Publications by authors named "Claudio Fiorillo"

41 Publications

Pancreaticoduodenectomy in octogenarians: The importance of "biological age" on clinical outcomes.

Surg Oncol 2021 Nov 24;40:101688. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Gemelli Pancreatic Center, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario "Agostino Gemelli" IRCCS, Largo Agostino Gemelli, 8, 00168, Rome, Italy; CRMPG (Advanced Pancreatic Research Center), Largo Agostino Gemelli, 8, 00168, Rome, Italy; Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Roma, Largo Francesco Vito 1, 00168, Rome, Italy.

Introduction: With the prolongation of life expectancy, an increasing number of elderly patients are evaluated for pancreatic surgery. However, the influence of increasing age on outcomes after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) is still unclear, especially in octogenarians. Aim of this study is to evaluate the perioperative characteristics and outcomes of octogenarians undergoing PD.

Methods: Data for 812 patients undergoing PD between 2019 and 2020 in 10 referral centers in Italy were reviewed. Patients aged 80 years or older were matched based on nearest neighbor propensity scores in a 1:1 ratio to patients younger than 80 years. Propensity scores were calculated using 7 perioperative variables including gender, ASA score, neoadjuvant treatment (NAT), biliary stent positioning, type of surgical approach (open, laparoscopic, robot-assisted), associated vascular resections, type of lesion. Perioperative characteristics and short-term postoperative outcomes were compared before and after matching.

Results: Overall, 81 (10%) patients had 80 years or more. Before matching, octogenarians had a higher rate of ASA score≥ 3 (n = 35, 43.2% vs. n = 207, 28.3%; p = 0.005) and less frequently underwent NAT (n = 11, 13.6% vs. n = 213, 29.1%; p = 0.003). Matching was successfully performed for 70 octogenarians. After matching, no differences in preoperative and intraoperative characteristics were found. Postoperatively, ICU admission was more frequent in octogenarians (50% vs 30%; p = 0.01). Although in-hospital mortality was higher in octogenarians before matching (7.4% vs 2.9% in the younger cohort; p = 0.03), no difference was noted between the matched cohorts (p = 0.36). Postoperative morbidity was comparable between groups in the whole and selected populations. At the multivariate analysis, chronological age was not recognized as a prognostic factor for cumulative major complications, while ASA ≥3 was the only confirmed influencing feature (OR 2.98; 95%CI: 1.6-6.8; p = 0.009).

Conclusio: In high-volume centers, PD in octogenarians shows similar outcomes than younger patients. Age itself should not be considered an exclusion criterion for PD, but a focused preoperative assessment is essential for adequate patient selection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.suronc.2021.101688DOI Listing
November 2021

Quantitative assessment of the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on pancreatic surgery: an Italian multicenter analysis of 1423 cases from 10 tertiary referral centers.

Updates Surg 2021 Nov 24. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Department of Surgery, Gemelli Pancreatic Center, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario "Agostino Gemelli", IRCCS, Largo Agostino Gemelli, 8, 00168, Rome, Italy.

Few evidences are present on the consequences of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on pancreatic surgery. Aim of this study is to evaluate how COVID-19 influenced the diagnostic and therapeutic pathways of surgical pancreatic diseases. A comparative analysis of surgical volumes and clinical, surgical and perioperative outcomes in ten Italian referral centers was conducted between the first semester 2020 and 2019. One thousand four hundred and twenty-three consecutive patients were included in the analysis: 638 from 2020 and 785 from 2019. Surgical volume in 2020 decreased by 18.7% (p < 0.0001). Benign/precursors diseases (- 43.4%; p < 0.0001) and neuroendocrine tumors (- 33.6%; p = 0.008) were the less treated diseases. No difference was reported in terms of discussed cases at the multidisciplinary tumor board (p = 0.43), mean time between diagnosis and neoadjuvant treatment (p = 0.91), indication to surgery and surgical resection (p = 0.35). Laparoscopic and robot-assisted procedures dropped by 45.4% and 61.9%, respectively, during the lockdown weeks of 2020. No difference was documented for post-operative intensive care unit accesses (p = 0.23) and post-operative mortality (p = 0.06). The surgical volume decrease in 2020 will potentially lead, in the near future, to the diagnosis of a higher rate of advanced stage diseases. However, the reassessment of the Italian Health Service kept guarantying an adequate level of care in tertiary referral centers. Clinicaltrials.gov ID: NCT04380766.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13304-021-01171-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8611384PMC
November 2021

Impact of surgical repair on type IV paraesophageal hernias (PEHs).

Surg Endosc 2021 Nov 18. Epub 2021 Nov 18.

Research Institute against Digestive Cancer (IRCAD), 1, place de l'Hôpital, 67000, Strasbourg, France.

Background: Paraesophageal hernias (PEHs; types II-III-IV) account for about 5% of all hiatal hernias (HHs). The peculiarity of PEHs is the presence of a herniated sac which contains a more or less important part of the stomach, along with other abdominal organs in type IV PEHs. Surgical treatment is more complex since it requires a reduction not only of the herniated content but also of the "container," namely the sac adherent to mediastinal structures. Since type III and IV PEHs are mostly grouped together as large PEHs, there is a lack of articles in the literature with regards to clear surgical outcomes, as well as management algorithms in type IV PEHs. This study aims to compare outcomes in type IV vs. type III PEHs after surgical repair.

Methods: A retrospective study of patients who underwent laparoscopic PEH hernia repair (LPEHR) was conducted in a single institution between 2006 and 2020. Patient baseline characteristics and surgical outcomes were analyzed.

Results: A total of 103 patients were included in the analysis. Patients presenting with type IV PEHs (12/103) were significantly older than patients with type III PEHs (91/104) (75.25 ± 7.15 vs. 66.91 ± 13.58 respectively (p = 0.039), and more fragile with a higher Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) (4.25 ± 1.48 vs. 2.96 ± 1.72, p = 0.016). Operative time was significantly longer (243 ± 101.73 vs. 133.38 ± 61.76, p = 0.002), and postoperative morbidity was significantly higher in type IV PEH repair (50% vs. 8.8% type III, p = 0.000).

Conclusion: Patients with type IV PEHs appear to be older and frailer. The higher incidence of postoperative complications in patients with type IV PEHs should advocate for a precise indication for surgical treatment, which should be performed in centers of expertise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-021-08828-wDOI Listing
November 2021

Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) for colorectal peritoneal metastases: analysis of short- and long-term outcomes.

Langenbecks Arch Surg 2021 Oct 18. Epub 2021 Oct 18.

