Publications by authors named "Claudio Pastenes"

13 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Tomato Cultivars With Variable Tolerances to Water Deficit Differentially Modulate the Composition and Interaction Patterns of Their Rhizosphere Microbial Communities.

Front Plant Sci 2021 13;12:688533. Epub 2021 Jul 13.

Laboratorio de Genómica y Genética de Interacciones Biológicas (LG2IB), Instituto de Nutrición y Tecnología de los Alimentos, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Since drought is the leading environmental factor limiting crop productivity, and plants have a significant impact in defining the assembly of plant-specific microbial communities associated with roots, we aimed to determine the effect of thoroughly selected water deficit tolerant and susceptible cultivars on their rhizosphere microbiome and compared their response with plant-free soil microbial communities. We identified a total of 4,248 bacterial and 276 fungal different operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in soils by massive sequencing. We observed that tomato cultivars significantly affected the alpha and beta diversity of their bacterial rhizosphere communities but not their fungal communities compared with bulk soils (BSs), showing a plant effect exclusively on the bacterial soil community. Also, an increase in alpha diversity in response to water deficit of both bacteria and fungi was observed in the susceptible rhizosphere (SRz) but not in the tolerant rhizosphere (TRz) cultivar, implying a buffering effect of the tolerant cultivar on its rhizosphere microbial communities. Even though water deficit did not affect the microbial diversity of the tolerant cultivar, the interaction network analysis revealed that the TRz microbiota displayed the smallest and least complex soil network in response to water deficit with the least number of connected components, nodes, and edges. This reduction of the TRz network also correlated with a more efficient community, reflected in increased cooperation within kingdoms. Furthermore, we identified some specific bacteria and fungi in the TRz in response to water deficit, which, given that they belong to taxa with known beneficial characteristics for plants, could be contributing to the tolerant phenotype, highlighting the metabolic bidirectionality of the holobiont system. Future assays involving characterization of root exudates and exchange of rhizospheres between drought-tolerant and susceptible cultivars could determine the effect of specific metabolites on the microbiome community and may elucidate their functional contribution to the tolerance of plants to water deficit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.688533DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8313812PMC
July 2021

Ripening and Storage Time Effects on the Aromatic Profile of New Table Grape Cultivars in Chile.

Molecules 2020 Dec 8;25(24). Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Department of Agro-Industry and Enology, Faculty of Agronomical Sciences, University of Chile, Santa Rosa 11315, La Pintana, 8820000 Santiago, Chile.

The aim of this study was to determine the volatile profiles of new seedless table grape cultivars Timco™, Magenta™, Krissy™ and Arra15™ and compare them with the traditional table grape variety Crimson seedless. The volatile profiles were extracted employing solid-phase microextraction and analyzed with gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. Terpenes were present in very different proportions, with the Magenta, Krissy, and Arra15 varieties showing much higher quantities than Crimson and Timco. β-Ionone and octanal, important indicators in the aromatic flavor quality of table grapes, were present in higher levels in Crimson and Arra15, and this might be responsible for driving consumer preference. These compounds significantly increased during ripening, except in Crimson, and gradually decreased from harvest to the end of the storage in all the cultivars. Evolution during ripening was different depending on the variety but the general tendency terpenes was to increase from veraison to harvest. A postharvest study revealed that Crimson could have a better conservation of the volatile components during postharvest storage compared with Timco and Krissy. These results could help in plant breeding programs and to make decisions for new planting according to needs for storing fresh table grapes given distances to consumer markets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25245790DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7763542PMC
December 2020

Controversies in Midday Water Potential Regulation and Stomatal Behavior Might Result From the Environment, Genotype, and/or Rootstock: Evidence From Carménère and Syrah Grapevine Varieties.

Front Plant Sci 2019 2;10:1522. Epub 2019 Dec 2.

