Publications by authors named "Claudio Pizzo"

9 Publications

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Neoadjuvant treatment for locally advanced unresectable and borderline resectable pancreatic cancer: oncological outcomes at a single academic centre.

ESMO Open 2020 11;5(6):e000929

CIBERONC, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Comunidad de Madrid, Spain; Department of Medical Oncology, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain. Electronic address:

Introduction: Pancreatic cancer (PC), even in the absence of metastatic disease, has a dismal prognosis. One-third of them are borderline resectable (BRPC) or locally advanced unresectable PC (LAUPC) at diagnosis. There are limited prospective data supporting the best approach on these tumours. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (ChT) is being increasingly used in this setting.

Methods: This is a retrospective series of consecutive patients staged as BRPC or LAUPC after discussion in the multidisciplinary board (MDB) at an academic centre. All received neoadjuvant ChT, followed by chemoradiation (ChRT) in some cases, and those achieving enough downstaging had a curative-intent surgery. Descriptive data about patient's characteristics, neoadjuvant treatments, toxicities, curative resections, postoperative complications, pathology reports and adjuvant treatment were collected. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival was calculated with Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test.

Results: Between August 2011 and July 2019, 49 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and all of them received neoadjuvant ChT. Fluorouracil+folinic acid, irinotecan and oxaliplatin was the most frequently used scheme (77%). The most prevalent grade 3 or 4 toxicities were neutropenia (26.5%), neurotoxicity (12.2%), diarrhoea (8.2%) and nausea (8.2%). 18 patients (36.7%) received ChRT thereafter. In total, 22 patients (44,9%) became potentially resectable and 19 of them had an R0 or R1 pancreatic resection. One was found to be unresectable at surgery and two refused surgery. A vascular resection was required in 7 (35%). No postoperative deaths were observed. Postoperative ChT was given to 12 (66.7%) of resected patients. Median OS of the whole cohort was 24,9 months (95% CI 14.1 to 35.7), with 30.6 months for resected and 13.1 months for non-resected patients, respectively (p<0.001).

Conclusion: A neoadjuvant approach in BRPC and LAUPC was well tolerated and allowed a curative resection in 38.8% of them with a potential improvement on OS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/esmoopen-2020-000929DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7684818PMC
November 2020

Evaluation of Prognostic Factors for Survival in Transverse Colon Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Aug 30;12(9). Epub 2020 Aug 30.

Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Oncology Unit, Sant' Andrea Hospital, Sapienza University of Rome, 00187 Rome, Italy.

Although most of the analyses included transverse colon cancers (TCC) among right colon cancer (RCC), it is not completely clear if they present total similarities with RCC or if they have their specific features. Therefore, we present an observational study to evaluate clinicopathological characteristics and survival data of patients with TCC. We retrospectively reviewed 450 RCC, of whom 97 stages I-IV TCC were included in this multicenter study; clinicopathological and molecular parameters were analyzed to identify prognostic factors for disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Most of TCC cases were male (61%), with ≤70 years old (62%), and good performance status (ECOG PS 0, 68%). According to WHO classification, 41 (49%) and 40 (48%) tumors were classified as well to moderate and poorly/undifferentiated respectively, regardless of mucinous component (30%). About molecular data, 8 (26%), 45 (63%), and 14 (24%) were MSI-H, KRAS wild-type, and BRAF V600E mutant, respectively. With a median follow-up of 34 months, there were 29 and 50 disease recurrences and deaths respectively. Charlson comorbidity index ≥5 was a significant prognostic factor for DFS (HR = 7.67, 95% CI 2.27-25.92). Colon obstruction/perforation (HR = 2.65, 95% CI 1.01-7.01), and BRAF mutant (HR = 3.03, 95% CI 0.97-9.50) cases showed a worst, despite not statistically significant, DFS. Whereas for OS, at the multivariate model, only tumor grade differentiation (HR = 5.26, 95% CI 1.98-14.01) and BRAF mutation status (3.71, 95% CI 1.07-12.89) were independent prognostic factors. Poorly/undifferentiated tumor grade and BRAF V600E mutation are independent prognostic factors for OS in TCC. Further prospective clinical trials are needed to better define TCC treatment in order to improve patient outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12092457DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7563638PMC
August 2020

The treatment paradigm of right-sided metastatic colon cancer: harboring BRAF mutation makes the difference.