Department of Digestive Surgery, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli IRCCS, Largo A. Gemelli, 8, 00168, Rome, Italy.

Background: Peritoneal metastases carry the worst prognosis among all sites of colorectal cancer (CRC) metastases. In recent years, the advent of cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) has improved survival for selected patients with limited peritoneal involvement. We report the evolution of CRS and HIPEC for colorectal peritoneal metastases at a tertiary referral center over a 10-year period.

Methods: Patients with colorectal peritoneal metastases undergoing CRS and HIPEC were included and retrospectively analyzed at a tertiary referral center from January 2006 to December 2015. Main outcomes included evaluation of grade III/IV complications, mortality rate, overall and disease-free survival, and prognostic factors influencing survival on a Cox multivariate analysis.

Results: Sixty-seven CRSs were performed on 67 patients during this time for colorectal peritoneal metastases. The median patient age was 57 years with 55.2% being female. The median peritoneal carcinomatosis index (PCI) was 7, with complete cytoreduction achieved in 65 (97%) cases. Grade > 2 complications occurred in 6 cases (8.9%) with no mortality. The median overall survival for the entire cohort was 41 months, with a 3-year overall survival of 43%. In case of complete cytoreduction, median overall and disease-free survival were 57 months and 36 months respectively, with a 3-year disease-free survival of 62%. Complete cytoreduction and nonmucinous histology were key factors independently associated with improved overall survival.

Conclusions: CRS and HIPEC for limited peritoneal metastases from CRC are safe and effective, with acceptable morbidity. In selected patients, it offers a highly favorable long-term outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00423-021-02353-zDOI Listing
October 2021

The impact of gastrojejunostomy orientation on delayed gastric emptying after pancreaticoduodenectomy: a single center comparative analysis.

HPB (Oxford) 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

Gemelli Pancreatic Center, CRMPG (Advanced Pancreatic Research Center) Fondazione Policlinico Universitario "Agostino Gemelli" IRCCS; Largo Agostino Gemelli, 8, 00168, Rome, Italy; Università Cattolica Del Sacro Cuore di Roma, Largo Francesco Vito 1, 00168, Rome, Italy.

Background: Delayed gastric emptying (DGE) represents the most frequent complication after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). Aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of gastrojejunostomy (GJ)orientation on DGE incidence after PD.

Methods: One-hundred and twenty-one consecutive PDs were included in the analysis and divided in the horizontal (H-GJ group) and vertical GJ anastomosis groups (V-GJ group). Postoperative data and the value of the flow angle between the efferent jejunal limb and the stomach of the GJ anastomosis at the upper gastrointestinal series were registered.

Results: Seventy-five patients (62%)underwent H-GJ, while 46 patients (38%)underwent V-GJ. The incidence of DGE was significantly lower in the V-GJ group as compared to the H-GJ group (23.9%vs45.3%; p = 0.02). V-GJ was also associated to a less severe DGE manifestation (p = 0.006). The flow angle was significantly lower in case of V-GJ as compared to H-GJ (24.5°vs37°; p = 0.002). At the multivariate analysis, ASA score≥3 (p = 0.02), H-GJ (p = 0.03), flow angle>30°(p = 0.004) and Clavien-Dindo≥3 (p = 0.03) were recognized as independent prognostic factors for DGE. These same factors were independent prognostic features also for a more severe DGE manifestation.

Conclusion: VGJ and the more acute flow angle appear to be associated to a lower incidence rate and severity of DGE. This modified technique should be considered by surgeons in order to reduce postoperative DGE occurrence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hpb.2021.09.015DOI Listing
September 2021

ESTRO ACROP guidelines for the delineation of lymph nodal areas in upper gastrointestinal malignancies.

Radiother Oncol 2021 Sep 20;164:92-97. Epub 2021 Sep 20.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Department of Radiation Oncology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

The European SocieTy for Radiation and Oncology -Advisory Committee on Radiation Oncology Practice (ESTRO-ACROP) endorsed a project to provide guidelines (GL) for the identification and delineation of clinically negative lymph-nodal stations (LNs) involved in upper gastrointestinal clinical scenarios. The presented GL is focused on preoperative (or definitive) setting. The project aim is to improve the consistency of clinical target volume (CTV) delineation by providing: a description of the anatomical boundaries of the LNs; a radiological computed tomography-based atlas depicting the LNs areas; a free, web-based, interactive example case for independent training of radiation oncologists on LNs delineation according to the presented GL, by both qualitative and quantitative analysis (through the FALCON EduCase platform). This project was carried out with the intention to facilitate and improve uniformity of future upper gastrointestinal guidelines on nodal CTV delineation. We report methodology and results from the collaboration of a working group panel selected by the ESTRO-ACROP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2021.08.026DOI Listing
September 2021

Laparoscopic vs. open resection of gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) from gastric origin: different approaches for different diseases.

Minerva Surg 2021 Aug 28;76(4):372-381. Epub 2021 May 28.

Department of Digestive Surgery, IRCCS A. Gemelli University Polyclinic Foundation, Rome, Italy.

Background: Although minimally-invasive techniques are currently recognized as effective and validated treatment for small gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), the role of laparoscopy is not yet established. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of laparoscopic treatment of gastric GISTs compared to the results obtained in a group of patients treated with conventional surgery.

Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed, using a prospectively maintained comprehensive database of 100 patients treated for gastric GIST in the period from 2000 to 2015. Thirty-six patients were treated laparoscopically, and 64 patients underwent conventional surgery. The analyzed medical data included clinical and pathological features of removed tumors, perioperative parameters as well as short and long-term results of surgical treatment.

Results: Histopathological examination confirmed radical resections for all patients. No deaths were reported in the 90-day postoperative period. Patients in laparoscopic group had significantly shorter length of hospital stay (5.5 vs. 7 days, P<0.0001), fewer extended and combined surgical procedures (11.2% vs. 34.4% and 2.8% vs. 39%; P=0.02 and P<0.001, respectively), and a smaller tumor size compared to laparotomic group (3 vs. 6 cm, P<0.0001). The median postoperative follow-up for the entire study population was 42 months. During this period, 11 patients died and 4 of them developed a tumor recurrence. None of them was in the laparoscopic group.

Conclusions: Laparoscopy in the treatment of gastric GISTs has unquestionable advantages, but its choice is strictly related to tumor features.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-5691.21.08574-9DOI Listing
August 2021

Adhesive small bowel obstruction in elderly patients: a single-center analysis of treatment strategies and clinical outcomes.

Scand J Gastroenterol 2021 Jul 7;56(7):784-790. Epub 2021 May 7.