Facultad de Ciencias Agronómicas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Controversies exist regarding the iso/anisohydric continuum for classifying plant water-use strategies. Isohydricity has been argued to result from plant-environment interaction rather than it being an intrinsic property of the plant itself. Discrepancies remain regarding the degree of isohydricity (σ) of plants and their threshold for physiological responses and resistance to drought. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the isohydricity of the grapevine varieties Syrah and Carménère under a non-lethal water deficit progression from veraison from two different locations, the Cachapoal Valley (CV) and Maipo Valley (MV), in central Chile and with different rootstock only in Syrah. For this purpose, the midday stem water potential (Ψ) regulation and stomatal responses to drought, leaf traits related to pressure-volume curves, stomatal sensitivity to ABA, cavitation threshold, and photosynthetic responses were assessed. A higher atmospheric water demand was observed in the CV compared to the MV, with lower Ψ values in the former for both varieties. Also, the σ values in Carménère were 1.11 ± 0.14 MPa MPa and 0.68 ± 0.18 MPa MPa in the CV and MV, respectively, and in Syrah they were 1.10 ± 0.07 MPa MPa in the CV and 0.60 ± 0.10 MPa MPa in the MV. Even though similar variations in σ between locations in both varieties were evident, Carménère plants showed a conserved stomatal response to Ψ in both study sites, while those of Syrah resulted in a higher stomatal sensitivity to Ψ in the site of lower σ. Besides the differences in seasonal weather conditions, it is likely that the different rootstock and clonal variability of each season in Syrah were able to induce coordinated changes in σ, Ψ, and osmotic potential at full turgor (π). On the other hand, irrespective of the σ, and given the similarity between the π and Ψ in leaves before drought, it seems that π could be a convenient tool for assessing the Ψ threshold values posing a risk to the plants in order to aid the irrigation decision making in grapevines under controlled water deficit. Finally, water deficits in vineyards might irreversibly compromise the photosynthetic capacity of leaves.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2019.01522DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6900739PMC
December 2019

Sustainable Strategies to Prevent Iron Deficiency, Improve Yield and Berry Composition in Blueberry ( spp.).

Front Plant Sci 2019 12;10:255. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Facultad de Ciencias Agronómicas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

The aim of this investigation was to study the effect of sustainable strategies to correct iron deficiency in blueberries, based on Fe-heme applications or intercropping with graminaceous species, on yield, and berry quality variables. The experiment was conducted in a blueberry orchard established in a sub-alkaline soil. The association with grasses increased the crop load and yield (only ), and decreased the skin/flesh ratio. In addition, these treatments increased anthocyanins as well as some hydroxybenzoic acids, hydroxycinnamic acids, flavanols, and flavonol concentrations in skins with a similar effectiveness as Fe-EDDHA, whereas the Fe-heme applications did not influence such parameters. Moreover, data revealed that the association with both grasses decreased the firmness of the berries, whereas none of the treatments assessed changed the soluble solids, pH, acidity, and the soluble solids/acidity rate compared to the control. These results suggest that Fe nutrition is crucial for yield and berry quality in blueberry, and that intercropping with grasses may be an effective and sustainable alternative to counteract Fe deficiency in blueberry, with a similar effect on berries to that achieved with Fe-EDDHA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2019.00255DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6423480PMC
March 2019

Water stress and ripeness effects on the volatile composition of Cabernet Sauvignon wines.

J Sci Food Agric 2018 Feb 25;98(3):1140-1152. Epub 2017 Sep 25.

Departamento de Agroindustria y Enología, Facultad de Ciencias Agronómicas, Universidad de Chile, Santiago, Chile.

Background: Controlled water deficits affect grape berry physiology and the resulting wines, with volatile composition being the one of the affected parameters. However, there is a potential disconnect between aromatic maturity and sugar accumulation. Accordingly, the effects of three different water status levels over two growing seasons (2014 and 2015) and two different harvest dates on the aroma compounds from Cabernet Sauvignon wines were studied. Volatile compounds were determined using headspace solid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatoghraphy/mass spectrometry.

Results: Around 45 volatile compounds were determined in the wines and, among these, esters were affected the most, presenting lower concentrations when the most restrictive water treatment was applied in both years. By contrast, volatile acids presented the highest concentrations when the lowest level of irrigation was applied. On the other hand, a delay in harvesting produced an increase in the total amount of volatile compounds in samples from the most restrictive water treatment. These results are coincident with a principal component analysis that indicated a great separation between years, deficit irrigation treatments and harvest dates.

Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest that a low water supply had a negative effect on the aromatic potential of wines at a similar ripening stage. However, this effect could be countered by harvesting at a later date. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.8565DOI Listing
February 2018

Controlled water deficit during ripening affects proanthocyanidin synthesis, concentration and composition in Cabernet Sauvignon grape skins.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2017 Aug 26;117:34-41. Epub 2017 May 26.