Int J Colorectal Dis 2020 Aug 7;35(8):1513-1527. Epub 2020 May 7.

Department of Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Oncology Unit, Sant' Andrea Hospital, University "La Sapienza", Rome, Italy.

Purpose: BRAF mutations represent the main negative prognostic factor for metastatic colorectal cancer and a supposed negative predictive factor of response to standard chemotherapy. We have explored survival difference in right-sided colon cancer (RCC) patients according to BRAF mutations, with the aim to identify any predictive factors of response to targeted-based therapy.

Methods: A retrospective study of RCC patients, with BRAF known mutation status, treated with chemotherapy (CT) from October 2008 to June 2019 in 5 Italian centers, was conducted.

Results: We identified 207 advanced RCC patients: 20.3% BRAF mutant and 79.7% BRAF wild type (wt). BRAF-mutant cancers were more likely to be pT4 (50.0% v 25.7%, p = 0.016), undifferentiated (71.4% v 44.0%, p = 0.004), KRAS wt (90.5% v 38.2%, p < 0.001), and MSI-H (41.7% v 16.2%, p = 0.019) tumors, with synchronous (52.4% v 31.5%, p = 0.018) and peritoneal metastases (38.1% v 22.4%, p = 0.003). Median overall survival (OS) was 16 v 27 months in BRAF mutant and BRAF wt (P = 0.020). In first-line setting, BRAF-mutant showed a 2ys OS of 80% in clinical trials, 32% in anti-VEGF, 14% in epidermial growth factor receptor (EGFR), and 0% in chemotherapy alone regimens (P = 0.009). BRAF-mutant patients demonstrated worse survival, regardless of targeted therapy administered. However, survival difference was statistically significant in the anti-EGFR-treated subgroup (16 v 28 months, P = 0.005 in BRAF mutant v BRAF wt, respectively).

Conclusions: Our study demonstrated that BRAF status makes the difference in treatment's outcome. Therefore, the anti-EGFR should not be excluded in all advanced RCC but considered on a case-by-case basis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00384-020-03589-9DOI Listing
August 2020

Weight loss and body mass index in advanced gastric cancer patients treated with second-line ramucirumab: a real-life multicentre study.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol 2019 Sep 6;145(9):2365-2373. Epub 2019 Jul 6.

Medical Oncology, St. Salvatore Hospital, University of L'Aquila, Via Vetoio, 67100, L'Aquila, Italy.

Aims And Methods: This multicenter retrospective study aims to evaluate the correlations between Body Weight Loss (BWL), Body Mass Index (BMI) and clinical outcomes (ORR, PFS, and OS) of advanced gastric cancer (aGC) patients treated with second-line ramucirumab-based therapy in a "real-life" setting.

Results: From December 2014 to October 2018, 101 consecutive aGC patients progressed to a first-line chemotherapy were treated with ramucirumab alone (10.9%) or in combination with paclitaxel (89.1%). Median BMI was 21.2 kg/m and mBWL since first-line treatment commencement was 4.5%. Among 53 patients who underwent primary tumor resection (PTR), 73.6% experienced BWL, while 26.4% did not experience BWL (p = 0.0429). Patients who underwent PTR had a significantly higher probability of experiencing BWL (yes vs no) [OR = 2.35 (95% CI 1.02-5.42), p = 0.0439]. Among the 89 evaluable patients, ORR was 26.9% (95% CI 17.2-40.1). At a median follow-up of 17.3 months, mPFS was 5.4 months (95% CI 3.6-6.8) and mOS was 8.7 months (95% CI 7.3-11.9). In the multivariate analysis, only ECOG-PS and BMI were confirmed independent predictors for shorter PFS [HR = 1.69 (95% CI 1.01-2.82), p = 0.04] [HR = 1.97 (95% CI 1.12-3.46), p = 0.01] and OS [HR = 1.69 (95% CI 1.01-2.83), p = 0.04] [HR = 2.08 (95% CI 1.17-3.70), p = 0.01].