Digestive Surgery Unit, Fondazione Policlinico Agostino Gemelli IRCCS di Roma, Rome, Italy.

Introduction: The incidence of adhesive bowel obstruction (ASBO) progressively increases with age. Strong evidences on the influencing role of age on ASBO clinical course and management are still lacking. Aim of this study is to retrospectively analyze the clinical outcomes of patients older than 65 years of age admitted to a tertiary referral Emergency Department with a diagnosis of ASBO.

Materials And Methods: We reviewed the clinical records of patients admitted for ASBO in the period 2014-2019. Patients were divided in elderly (≥65 years) and non-elderly (<65 years). Primary endpoint was to compare the all-cause in-hospital mortality and the occurrence of major complications in the two groups. Secondary endpoint was a comparison of clinical presentation, clinical course and management.

Results: We enrolled 285 elderly and 492 non-elderly patients. Vomit was more frequent in the elderly (51.9% vs 34.6%;  < .001), while no difference was evidenced for the remaining symptoms of ASBO presentation. A higher rate of non-operative management (NOM) (26.3% vs 16.5%;  = .010), ICU admission (16% vs 0.6%;  < .001), mortality (2.1% vs 0.2%;  = .007) and cumulative major complications (8.8% vs 3.3%;  = .001), as well as a prolonged hospitalization (8.2 vs 5.4 days;  < .001) was evidenced in the ≥65 years group. Multivariate analysis identified increasing age (OR:2.8; 95%CI:1.09-7.2;  = .040) and Charlson comorbidity index ≥ 2 (OR:2.5; 95% CI:1.2-6.4;  = .050) as the only independent predictors of cumulative major complications.

Conclusions: Despite the similarity in terms of clinical presentation, elderly patient present higher mortality rate and occurrence of major complications. A comprehensive geriatric assessment is recommended to optimize the diagnostic and clinical strategies in case of ASBO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00365521.2021.1921256DOI Listing
July 2021

The role of mesopancreas excision for ampullary carcinomas: a single center propensity-score matched analysis.

HPB (Oxford) 2021 Oct 18;23(10):1557-1564. Epub 2021 Apr 18.

Pancreatic Surgery Center, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Roma, Italy; CRMPG (Advanced Pancreatic Research Center), Largo A. Gemelli, 8, 00168, Roma, Italy; Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Largo A. Gemelli, 8, 00168, Roma, Italy.

Background: Few evidences are available on the prognostic role of mesopancreas excision(MPe) for ampullary cancers(ACs). Aim of this study was to compare the long-term outcomes between pancreaticoduodenectomy(PD) with(PD-MPe group) and without(sPD group) MP.

Methods: Thirty-seven sPDs were matched and compared to 37 PD-MPes for perioperative outcomes, recurrence rate, disease-free(DFS) and overall survival(OS).

Results: The PD-MPe technique related to a significantly higher number of harvested lymph nodes[16 (±6)] as compared to the sPD [10 (±5); p < 0.0001]. Tumor recurrence was more frequent in the sPD cohort[21 (56.8%) vs 12 (32.4%) in the PD-MPe population; p = 0.03]. Although not statistically different, PD-MPe was associated with a better DFS(40% vs 35.7% for sPD; p = 0.08) and OS(59.3% vs 39.1% for sPD; p = 0.07). At the multivariate analysis, a higher number of lymph nodes retrieved and a more extensive lymphovascular clearance reached with the MPe technique, together with lymph nodes metastases, were recognized as independent prognostic factors for a worse OS and DFS.

Conclusion: The PD-MPe technique is associated with a better oncological radicality thanks to the higher number of retrieved lymph nodes and to the more appropriate tumor clearance. This reflects in a lower incidence of tumor relapse and in improved outcomes in terms of OS and DFS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hpb.2021.03.011DOI Listing
October 2021

Endoscopic assessment of morphological and histopathological upper gastrointestinal changes after endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty.

Surg Obes Relat Dis 2021 Jul 2;17(7):1294-1301. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

IHU-Strasbourg, Institute of Image-Guided Surgery, Strasbourg, France; IRCAD, Research Institute against Digestive Cancer, Strasbourg, France; Department of Digestive and Endocrine Surgery, Nouvel Hôpital Civil, Strasbourg University Hospital, Strasbourg, France.

Background: Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty (ESG) is a promising bariatric endoluminal procedure. Restriction and shortening of the stomach are obtained by means of non-resorbable full-thickness sutures, thus inducing the formation of several endoluminal pouches in which food can stagnate. The effect of ESG on the upper gastrointestinal tract has never been investigated.

Objectives: This study objectively evaluates endoscopic macroscopic and histopathologic changes within 12-month follow-up (FU) in patients who underwent ESG.

Setting: Retrospective study on a prospective database of patients who underwent ESG at our tertiary referral center between October 2016 and March 2019.

Methods: All consecutive patients undergoing upper endoscopy (EGD) preoperatively and 6 and 12 months after ESG were included. The upper gastrointestinal tract was evaluated for mucosal abnormalities and biopsies were systematically taken.

Results: Eighty-six patients were included. EGD results were as follows: esophagitis decreased from 14% preoperatively to 3.6% and 1.2% at 6- and 12-month FU, respectively (P = .001); 19.8% of patients presented preoperatively a type I hiatal hernia <4 cm and showed no size increment or de novo hiatal hernia at 6- and 12-months. The rate of preoperative hyperemic (23.2%) and erosive (3.5%) gastropathy decreased to 9.5% and 1.2% at 6 months and 17.4% and 1.2% at 12 months, respectively. Gastric ulcer (4.7%), duodenal hyperemic mucosa (1.2%) and duodenal micro-ulcerations (2.3%) detected preoperatively were not present at 6- and 12-month EGD. The rate of histopathological disease, which was 68.1% preoperatively, dropped to 29.2% at 12 months, chronic gastritis decreased from 40.3% to 26.4%, acute gastritis from 9.7% to 0%, and acute inflammation on chronic gastritis from 18% to 2.8% (P < .001).

Conclusion: ESG is a safe procedure that does not promote the new onset of macroscopic and histopathologic abnormalities within 1-year follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.soard.2021.03.026DOI Listing
July 2021

Challenges in Crohn's Disease Management after Gastrointestinal Cancer Diagnosis.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Feb 2;13(3). Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Digestive Surgery Unit, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli IRCCS, 00168 Rome, Italy.

Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease with a progressive course, potentially affecting the entire gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus. Several studies have shown an increased risk of both intestinal and extra-intestinal cancer in patients with CD, due to long-standing transmural inflammation and damage accumulation. The similarity of symptoms among CD, its related complications and the de novo onset of gastrointestinal cancer raises difficulties in the differential diagnosis. In addition, once a cancer diagnosis in CD patients is made, selecting the appropriate treatment can be particularly challenging. Indeed, both surgical and oncological treatments are not always the same as that of the general population, due to the inflammatory context of the gastrointestinal tract and the potential exacerbation of gastrointestinal symptoms of patients with CD; moreover, the overlap of the neoplastic disease could lead to adjustments in the pharmacological treatment of the underlying CD, especially with regard to immunosuppressive drugs. For these reasons, a case-by-case analysis in a multidisciplinary approach is often appropriate for the best diagnostic and therapeutic evaluation of patients with CD after gastrointestinal cancer onset.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13030574DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7867285PMC
February 2021

Management of acute cholecystitis in elderly patients: A propensity score-matched analysis of surgical vs. medical treatment.

Dig Liver Dis 2021 Dec 23;53(12):1620-1626. Epub 2021 Jan 23.

Digestive Surgery, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli, IRCCS, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy; Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy.

Background: Acute cholecystitis (AC) is a life-threatening emergency in elderly patients.

Aims: To compare the commonly used management strategies for elderly patients with AC as well as resulting morbidity, mortality and length of hospital stay (LOS).

Methods: All patients ≥ 65 years admitted to our emergency department for AC between January 1st, 2014 and December 31st, 2018 were included in the study. We compared patients that received medical treatment to patients who received operative procedures. In order to correct for baseline covariates and factors associated to clinical management, we used a 1:1 propensity score matching (PSM) analysis. The primary outcome was the overall in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes included occurrence of major complications and LOS.

Results: A total of 1075 patients were enrolled: 483 patients received a medical treatment and 592 patients underwent interventional procedures. After PSM, 770 patients (385 for each treatment group) were included in the analysis. The analysis revealed that both mortality and cumulative major complications were similar in medical and interventional group. We found that among comorbidities, Charlson comorbidity index and congestive heart failure were significantly higher in the medical treatment group (5 [4-6] vs. 4 [3-6] and 11.7% vs. 4.7%, respectively; p<0.001). LOS was slightly lower in the medical treatment group (7.0 days [4.9-11.1] vs. 7.9 [4.9-13.5]; p = 0.046).

Conclusion: Medical management outcomes for AC in elderly patients were similar to operative treatments in terms of mortality and cumulative major complications. A conservative approach should always be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dld.2021.01.011DOI Listing
December 2021

Capsule Endoscopy Versus Colonoscopy in Patients With Previous Colorectal Surgery: A Prospective Comparative Study.

Gastroenterology Res 2020 Oct 31;13(5):217-224. Epub 2020 Oct 31.

IHU, Institute of Image-Guided Surgery, 1 Place de L'Hopital, 67091 Strasbourg, France.

Background: Colonic capsule endoscopy (CCE) derived from the video capsule endoscopy, initially proposed to explore the small bowel, has demonstrated high sensitivity and specificity for colonic polyp detection. The primary outcome of the study was to assess the safety, feasibility, and reliability of CCE after colorectal surgery. Secondary outcomes were to identify the detection rate of colonic lesions and recognition of the surgical anastomosis as compared to colonoscopy.

Methods: This is a prospective single-center study conducted over a 2-year period. Thirty-seven patients with a history of colorectal surgery were prospectively included in this study. Each patient received both CCE and colonoscopy, performed by different operators blinded to each other's results.

Results: Thirty-two patients (86.5%) completed the study and were included in the final analysis. All capsules were naturally expelled. In three patients (9.4%), the anal verge was not identified during the CCE recording and the examination of the colon was considered incomplete. Surgical anastomosis was accurately identified by CCE in 78.2% of the patients versus 93.8% for colonoscopy (P = 0.65). Thirty-eight lesions were detected in 14 patients. The sensitivity of CCE to detect colonic polyps was 95.2% (95% confidence interval (CI): 77.3-99.2%), the specificity 82.4% (95% CI: 59.0-93.8%). Positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of CCE to detect colonic polyps were 87.0% and 93.3%, respectively. No complications related to the passage of the capsule through the intestinal anastomosis were detected.

Conclusions: CCE proved to be safe and feasible, reporting a similar detection rate of colonic lesion compared to colonoscopy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14740/gr1309DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7665853PMC
October 2020

Artificial Intelligence for Surgical Safety: Automatic Assessment of the Critical View of Safety in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Using Deep Learning.

Ann Surg 2020 Nov 16. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

ICube, University of Strasbourg, CNRS, IHU Strasbourg, France.

Objective: To develop a deep learning model to automatically segment hepatocystic anatomy and assess the criteria defining the critical view of safety (CVS) in laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC).

Background: Poor implementation and subjective interpretation of CVS contributes to the stable rates of bile duct injuries in LC. As CVS is assessed visually, this task can be automated by using computer vision, an area of artificial intelligence aimed at interpreting images.

Methods: Still images from LC videos were annotated with CVS criteria and hepatocystic anatomy segmentation. A deep neural network comprising a segmentation model to highlight hepatocystic anatomy and a classification model to predict CVS criteria achievement was trained and tested using 5-fold cross validation. Intersection over union, average precision, and balanced accuracy were computed to evaluate the model performance versus the annotated ground truth.

Results: A total of 2854 images from 201 LC videos were annotated and 402 images were further segmented. Mean intersection over union for segmentation was 66.6%. The model assessed the achievement of CVS criteria with a mean average precision and balanced accuracy of 71.9% and 71.4%, respectively.

Conclusions: Deep learning algorithms can be trained to reliably segment hepatocystic anatomy and assess CVS criteria in still laparoscopic images. Surgical-technical partnerships should be encouraged to develop and evaluate deep learning models to improve surgical safety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000004351DOI Listing
November 2020

Robotic rectal resection: oncologic outcomes.

Updates Surg 2021 Jun 10;73(3):1081-1091. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Digestive Surgery Unit, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario "A. Gemelli" IRCCS di Roma, Largo Agostino Gemelli, 8, 00168, Rome, Italy.