Universidad de Chile, Facultad de Ciencias Agronómicas, Santa Rosa 11315, La Pintana, Casilla 1004, Santiago, Chile.

The influence of controlled water deficit on the phenolic composition and gene expression of VvLAR2, VvMYBPA1, VvMYBPA2 and VvMYB4a in Cabernet Sauvignon grape skins throughout ripening was investigated. The assay was carried out on own-rooted Vitis vinifera plants cv. Cabernet Sauvignon in a commercial vineyard from veraison until commercial harvest. Three irrigation regimes were used from veraison until harvest with the following treatments: T1: 3.6 mm day; T2: 1.8 mm day and T3: 0.3 mm day. The content of total phenols and total anthocyanins in grape skins increased during ripening, but water deficit did not produce differences among treatments in the total anthocyanin concentration. Proanthocyanidins (PAs) decreased throughout ripening, although approximately 25 days after veraison (DAV), their content slightly increased. This effect was more pronounced in the most restrictive treatment (T3). A similar pattern was observed in the transcript abundance of VvLAR2, VvMYBPA1 and VvMYB4a. PAs separation revealed differences in concentration but not in the proportion among fractions among the irrigation treatments. Additionally, controlled water deficit increased the mean degree of polymerization and the flavan-3-ol polymeric concentration in grape skins throughout ripening but with no effects on the extent of PAs galloylation. Our results suggest that the water status of Cabernet Sauvignon grapevines affects the gene expression for proteins involved in the synthesis of PAs, increasing their concentration and also their composition, with further evidence for the efficacy of a convenient, controlled water deficit strategy for grapevine cultivation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2017.05.015DOI Listing
August 2017

Long-term effects of abscisic acid (ABA) on the grape berry phenylpropanoid pathway: Gene expression and metabolite content.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2016 Aug 19;105:213-223. Epub 2016 Apr 19.

Facultad de Ciencias Agronómicas, Universidad de Chile, Casilla, 1004, Santiago, Chile. Electronic address:

ABA has been proposed as the main signal triggering the onset of the ripening process in grapes, and modulating the secondary metabolism in grape berry skins. To determine the effect of ABA on secondary metabolism in berries, clusters of Carménère were sprayed with 0 μLL(-1) ABA; 50 μLL(-1) ABA and 100 μLL(-1) ABA during pre-véraison, and the gene expression of the transcription factors and enzymes of the phenylpropanoid pathway were assessed from véraison to 70 days after véraison (DAV). Additionally, flavonols, tannins and anthocyanins were assessed from véraison until harvest (110 DAV). ABA accelerated sugar and anthocyanin accumulation at véraison. The grape transcript abundance of VvDFR, VvANS, VvUFGT and VvMybA1, all peaking around véraison mimicked the concentration of ABA throughout the season. The highest anthocyanin concentration occurred 35 DAV for all treatments, but higher pigment concentrations were observed in ABA-treated berries at véraison and from 60 to 70 DAV to harvest. VvPAL was also increased by treatment at the higher concentration of ABA from véraison to 40 DAV. Regarding flavanol synthesis, VvLAR2 and VvMyb4A decreased from véraison until 40 DAV and then increased again until 70 DAV. Compared to the control, both ABA treatments resulted in a less-than-proportional reduction of the expression of both genes compared to the control and, after 40 DAV, in a more-than-proportional increase compared to the control, suggesting a long-term effect of the pre-véraison ABA spray on the berries. A concomitant increase in flavanols was observed in berries after 40 DAV, and this occurred at a higher extent in berries treated with the highest ABA concentration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2016.04.012DOI Listing
August 2016

Seasonal fluctuations in Vitis vinifera root respiration in the field.

New Phytol 2011 Dec 15;192(4):939-951. Epub 2011 Sep 15.

Centro de Estudios de Zonas Áridas, Facultad de Ciencias Agronómicas, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 129, Coquimbo, Chile.

