Publications by authors named "Claudia Taipale"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Relationship Between Prolonged Intraocular Inflammation and Macular Edema After Cataract Surgery.

Transl Vis Sci Technol 2021 06;10(7):15

Helsinki Retina Research Group, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Purpose: To assess whether aqueous flare is related to an increased risk of pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (PCME) following uneventful cataract surgery in nondiabetic and diabetic patients.

Methods: A post hoc analysis of five consecutive randomized clinical trials in the Department of Ophthalmology, Kymenlaakso Central Hospital, Finland. Aqueous flare levels were recorded in 448 eyes of 448 patients before surgery, and after the course of topical anti-inflammatory treatment 28 days and three months after cataract surgery.

Results: Aqueous flare increase of <50%, ≥50%, ≥100%, and ≥200% associated in central subfield macular thickness (CSMT) increase across the groups at 28 days and three months after surgery. Increase of aqueous flare ≥100% compared to those with <100% was associated with increased CSMT (P = 0.022 at 28 days, and P = 0.027 at three months). At three months, macular thickening (at least 10% CSMT increase) was observed in 12.7% compared to 4.6% of eyes when using a cutoff value of 100% increase in aqueous flare (P = 0.033). Although diabetic patients presented higher aqueous flare levels at baseline compared to nondiabetic patients (12.9 ± 11.8 vs. 9.8 ± 8.2 photon units/ms P < 0.001), the postoperative levels illustrated a similar profile in aqueous flare increase between the two groups.

Conclusions: At 28 days, aqueous flare increase was associated with macular thickening. A 100% cutoff value could potentially be used when studying anti-inflammatory efficacy of different treatment protocols. Flare values exceeding this cutoff value could be considered as an indication for extending anti-inflammatory therapy.

Translational Relevance: A 100% increase in aqueous flare at 28 days after cataract surgery from baseline predicted macular thickening up to three months postoperatively. Identifying a correlation between increased aqueous flare levels and pseudophakic cystoid macular edema may allow recognition of the most vulnerable patients, development of prophylactic treatment strategies and reduction of the number and severity of postoperative complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/tvst.10.7.15DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8212433PMC
June 2021

Effect of cataract surgery on quality of life for patients with severe vision impairment due to age-related macular degeneration.

Ann Transl Med 2020 Nov;8(22):1543

Helsinki Retina Research Group, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: To determine whether patients with severe vision impairment due to advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) benefit from bilateral cataract surgery in terms of vision-related quality of life (QoL).

Methods: A prospective interventional single-center study. Ten patients with severe vision impairment due to advanced bilateral AMD were included. The preoperative corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) was ≥1.0/≥1.0 LogMAR units on Snellen chart and <20/<20 points on Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) chart. Patients were not on active treatment for wet AMD as the treatment was expected to have no effect or benefit. The patients were scheduled for immediate sequential bilateral cataract surgery, with target refraction emmetropia (SN60WF, Alcon). Vision-related QoL was measured with National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire-25 (NEI VFQ-25) preoperatively, at 3 months and 1 year.

Results: The mean age of the patients was 82.5±6.2 years. The mean NEI VFQ-25 overall composite score changed from 44.0±7.1 preoperatively to 54.9±13.7 at 3 months and to 56.9±15.6 at 1 year (P=0.045, Friedman test). During the 1-year follow-up, there was an improvement in the subscale scores indicating difficulty with peripheral vision, mental health symptoms, and role difficulties due to vision (P<0.05 for all, Wilcoxon sign-rank test).

Conclusions: Cataract surgery may improve the vision-related QoL in patients with severe vision impairment due to bilateral advanced AMD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-2020-965DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7729353PMC
November 2020

Clinical outcomes for measuring inflammatory response after cataract surgery.

Acta Ophthalmol 2020 Sep 15. Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Helsinki Retina Research Group, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aos.14610DOI Listing
September 2020

Comparison of Two Different Treat-and-Extend Protocols with Aflibercept in Wet Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Two-Year Results.

Adv Ther 2020 05 10;37(5):2256-2266. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

Helsinki Retina Research Group, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Introduction: To optimize the aflibercept treat-and-extend protocol in wet age-related macular degeneration (wAMD) beyond the 1-year interim report.