Robotic surgery has progressively gained popularity in the treatment of rectal cancer. However, only a few studies on its oncologic effectiveness are currently present, with contrasting results. The purpose of this study is to report a single surgeon's experience on robotic rectal resection (RRR) for cancer, focusing on the analysis of oncologic outcomes, both in terms of pathological features and long-term results. One-hundred and twenty-two consecutive patients who underwent RRR for rectal cancer from January 2013 to December 2019 were retrospectively enrolled. Patients' characteristics and perioperative outcomes were collected. The analyzed oncologic outcomes were pathological features [distal (DM), circumferential margin (CRM) status and quality of mesorectal excision (TME)] and long-term outcomes [overall (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS)]. The mean operative time was 275 (± 60.5) minutes. Conversion rate was 6.6%. Complications occurred in 27 cases (22.1%) and reoperation was needed in 2 patients (1.5%). The median follow-up was 30.5 (5.9-86.1) months. None presented DM positivity. CRM positivity was 2.5% (2 cases) while a complete TME was reached in 94.3% of cases (115 patients). Recurrence rate was 5.7% (2 local, 4 distant and 1 local plus distant tumor relapse). OS and DFS were 90.7% and 83%, respectively. At the multivariate analysis, both CRM positivity and near complete/incomplete TME were recognized as negative prognostic factors for OS and DFS. Under appropriate logistic and operative conditions, robotic surgery for rectal cancer proves to be oncologically effective, with adequate pathological results and long-term outcomes. It also offers acceptable peri-operative outcomes, further confirming the safety and feasibility of the technique.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13304-020-00911-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8184562PMC
June 2021

EUS-guided fine needle tattooing (EUS-FNT) for preoperative localization of small pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (p-NETs): a single-center experience.

Surg Endosc 2021 01 21;35(1):486-492. Epub 2020 Sep 21.

Digestive Endoscopy Unit, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Background: and study aims Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) can be difficult to detect intra-operatively. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of preoperative endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle tattooing (EUS-FNT) to facilitate intra-operative detection of pNETs.

Patients And Methods: Sixteen patients with pNETs (8 insulinoma and 8 non-functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors) underwent EUS-FNT. The procedure was carried out using the conventional curvilinear EUS. Tattooing was performed by intralesional injection of 1-2 mL of Spot® ink (Spot®, GI Supply, Comp Hill, PA, US) using a standard 22 gauge EUS-FNA needle.

Results: All identified pNETs could be tattooed in one session. The procedure was well tolerated in all patients without any complication. The time interval between tattooing and surgery was between 1 and 565 days (mean of 52 days). Nine patients underwent open and seven laparoscopic surgery. The tattooed lesions could be recognized in all but one patient. In one patient, a small hematoma secondary to the EUS-FNT was observed. Pathological examination of the resection specimen showed local R0 resection in all cases, and no interference with the specimen evaluation was encountered.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that EUS-guided FNT is a safe and useful method to mark preoperatively small (≤ 2 cm) pNETs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-020-07996-5DOI Listing
January 2021

From biology to surgery: One step beyond histology for tailored surgical treatments of gastric cancer.

Surg Oncol 2020 Sep 5;34:86-95. Epub 2020 Apr 5.

Digestive Surgery Unit, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Roma, Italy; Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Roma, Italy.

Gastric cancer is the third most common cause of cancer related death. Although its incidence is globally declined, prognosis remains dismal in the Western hemisphere, while better outcomes are evidenced in Asian countries. Endoscopic or surgical resection with or without lymphadenectomy represents the only chance of cure, with limited improvements of the prognosis in case of associated chemotherapy in a neoadjuvant or adjuvant setting. This could be mainly attributed to the uniform fashion of treatment of gastric cancer, mainly based on the histological features, that usually do not reflect the complexity of the disease. With the recent introduction of genomic technologies and new generation sequencing techniques, gastric cancer biology is now investigated in great details. This has brought to the publication of three main molecular classifications, based on the underlying molecular biology of gastric cancer. Although only few clinical reports are currently present in literature, the identification of gastric cancer molecular subtypes has shown interesting findings that may pave the way to a tailored clinical and surgical management. The aim of this review is, thus, to give a comprehensive overview of the current molecular classifications as compared to the available histopathological ones, also focusing on the potential clinical and surgical benefits and the future perspectives for a more personalized treatment of gastric cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.suronc.2020.04.004DOI Listing
September 2020

Effects of Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy on Gastric Structure and Function Documented by Magnetic Resonance Imaging Are Strongly Associated with Post-operative Weight Loss and Quality of Life: a Prospective Study.

Obes Surg 2020 Dec 8;30(12):4741-4750. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

IHU-Strasbourg, Institute of Image-Guided Surgery, Strasbourg, France.

Background: This prospective study applied magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to assess the effect of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) on gastric structure and function. The impact of these changes on patient outcomes was analyzed.

Method: Obese patients without gastrointestinal symptoms referred for bariatric surgery were recruited prospectively. Pre-operative assessment included (i) high-resolution manometry and pH-impedance monitoring and (ii) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurement of gastric capacity, accommodation, and emptying with the 400 ml liquid Nottingham test meal (NTM). Studies were repeated 6-7 months after LSG. Weight loss and changes in the Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI) assessed patient outcomes.

Results: From 35 patients screened, 23 (66%) completed the study (17 females, age 36 ± 10 years, BMI 42 ± 5 kg/m2). Mean excess weight loss was 59 ± 18% at follow-up. Total gastric volume (capacity) after the meal was 467 mL (455-585 ml) before and 139 mL (121-185 ml) after LSG (normal reference 534 (419-675) mL), representing a mean 70% reduction (p < 0.0001). Similar findings were present for gastric content volume indicating rapid early-phase gastric emptying (GE) post-LSG. Conversely, late-phase GE was slower post-LSG (2.5 ± 1.0 vs. 1.4 ± 0.6 mL/min; p < 0.0001; (reference 1.5(1.4-4.9) mL/min)). Patients with ≥ 80% reduction in gastric capacity had greater weight loss (p = 0.008), but worse gastrointestinal outcomes (p = 0.023).

Conclusions: MRI studies quantified the marked reduction in gastric capacity after LSG. The reduction in capacity was associated with rapid early- but slow late-phase GE after surgery. These changes were associated with weight loss; however, reductions in gastric capacity ≥ 80% were linked to increased acid reflux and impacted on gastrointestinal quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11695-020-04831-7DOI Listing
December 2020

Response to the letter to the editor: Hyperglycemia or inappropriate fluid therapy.

Surgery 2020 09 4;168(3):567. Epub 2020 Jul 4.

Digestive Surgery Unit, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Roma, Italia.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2020.05.024DOI Listing
September 2020

Acute Diverticulitis in Elderly Patients: Does Age Really Matter?