Conclusion: Efficacy of ramucirumab is confirmed in this "real-life" analysis. BWL seems not to have correlations with clinical outcomes in these patients, while BMI and ECOG-PS remain major prognostic factors. A possible explanation for the lack of prognostic effect of BWL might be the proportion of patients subjected to PTR in this series (52.5%).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00432-019-02971-7DOI Listing
September 2019

Timing of Adjuvant Chemotherapy and Survival in Colorectal, Gastric, and Pancreatic Cancer. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Apr 17;11(4). Epub 2019 Apr 17.

Oncology Unit, ASST Cremona, 26100 Cremona, Italy.

(1) Background: The optimal timing of adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) in gastrointestinal malignancies is still a matter of debate. For colorectal cancer, it is recommended to start post-operative treatment within eight weeks. The objective of this study was to assess the clinical effects of starting adjuvant CT within or after 6-8 weeks post-surgery in colorectal, gastric, and pancreatic cancer. (2) Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched in December 2018. Publications comparing the outcomes of patients treated with adjuvant CT administered before (early) or after (delayed) 6-8 weeks post-surgery for colorectal, gastric, and pancreatic cancer were identified. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). (3) Results: Out of 8752 publications identified, 34 comparative studies assessing a total of 141,853 patients were included. Meta-analysis indicated a statistically significant increased risk of death with delayed CT (>6-8 weeks post-surgery) in colorectal cancer (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21-1.33; <0.001). Similarly, for gastric cancer, delaying adjuvant CT was associated with inferior overall survival (HR = 1.2, 95% CI 1.04-1.38; = 0.01). Conversely, the benefit of earlier CT was not evident in pancreatic cancer (HR = 1, 95% CI 1-1.01; = 0.37). Conclusions: Starting adjuvant CT within 6-8 weeks post-surgery is associated with a significant survival benefit for colorectal and gastric cancer, but not for pancreatic cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11040550DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6520704PMC
April 2019

Impact of tumor site on the prognosis of small bowel adenocarcinoma.

Tumori 2019 Dec 1;105(6):524-528. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, "Sapienza" University of Rome, Italy.

Background: Because of a lack of large-scale prospective studies there is no clear indication about the management of patients with small bowel adenocarcinoma (SBA). This study evaluated clinical outcome of patients diagnosed with SBA at our institution.

Methods: Clinicopathologic features, treatments, and clinical outcome of patients diagnosed with SBA between 2006 and 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. Median time of survival was calculated and compared using the log-rank test. Multivariate Cox regression was used to test independence of significant factors in univariate analysis.

Results: Forty patients were included in the study; the majority (82.5%) had a tumor in the duodenum (including ampulla of Vater) and an early stage disease at the diagnosis. Median overall survival (OS) in the whole study population was 26.5 months. Patients with a tumor of the lower part of the small intestine (jejunum, ileum, and appendix) showed a better OS compared with that of patients with upper SBA (40 months vs 26 months, respectively; =0.09). Primary tumor site and stage were independent predictors of OS.

Conclusions: Our results suggest a prognostic role for the primary tumor site. This finding deserves to be further investigated to ensure better classification as well as more effective management strategies for SBA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0300891619839297DOI Listing
December 2019

Biliary tract cancer: current challenges and future prospects.

Cancer Manag Res 2019 28;11:379-388. Epub 2018 Dec 28.

Department of Oncology, Operative Unit of Oncology, Azienda Socio Sanitaria Territoriale of Bergamo Ovest, Treviglio, Bergamo, Italy,

Purpose: Incidence and mortality of biliary tract carcinoma (BTC) are increasing, especially in South America and Asia. Such a disease often bears a dismal prognosis because of diagnosis occurring at late stages and for the frequent relapses after surgery. The aims of this review were to summarize the state of the art of the treatment of BTC and give a view at possible future prospects linked with molecular profiling, immunotherapy, and targeted therapies.

Design: We conducted a systematic literature search using MEDLINE and the 2018 ASCO Meeting abstract databases to identify published clinical trials, translational series, and meeting abstracts. All significant papers and abstracts available to date were included.