We studied the seasonal fluctuation of soil respiration (R(S)), and its root-dependent (R(R)) and basal (R(B)) components, in a Vitis vinifera (Chardonnay) vineyard. The R(S) components were estimated through independent field methods (y-intercept and trenching) and modeled on the basis of a Q(10) response to soil temperature, and fine and coarse root respiration coefficients. The effect of assimilate availability on R(R) was assessed through a trunk girdling treatment. The apparent Q(10) for R(R) was twice that of R(B) (3.5 vs 1.6) and increased linearly with increasing vine root biomass. The fastest R(R) of fine roots was during rapid fruit growth and the fastest R(R) of coarse roots was immediately following fruit development. R(S) was estimated at 32.6 kg ha(-1) d(-1) (69% as a result of R(R) ) for the hottest month and at 7.6 kg ha(-1) d(-1) (18% as a result of R(R)) during winter dormancy. Annual R(S) was low compared with other natural and cultivated ecosystems: 5.4 Mg ha(-1) (46% as a result of R(R)). Our estimates of annual vineyard R(S) are the first for any horticultural crop and suggest that the assumption that they are similar to those of annual crops or forest trees might lead to an overestimation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2011.03860.xDOI Listing
December 2011

Differential adaptation of two varieties of common bean to abiotic stress: II. Acclimation of photosynthesis.

J Exp Bot 2006 16;57(3):699-709. Epub 2006 Jan 16.

Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN, UK.

The photosynthetic characteristics of two contrasting varieties of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) have been determined. These varieties, Arroz and Orfeo, differ in their productivity under stress conditions, resistance to drought stress, and have distinctly different stomatal behaviour. When grown under conditions of high irradiance and high temperature, both varieties displayed evidence of photosynthetic acclimation at the chloroplast level-there was an increase in chlorophyll a/b ratio, a decreased content of Lhcb proteins, and an increased xanthophyll cycle pool size. Both varieties also showed reduced chlorophyll content on a leaf area basis and a decrease in leaf area. Both varieties showed an increase in leaf thickness but only Arroz showed the characteristic elongated palisade cells in the high light-grown plants; Orfeo instead had a larger number of smaller, rounded cells. Differences were found in stomatal development: whereas Arroz showed very little change in stomatal density, Orfeo exhibited a large increase, particularly on the upper leaf surface. It is suggested that these differences in leaf cell structure and stomatal density give rise to altered rates of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance. Whereas, Arroz had the same photosynthetic rate in plants grown at both low and high irradiance, Orfeo showed a higher photosynthetic capacity at high irradiance. It is suggested that the higher yield of Orfeo compared with Arroz under stress conditions can be explained, in part, by these cellular differences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erj061DOI Listing
March 2006

Differential adaptation of two varieties of common bean to abiotic stress: I. Effects of drought on yield and photosynthesis.

J Exp Bot 2006 16;57(3):685-97. Epub 2006 Jan 16.

Facultad de Ciencias Agronómicas, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 1004, Santiago, Chile.

The yield of 24 commercial varieties and accessions of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) has been determined at different sites in Chile and Bolivia. Statistical analysis was performed in order to characterize whether a particular variety was more or less stable in yield under different environmental conditions. Amongst these, two varieties have been identified for more detailed study: one variety has a higher than average yield under unstressed conditions but is strongly affected by stress, and another has a reduced yield under unstressed conditions but is less affected by stress. The contrasting rate of abscission of the reproductive organs under drought stress was clearly consistent with these differences. The more tolerant genotype shows a great deal of plasticity at the biochemical and cellular level when exposed to drought stress, in terms of stomatal conductance, photosynthetic rate, abscisic acid synthesis, and resistance to photoinhibition. By contrast, the former lacks such plasticity, but shows an enhanced tendency for a morphological response, the movement of leaves, which appears to be its principal response to drought stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erj062DOI Listing
March 2006

Paraheliotropism can protect water-stressed bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants against photoinhibition.

J Plant Physiol 2004 Dec;161(12):1315-23

Laboratorio de Fisiología del Estrés Vegetal, Facultad de Ciencias Agronómicas, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 1004, Santiago, Chile.