Dig Dis 2021 2;39(1):33-41. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Digestive Surgery, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli, IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Objective: Contrasting results are reported on the clinical course of acute diverticulitis (AD) in the geriatric population. The aim of this study is to compare the AD clinical outcomes between patients aged up to 80 years and those ≥80 years.

Methods: A total of 1,139 patients were enrolled: 276 patients aged ≥80 years were compared with a group of 863 patients aged <80 years. The primary outcome was to compare the overall mortality. Secondary outcomes included major complications, in-hospital length of stay (LOS), and need for surgical procedures.

Results: Patients ≥80 years with AD had different clinical presentation compared with younger patients: they had less fever (21.4 vs. 35.2%; p < 0.001) and abdominal pain (47.8 vs. 65.6%; p < 0.001) rates, but a higher digestive tract bleeding (31.5 vs. 12.3%; p < 0.001) and fatigue (12.7 vs. 7.1%; p = 0.004) rates. Median LOS, cumulative major complications, and mortality rates were higher for patients ≥80 years.Multivariate analysis identified age, absence of abdominal pain, and dyspnea at presentation as independent predictors of intrahospital death or major complications.

Conclusions: Patients with AD and age ≥80 years have a higher mortality rate and cumulative major complications as compared with younger patients. Invasive treatments were associated to a poor prognosis in this group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000509049DOI Listing
February 2021

Propensity score-matched comparison of short- and long-term outcomes between surgery and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for intestinal type early gastric cancer (EGC) of the middle and lower third of the stomach: a European tertiary referral center experience.

Surg Endosc 2021 06 1;35(6):2592-2600. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Digestive Surgery Unit, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario Agostino Gemelli IRCCS, Largo Agostino Gemelli, 8, 00166, Rome, Italy.

Background: Despite the comparable results between ESD and gastrectomy reported in multiple Asiatic studies, limited data are currently present on the long-term efficacy of ESD for EGC in Western countries. The aim of this study was to compare the short- and long-term outcomes of the endoscopic submucosal dissection and surgery for non-diffuse early gastric cancer treatment in a Western cohort of patients.

Methods: All patients with a diagnosis of intestinal type EGC located in the middle and lower third of the stomach from 2005 to 2015 were enrolled in the study. All patients completed a 5-year follow-up. Patients were divided according to the procedure performed (ESD/subtotal gastrectomy). The two groups were matched for age, gender, ASA score, tumor dimension, and grade of infiltration (mucosa/submucosa).

Results: After matching, 84 patients (42 per group) were included in the analysis. Peri-procedural morbidity rate was 7.1% and no difference was observed between the two groups (4.8% vs 9.5% for ESD and STG groups, respectively; p = 0.3). Similar results in terms of 5-year OS and DFS were observed for ESD and STG (77.7% vs 71.8% ; p = 0.78 and 74.9% vs 72% ; p = 0.7, respectively). At the multivariate analysis, ASA3 score was recognized as the only negative predictor factor for the 5-year OS (OR 6.2; 95% CI 2.2-16.8; p < 0.001). Regarding the DFS, both ASA3 score (OR 4.4; 95% CI 1.7-10.9; p < 0.001) and submucosal infiltration(OR 5.1; 95% CI 1.2-22.4 ; p = 0.02) were identified as independent risk factors for a worse outcome.

Conclusions: Our results confirm the safety and feasibility ESD for EGC treatment in a Western setting. In addition, this is one of the few reports showing comparable results both in terms of short- and long-term outcomes between ESD and surgery for intestinal type ECG treatment in Western countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-020-07677-3DOI Listing
June 2021

Total mesopancreas excision for periampullary malignancy: a single-center propensity score-matched comparison of long-term outcomes.

Langenbecks Arch Surg 2020 May 24;405(3):303-312. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Digestive Surgery Unit, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Purpose: Few comparative studies are available on the long-term prognostic role of mesopancreas (MP) excision after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD). We compared the long-term outcomes of patients undergoing standard PD (sPD) and PD with MP excision (PD-MPe).

Methods: Sixty sPDs were compared to 60 matched PD-MPe patients for intraoperative and postoperative data, histopathological findings, and long-term outcomes.

Results: R0 rate was similar in the two groups (p = 0.17). However, PD-MPe related to a lower rate of MP resection margin positivity (16.7% vs 5%; p = 0.04) and to a higher harvested lymph nodes number (19.8 ± 7.6 vs 10.1 ± 5.1; p < 0.0001). Local tumor recurrence was more frequent in the sPD cohort (55.5% vs 26.8% in the PD-MPe group; p = 0.002), with a consequent worse disease-free survival (DFS) (14.8% vs 22.3%; p = 0.04). An inferior 5-year overall survival (OS) was noted in case of MP margin positivity compared with MP margin negativity (0% vs 29%; p < 0.0001). MP positivity resulted as an independent prognostic factor for both a worse OS and DFS at the multivariate analysis.

Conclusion: PD-MPe offers clinical advantages in terms of MP resection margin status, local recurrence, long-term mortality, and DFS. The lower MP positivity rate, achieved with PD-MPe, leads to better outcomes both in terms of OS and DFS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00423-020-01873-4DOI Listing
May 2020

The Causes of Gastroesophageal Reflux after Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy: Quantitative Assessment of the Structure and Function of the Esophagogastric Junction by Magnetic Resonance Imaging and High-Resolution Manometry.

Obes Surg 2020 Jun;30(6):2108-2117

IHU-Strasbourg, Institute of Image-Guided Surgery, Strasbourg, France.

Background: The incidence of de novo gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) after LSG is substantial. However, an objective correlation with the structural gastric and EGJ changes has not been demonstrated yet. We aimed to prospectively evaluate the effects of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) on the structure and function of the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) and stomach.

Methods: Investigations were performed before and after > 50% reduction in excess body weight (6-12 months after LSG). Subjects with GERD at baseline were excluded. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), high-resolution manometry (HRM), and ambulatory pH-impedance measurements were used to assess the structure and function of the EGJ and stomach before and after LSG.

Results: From 35 patients screened, 23 (66%) completed the study (age 36 ± 10 years, BMI 42 ± 5 kg/m). Mean excess weight loss was 59 ± 18% after 7.1 ± 1.7-month follow-up. Esophageal acid exposure (2.4 (1.5-3.2) to 5.1 (2.8-7.3); p = 0.040 (normal < 4.0%)) and reflux events increased after surgery (57 ± 24 to 84 ± 38; p = 0.006 (normal < 80/day)). Esophageal motility was not altered by surgery; however, intrabdominal EGJ length and pressure were reduced (both p < 0.001); whereas the esophagogastric insertion angle (35° ± 11° to 51° ± 16°; p = 0.0004 (normal < 60°)) and esophageal opening diameter (16.9 ± 2.8 mm to 18.0 ± 3.7 mm; p = 0.029) were increased. The increase in reflux events correlated with changes in EGJ insertion angle (p = 0.010). Patients with > 80% reduction in gastric capacity (TGV) had the highest prevalence of symptomatic GERD.