Results: For resected BTC, thanks to the BILCAP study, adjuvant chemotherapy (CT) with capecitabine should be regarded as the new standard of care. For locally advanced inoperable and metastatic diseases, the use of chemoradiotherapy and radioembolization has not been supported by any randomized Phase III study. The standard of care remains the combination of CT with gemcitabine and cisplatin, as reported by the ABC-02 trial. All targeted therapies have failed to improve the survival outcomes, either in combination with CT or as single agents and are not recommended in the treatment of BTC. Whole-exome sequencing and molecular profiling have helped in identifying genetic signatures typical of different BTC subtypes. With this support, new trials with targeted agents and immunotherapy have been designed, and results are awaited.

Conclusion: BTC still remains a disease with very few treatment options. Different BTC subtypes own peculiar gene mutations and pathways alterations. Therefore, molecular profiling may be the only key to enable new tailored strategies with targeted agents and immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S157156DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6314055PMC
December 2018

Prognosis of elderly gastric cancer patients after surgery: a nomogram to predict survival.

Med Oncol 2018 Jun 19;35(7):111. Epub 2018 Jun 19.

Medical Oncology Unit, Clinical and Molecular Medicine Department, S Andrea Hospital, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

This study aimed to identify clinicopathological factors associated with the outcome of elderly patients with gastric cancer (GC), and to construct a nomogram for individual risk prediction. Tumor characteristics of 143 patients aged ≥ 80 years underwent surgery for GC were collected and analyzed by uni- and multivariate analyses. A prognostic nomogram was constructed using the factors which resulted to be significantly associated with overall survival. Discrimination of nomogram was tested by Kaplan-Meier (KM) curves and boxplots. With a median follow up of 18.37 months, overall 1-year survival rate was 51% and it was 60 and 40% for older and younger than 83 years, respectively (P = 0.003). Univariate analysis indicated that age (P = 0.008), pre-operatory performance status (P < 0.001), depth of invasion (P = 0.007), lymph nodes involvement (P < 0.001), and residual tumor (P < 0.001) were significant prognostic factors. Based on these variables, a nomogram to predict 3, 6, 12, and 24 months survival probability after GC surgery was developed. KM and boxplots according to the range of nomogram total points highlighted the appropriateness of distinguish the patients' survival in all the subgroups. Moreover, this nomogram exhibited superior prognostic discrimination between intermediate stages (II-III) than AJCC-TNM classification. This study showed that after good surgical selection, the prognosis of elderly GC patients may be influenced by several clinicopathological factors. Therefore, a predictive nomogram to distinguish more accurately fit patients may allow physicians to individualize treatments and to detect those patients who may benefit from an intensive multidisciplinary approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12032-018-1166-8DOI Listing
June 2018

Clinical outcome and molecular characterization of brain metastases from esophageal and gastric cancer: a systematic review.

Med Oncol 2017 Apr 18;34(4):62. Epub 2017 Mar 18.

Oncology Unit, Oncology Department, ASST di Cremona, Ospedale di Cremona, Viale Concordia 1, 26100, Cremona, Italy.

The aim of the study was to collect the available data on central nervous system (CNS) metastases from esophageal and gastric cancer. A PubMed, EMBASE, SCOPUS, Web of Science, LILACS, Ovid and Cochrane Library search was performed. Thirty-seven studies including 779 patients were considered. Among the data extracted, treatment of tumor and brain metastases (BMs), time to BMs development, number and subsite, extracerebral metastases rate, median overall survival (OS) and prognostic factors were included. For esophageal cancer, the median OS from diagnosis of BMs was 4.2 months. Prognostic factors for OS included: performance status, multimodal therapy, adjuvant chemotherapy, single BM, brain only disease and surgery. For gastric cancer, median OS was 2.4 months. Prognostic factors for OS included: recursive partitioning analysis class 2, stereotactic radiosurgery (SRT) and use of intrathecal therapy. HER2-positive gastric cancer was shown to be associated with a higher risk and shorter time to CNS relapse. Patients harboring BMs from gastric and esophageal tumors, except cases with single lesions that are treated aggressively, have a poor prognosis. SRT (plus or minus surgery and whole brain radiotherapy) seems to give better results in terms of longer OS after brain relapse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12032-017-0919-0DOI Listing
April 2017
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