In order to estimate the importance of leaf movements on photosynthesis in well-watered and water-stressed field grown bean cultivars (Arroz Tuscola (AT), Orfeo INIA (OI), Bayos Titan (BT), and Hallados Dorado (HD)), CO2 assimilation, leaf temperature, and capacity for the maximum quantum yield recovery, measured as Fv/Fm, were assessed. Leaf water potential was lower in water-stressed compared to control plants throughout the day. Water status determined a decrease in the CO2 assimilation and stomatal conductance as light intensity and temperature increased up to maximal intensities at midday. Both parameters were lower in stressed compared to control plants. Even though high light intensity and water-stress induced stomatal closure is regarded as a photoinhibitory condition, the recovery of variable to maximal fluorescence (Fv/Fm) after 30min of darkness was nearly constant in both water regimes. In fact, higher values were observed in OI and AT when under stress. Photochemical and non-photochemical fluorescence quenching resulted in minor changes during the day and were similar between watered and stressed plants. It is concluded that paraheliotropism, present in the four bean cultivars, efficiently protects stressed plants from photoinhibition in the field and helps maintain leaf temperatures far below the ambient temperatures, however, it may also be responsible for low CO2 assimilation rates in watered plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2003.09.002DOI Listing
December 2004

Leaf movements and photoinhibition in relation to water stress in field-grown beans.

J Exp Bot 2005 Jan 13;56(411):425-33. Epub 2004 Dec 13.

Facultad de Ciencias Agronómicas, Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Producción Agrícola, Laboratorio de Fisiología del Estrés en Plantas, Casilla 1004, Santiago, Chile.

Photoinhibition in plants depends on the extent of light energy being absorbed in excess of what can be used in photochemistry and is expected to increase as environmental constraints limit CO2 assimilation. Water stress induces the closure of stomata, limiting carbon availability at the carboxylation sites in the chloroplasts and, therefore, resulting in an excessive excitation of the photosynthetic apparatus, particularly photosystem II (PSII). Mechanisms have evolved in plants in order to protect against photoinhibition, such as non-photochemical energy dissipation, chlorophyll concentration changes, chloroplast movements, increases in the capacity for scavenging the active oxygen species, and leaf movement or paraheliotropism, avoiding direct exposure to sun. In beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), paraheliotropism seems to be an important feature of the plant to avoid photoinhibition. The extent of the leaf movement is increased as the water potential drops, reducing light interception and maintaining a high proportion of open PSII reaction centres. Photoinhibition in water-stressed beans, measured as the capacity to recover F(v)/F(m), is not higher than in well-watered plants and leaf temperature is maintained below the ambient, despite the closure of stomata. Bean leaves restrained from moving, increase leaf temperature and reduce qP, the content of D1 protein and the capacity to recover F(v)/F(m) after dark adaptation, the extent of such changes being higher in water-stressed plants. Data are presented suggesting that even though protective under water stress, paraheliotropism, by reducing light interception, affects the capacity to maintain high CO2 assimilation rates throughout the day in well-watered plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/eri061DOI Listing
January 2005

Limitations to photosynthesis under light and heat stress in three high-yielding wheat genotypes.

J Plant Physiol 2003 Jun;160(6):657-66

INRA/CIMMYT Wheat Project, CIMMYT, A.P.6-641, 06600, Mexico.

Three high-yielding wheat genotypes (T. aestivum L., c.v. Siete Cerros, Seri and Bacanora, released in 1966, 1982 and 1988, respectively) were grown under irrigation in two high radiation, low relative humidity environments (Tlaltizapan and Ciudad Obregon CIMMYT experimental stations, Mexico). Gas exchange and fluorescence parameters were assessed on the flag leaf during the day. Carbon isotope discrimination (delta) was analysed in flag leaf at anthesis and in grain at maturity. In both environments, gas exchange and fluorescence parameters varied markedly with irradiance and temperature. Analysis of their respective variation indicated the occurrence of photo-respiration and photo-inhibition, particularly in Tlaltizapan, the warmest environment, and in Siete Cerros. In Ciudad Obregon (high-yielding environment) lower Ci (internal CO2 concentration) and delta La (carbon isotope discrimination of the leaf) suggested a higher intrinsic photosynthetic capacity in the variety Bacanora. Higher yield of this genotype was also associated with higher Fv'/Fo' (ratio of photochemical and non photochemical rate constants in the light) and Fm'/Fm (ratio of the non photochemical rate constants in the dark and light adapted state).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1078/0176-1617-00772DOI Listing
June 2003
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