Conclusion: LSG has multiple effects on the EGJ and stomach that facilitate reflux. In particular, EGJ disruption as indicated by increased (more obtuse) esophagogastric insertion angle and small gastric capacity were associated with the risk of GERD after LSG. clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01980420.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11695-020-04438-yDOI Listing
June 2020

6-Month Gastrointestinal Quality of Life (QoL) Results after Endoscopic Sleeve Gastroplasty and Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy: A Propensity Score Analysis.

Obes Surg 2020 May;30(5):1944-1951

Institute of image-guided surgery (IHU),1 place de l'Hôpital, 67091, Strasbourg, France.

Background: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is currently the most commonly performed bariatric procedure. Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty (ESG) is a promising new bariatric technique which is less invasive in its approach. To date no study has compared quality of life (QoL) outcomes between LSG and ESG. The aim of this study is to compare QoL after ESG and LSG using a propensity score analysis.

Methods: QoL was evaluated by means of Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI) questionnaire before and 6 months after the procedure. Patients were matched for age, sex, preoperative weight, and comorbidities.

Results: Propensity score matching resulted in 23 pairs of patients homogeneous for age (p = 0.3), preoperative BMI (p = 0.3), sex (p = 0.74), and comorbidities (p = 0.9). Post-ESG patients, despite a less important %EWL (39.9 (17.5-58.9)vs 54.9 (46.2-65); p = 0.01) and %TWL (13.4 (7.8-20.9) vs 18.8 (17.6-21.8); p = 0.03), presented better QoL (14 [3-24] vs 13 (- 1-23) ΔGIQLI score; p = 0.79) with clear advantage for the gastrointestinal symptoms subdomain (66.5 (61-70.5) vs 59 (55-63); p = 0.001), while post-LSG patients presented a worsening of GERD symptoms (30.7% vs 0%) and an increased use of PPI therapy (p = 0.004). Resolution or improvement of comorbidities was similar (ESG 53% vs LSG 45.8%; p = 0.79) in both groups.

Conclusion: LSG may significantly affect QoL and results in worsening of gastrointestinal symptoms including GERD. ESG is a promising less invasive bariatric endoscopic procedure that demonstrated a positive impact on both QoL and comorbidities, which could lead to greater patient acceptance earlier in their disease or at a younger age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11695-020-04419-1DOI Listing
May 2020

Does endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty stand the test of time? Objective assessment of endoscopic ESG appearance and its relation to weight loss in a large group of consecutive patients.

Surg Endosc 2020 08 13;34(8):3696-3705. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

IHU-Strasbourg, Institute of Image-Guided Surgery, 1 place de l'Hôpital, 67000, Strasbourg, France.

Introduction: Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty (ESG) is a promising bariatric treatment. Gastric volume reduction and delayed gastric emptying are the probable mechanisms driving weight loss. However, there are concerns regarding the overtime ESG effectiveness. This study aims to evaluate the correlation between endoscopic gastroplasty integrity overtime and weight loss.

Patients And Methods: Patients undergoing follow-up endoscopy (6 and 12 months) after ESG were included. ESG were classified in three groups according to endoscopic appearance: open when all the stiches were loose; partially intact if at least one stitch was loose; intact if all the stitches were present and tight. Initial BMI, excess weight loss (%EWL) and total weight loss (%TWL) at 6 and 12 months were assessed against gastroplasty endoscopic appearance.

Results: From October 2016 to April 2019, 133 patients underwent ESG, 87 (65.4%) had a follow-up EGD at 6 months. ESG was open in six cases (6.9%), partially intact in 38 (43.7%) and intact in 43 (49.4%). The overall %EWL and %TWL was 34.5 ± 19.8 and 13.2 ± 7.4, respectively; 25.7 ± 26.9 and 11.8 ± 11.8 for the open group, 30.8 ± 20.1 and 12.4 ± 7.8 for the partially intact group; 39.1 ± 19.7 and 14.0 ± 6.4 for the intact gastroplasty. Forty-one patients underwent a 12 months endoscopy: 10 (24.4%) had an intact ESG, 24 (58.5%) had a partially intact gastroplasty, and in 7 (17.0%) cases the sutures were lost. Overall %EWL and %TWL at 12 months was 34.3 ± 21.9 and 13.1 ± 8.1: 19.3 ± 13.4 and 8.9 ± 6.1 for the open group; 36.0 ± 24.2 and 13.1 ± 8.9 for the partially intact group; 40.3 ± 17.3 and 17.2 ± 5.4 for the intact group. ESG appearance correlated with preoperative BMI (r 0.34; p 0.001) and %EWL at 6 months (r 0.22; p 0.035) and 12 months (r 0.29; p 0.065).

Conclusion: This preliminary work shows that weight loss correlates with ESG endoscopic appearance over time. Initial BMI predicts endoscopic suture duration over time. Larger studies and longer follow-up are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-019-07329-1DOI Listing
August 2020

Distal pancreatectomy in the new era of minimally invasive surgery: the on-going debate on the cost-effectiveness.

Hepatobiliary Surg Nutr 2019 Dec;8(6):659-661

Digestive Surgery Unit, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, CRMPG (Advanced Pancreatic Research Center), Largo A. Gemelli, Rome, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/hbsn.2019.09.22DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6943023PMC
December 2019

Postoperative hyperglycemia affects survival after gastrectomy for cancer: A single-center analysis using propensity score matching.

Surgery 2020 05 3;167(5):815-820. Epub 2019 Dec 3.

Digestive Surgery Unit, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Rome, Italy; Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy.

Background: No data are present currently on the potential correlation between postoperative hyperglycemia and long-term outcomes after gastric surgery for cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of postoperative hyperglycemia on survival after curative gastrectomy for cancer.

Methods: All patients who underwent gastric surgery for cancer with curative intent were reviewed retrospectively. Diabetic patients and patients who needed pancreatic resection were excluded. In all patients, a prepared intravenous infusion of NaCl and carbohydrates (Isolyte Baxter 2,000 mL/day; glucose 50.0 g/L;Ringers lactate 1,000 mL/day) was used, and the patients were kept nil by mouth until the fourth postoperative day. The glucose levels were monitored during the first 72 hours. The study population was divided into normoglycemic and hyperglycemic patients according to the blood glucose level (<140 mg/dL and ≥140 mg/dL, respectively). The 2 groups were matched for age, sex, type of operative procedure, TNM status, and lymph node status.

