase of body dissatisfaction through the peripartum and the levels of interoceptive sensibility in the early phase of pregnancy predicted depressive symptoms in the postpartum.

Limitations: Interoception was evaluated as a subjective measure (i.e., interoceptive sensibility). Future studies may include objective measures of interoceptive accuracy and interoceptive awareness.

Conclusions: The current study supports the importance of body image dissatisfaction and interoceptive sensibility in the development of postpartum depressive symptoms. Future studies need to investigate if interventions aimed to increase interoceptive sensibility might be useful in preventing depressive symptoms and identify the mechanisms that can lead to these changes.
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August 2022

Predictors of protective behaviours during the Italian Covid-19 pandemic: an application of protection motivation theory.

Psychol Health 2022 Apr 22:1-21. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Training Office, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy.

Objective: The study investigated whether Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) constructs predicted recommended protective behaviours soon after the Italian lockdown and 1-year later.

Design: A three-wave longitudinal design was used. Three-hundred-fifty-two adults completed online questionnaires with PMT and intention measures assessed during the Italian lockdown (T1), and behaviour measures assessed after 1-month (T2) and 1-year (T3).

Outcome Measures: Intentions to adopt behaviours (T1) and behaviour adherence at T2 and T3.

Results: From T2 to T3, participants reported less adoption of distance behaviours, but higher face masks use. In SEM models, self-efficacy and perceived severity were the strongest predictors of intentions to engage in protective behaviours. Intentions (β = 0.490,  < 0.001) and fear arousal (β = 0.134  = 0.035) predicted protective behaviours at T2. Intentions (β = 0.302,  = 0.001) and perceived severity (β = 0.431,  < 0.001) predicted protective behaviours at T3.

Conclusion: To increase intentions, intervention should highlight the severity of getting infected and target perceptions of one's ability to perform the protective behaviours. In addition, interventions should consider that at the beginning of the pandemic, fear predicted the adoption of preventive behaviours while perceived severity of the disease had a greater impact over time.
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April 2022

A multi-country test of brief reappraisal interventions on emotions during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Nat Hum Behav 2021 08 2;5(8):1089-1110. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Ireland.

The COVID-19 pandemic has increased negative emotions and decreased positive emotions globally. Left unchecked, these emotional changes might have a wide array of adverse impacts. To reduce negative emotions and increase positive emotions, we tested the effectiveness of reappraisal, an emotion-regulation strategy that modifies how one thinks about a situation. Participants from 87 countries and regions (n = 21,644) were randomly assigned to one of two brief reappraisal interventions (reconstrual or repurposing) or one of two control conditions (active or passive). Results revealed that both reappraisal interventions (vesus both control conditions) consistently reduced negative emotions and increased positive emotions across different measures. Reconstrual and repurposing interventions had similar effects. Importantly, planned exploratory analyses indicated that reappraisal interventions did not reduce intentions to practice preventive health behaviours. The findings demonstrate the viability of creating scalable, low-cost interventions for use around the world. PROTOCOL REGISTRATION: The stage 1 protocol for this Registered Report was accepted in principle on 12 May 2020. The protocol, as accepted by the journal, can be found at
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August 2021

The Impact of Caregiving Burden on Mental Well-Being in Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Caregivers: The Mediatory Role of Perceived Social Support.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 05 19;18(10). Epub 2021 May 19.

Institute of Health Informatics, University College London, 222 Euston Road, London NW1 2DA, UK.

An increase in caregiver burden and a decrease in social support have both been identified as predictors of poor caregiver psychological distress. However, little is known about the role of these factors in coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) caregivers. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether change in perceived social support from pre to post surgery mediated the relationship between change in caregiver burden and caregiver depressive symptoms and subjective well-being post surgery. A sample of 101 caregivers of elective CABG patients were assessed 28 days before and 62 days after patients' surgery. Caregivers completed the Oberst Burden Scale, the Enhancing Recovery in Coronary Heart Disease (ENRICHD) Social Support Instrument, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Control, Autonomy, Self-Realisation, and Pleasure (CASP-19) scale. Simple mediation analyses showed that change in social support significantly mediated both the relationship between change in caregiver burden and post-surgery depressive symptoms (unstandardised β = 0.041, 95% CI (0.005, 0.112)) and the relationship between change in caregiver burden and post-surgery subjective well-being (unstandardised β = 0.071, 95% CI (0.001, 0.200)). Psychological interventions aimed at the CABG caregiver population should promote social support to deal with the increase of caregivers' tasks and demands after the patients' surgery.
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May 2021

Pre-surgical Caregiver Burden and Anxiety Are Associated with Post-Surgery Cortisol over the Day in Caregivers of Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Patients.

Int J Behav Med 2019 Jun;26(3):316-322

Department of Behavioural Science and Health, University College London, 1-19 Torrington Place, London, WC1E 6BT, UK.

Background: The relationship between pre-surgical distress and diurnal cortisol following surgery has not been investigated prospectively in caregivers of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) patients before. We aimed to examine the relationship between pre-surgical anxiety and caregiver burden and diurnal cortisol measured 2 months after the surgery in the caregivers of CABG patients.

Method: We used a sample of 103 caregivers of elective CABG patients that were assessed 28.86 days before and 60.94 days after patients' surgery. Anxiety and caregiver burden were assessed using the anxiety subscale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Oberst Burden Scale respectively. Saliva samples were collected to measure cortisol area under the curve with respect to ground (AUCg) and diurnal cortisol slope. Anxiety and caregiver burden were entered into linear regression models simultaneously.

Results: While high levels of pre-surgical anxiety were positively associated with increased follow-up levels of AUCg (β = 0.30, p = 0.001), greater pre-surgery perceived burden score was associated with steeper cortisol slope (β = 0.27, p = 0.017) after controlling for a wide range of covariates.

Conclusion: These outcomes support the utility of psychological interventions aimed to increase the awareness of caregiving tasks and demands in informal caregivers.
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June 2019