Results: After matching, 104 patients were included for the analysis. Perioperative morbidity accounted for 18.3% with a greater rate for hyperglycemic patients (12% vs 31%; P = .018). When compared with normoglycemic patients, hyperglycemic patients had worse overall survival (45% vs 57%; P = .05) and worse disease-free survival (46% vs 68%; P = .02). On the multivariate analysis, hyperglycemia was an independent risk factor for a worse overall and disease-free survival.

Conclusion: Postoperative hyperglycemia owing to surgical stress conditions can affect postoperative outcomes. Additionally, hyperglycemia may be a factor that promotes gastric cancer progression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2019.11.006DOI Listing
May 2020

Acute pancreatitis in oldest old: a 10-year retrospective analysis of patients referred to the emergency department of a large tertiary hospital.

Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 02;32(2):159-165

Digestive Surgery Unit, Department of Surgery, CRMP (Gemelli Pancreatic Advanced Research Center).

Objective: Contrasting results are reported on the clinical course of acute pancreatitis (AP) in the geriatric population. The aim of this study is to compare the AP clinical outcomes between patients aged from 65 to 79 years and those over 80 years.

Methods: A total of 115 patients over 80 years (oldest old) were compared to a group of 236 patients aged 65-79 years (elderly). Clinicodemographic, biochemical, and radiological data were reviewed. The primary outcome was to compare the overall mortality. Secondary outcomes included intensive care unit (ICU) admission, in-hospital length of stay (LOS), and need for surgical procedures.

Results: Laboratory values at admission were similar between the two groups. Over 80 patients presented a lower rate of abdominal symptoms (68.7% vs. 81.4%; P = 0.008), a higher mortality (14.8% vs. 3.5%; P = 0.003), and ICU admission (13.9% vs. 3.8%; P = 0.001) rates. Median LOS was comparable between the two groups. Multivariate analysis identified age [odds ratio (OR): 3.56; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.502-8.46; P = 0.004], a higher Ranson score (OR: 3.22; 95% CI: 1.24-8.39; P = 0.016), and the absence of abdominal pain (OR: 2.94; 95% CI: 1.25-6.87; P = 0.013) as independent predictors of mortality. Conversely, only age (OR: 3.83; 95% CI: 1.55-9.44; P = 0.003) and a more severe AP (OR: 3.56; 95% CI: 1.95-6.89; P = 0.041) were recognized as influencing ICU admission. Only the operative treatment (OR: 2.805; 95% CI: 1.166-5.443; P = 0.037) was evidenced as independent risk factor for LOS (OR: 3.74; 95% CI: 1.031-6.16; P = 0.003).

Conclusion: Oldest old patients have a higher mortality and ICU admission rate as compared to the other subgroups of elderly. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment are key elements to improve outcomes in this frailer population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MEG.0000000000001570DOI Listing
February 2020

Formalizing video documentation of the Critical View of Safety in laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a step towards artificial intelligence assistance to improve surgical safety.

Surg Endosc 2020 06 3;34(6):2709-2714. Epub 2019 Oct 3.

IHU Strasbourg - Institut de Chirurgie Guidée par l'image, Strasbourg, France.

Background: In laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC), achievement of the Critical View of Safety (CVS) is commonly advocated to prevent bile duct injuries (BDI). However, BDI rates remain stable, probably due to inconsistent application or a poor understanding of CVS as well as unreliable reporting. Objective video reporting could serve for quality auditing and help generate consistent datasets for deep learning models aimed at intraoperative assistance. In this study, we develop and test a method to report CVS using videos.

Method: LC videos performed at our institution were retrieved and the video segments starting 60 s prior to the division of cystic structures were edited. Two independent reviewers assessed CVS using an adaptation of the doublet view 6-point scale and a novel binary method in which each criterion is considered either achieved or not. Feasibility to assess CVS in the edited video clips and inter-rater agreements were evaluated.

Results: CVS was attempted in 78 out of the 100 LC videos retrieved. CVS was assessable in 100% of the 60-s video clips. After mediation, CVS was achieved in 32/78(41.03%). Kappa scores of inter-rater agreements using the doublet view versus the binary assessment were as follows: 0.54 versus 0.75 for CVS achievement, 0.45 versus 0.62 for the dissection of the hepatocystic triangle, 0.36 versus 0.77 for the exposure of the lower part of the cystic plate, and 0.48 versus 0.79 for the 2 structures connected to the gallbladder.

Conclusions: The present study is the first to formalize a reproducible method for objective video reporting of CVS in LC. Minute-long video clips provide information on CVS and binary assessment yields a higher inter-rater agreement than previously used methods. These results offer an easy-to-implement strategy for objective video reporting of CVS, which could be used for quality auditing, scientific communication, and development of deep learning models for intraoperative guidance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00464-019-07149-3DOI Listing
June 2020

Full Robotic Distal Pancreatectomy: Safety and Feasibility Analysis of a Multicenter Cohort of 236 Patients.

Surg Innov 2020 Feb 9;27(1):11-18. Epub 2019 Aug 9.

Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore of Rome, Fondazione Policlinico "A Gemelli" IRCCS of Rome, Rome, Italy.

. Despite the widespread use of the robotic technology, only a few studies with small sample sizes report its application to pancreatic diseases treatment. Our aim is to present the results of a multicenter study on the safety and feasibility of robot-assisted distal pancreatectomy (RDP). . All RDPs for benign, borderline, and malignant diseases performed in 5 referral centers from 2008 to 2016 were included. Perioperative outcomes were evaluated. . Two hundred thirty-six patients were included. Spleen preservation was performed in 114 cases (48.3%). Operative time was 277.8 ± 93.6 minutes. Progressive improvement in operative time was observed over the study period. Conversion rate was 6.3%. Morbidity occurred in 102 cases (43.2%), mainly due to grade A fistulas. Reoperation was required in 10 patients. Postoperatively, 2 patients died of sepsis due to a grade C fistula. Hospital readmission was necessary in 11 cases. A R0 resection was always achieved, with a mean number of 16.2 ± 15 harvested lymph nodes. . To our knowledge, this is one of the largest RDP series. Safety and feasibility including the low conversion rate, the high spleen preservation rate, the adequate operative time, and the acceptable morbidity and mortality rates confirm the validity of this technique. Appropriate oncological outcomes have been also obtained.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1553350619868112DOI Listing
February 2020
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