Methods: This 2-year prospective randomized clinical trial included 52 eyes from 52 patients with treatment-naïve wAMD. After the induction phase of three monthly aflibercept injections, patients were randomized 1:1 to two different treat-and-extend protocols. In the treat-and-extend protocol with moderate extensions (T&Em), the treatment interval was extended 1 week at a time up to 12 weeks, and then by 2 weeks up to 16 weeks. In the treat-and-extend protocol with rapid extensions (T&Er), the treatment interval was initially extended to 8 weeks, and then by 2 weeks up to 16 weeks. Main outcome measure was the number of given aflibercept injections.

Results: At the study end point at 2 years, the mean visual gain from the baseline was 7.9 ± 14.5 letters in T&Em, compared to 10.8 ± 16.5 letters in T&Er protocol (P = 0.726). The mean decrease in central subfield macular thickness was 203.0 ± 167.4 µm in T&Em and 192.3 ± 160.2 µm in T&Er protocol (P = 0.822). Treatment interval was 10.3 ± 3.3 weeks in T&Em and 11.7 ± 3.5 in T&Er protocol (P = 0.164) at the end of year 2. The total number of injections in 2 years was 14.1 ± 3.1 in T&Em and 11.6 ± 2.0 in T&Er (P = 0.002), and the number of injections during the second year was 5.4 ± 1.8 and 4.4 ± 1.4, respectively (P = 0.043). A total of 71% of the eyes in both treatment groups had a dry macula at the study end point.

Conclusions: At 2 years, the anatomical and functional responses between the two treatment groups were similar. However, the number of given aflibercept injections was smaller in the rapid extensions protocol.

Trial Registration: EU Clinical Trials Register Number, 2015-001394-41/FI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12325-020-01312-2DOI Listing
May 2020

Anti-inflammatory Medication of Cataract Surgery in Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome - NSAID Is Needed.

Curr Eye Res 2020 07 12;45(7):814-819. Epub 2019 Dec 12.

Helsinki Retina Research Group, University of Helsinki , Helsinki, Finland.

Background: To optimize the anti-inflammatory treatment of cataract surgery in pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PXF) eyes.

Methods: A prospective randomized double-masked trial. Sixty eyes of 60 patients with PXF undergoing routine cataract surgery were randomized for potent topical postoperative anti-inflammatory medication either with prednisolone acetate (10mg/ml), nepafenac (1mg/ml) or their combination. Clinical outcome parameters were recorded at 28 days and 3 months. Recovery from surgery was recorded by a structured home questionnaire.

Results: Patient age and gender distribution, and all baseline ophthalmic and surgical parameters were comparable between the study groups. At 28 days, change in central subfield macular thickness was +11.4 ± 11.9 µm in prednisolone acetate group compared to +1.7 ± 16.8 µm in nepafenac ( = .017), and -0.3 ± 8.7 µm in combination therapy ( = .010) groups. At 3 months, the values were +11.8 ± 18.1 µm, +1.8 ± 17.5 µm ( = .055), and -1.3 ± 6.4 µm ( = .055), respectively. Pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (PCME) was reported in two eyes, both with prednisolone acetate monotherapy. After surgery, conjunctival injection lasted 6.5 ± 5.0 days and irritation of the eye 9.5 ± 8.5 days in prednisolone acetate group compared with nepafenac (2.6 ± 2.2 days; = .037 and 4.3 ± 5.2 days; = NS, respectively) and combination therapy (3.3 ± 1.9 days; = NS and 3.0 ± 4.0 days; = .025, respectively).

Conclusions: Routine cataract surgery of PXF eyes with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) alone, or in combination with steroids resulted in faster recovery from surgery and avoidance of PCME compared to steroids alone.

Abbreviations: BAB: blood-aqueous barrier; CDVA: corrected distance visual acuity; CDE: cumulative dissipated energy; CSMT: central subfield macular thickness; HRQoL: Health-related quality of life; IOP: intraocular pressure; logMAR: log of the minimum angle of resolution; NSAID: nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug; PCME: pseudophakic cystoid macular edema; PXF: pseudoexfoliation syndrome; OCT: optical coherence tomography; t.i.d.: three times a day; VA: visual acuity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02713683.2019.1701686DOI Listing
July 2020

Comparison of two different treat-and-extend protocols with aflibercept in wet age-related macular degeneration.

Acta Ophthalmol 2020 May 17;98(3):267-273. Epub 2019 Aug 17.

Helsinki Retina Research Group, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Purpose: To optimize the aflibercept treat-and-extend protocol in wet age-related macular degeneration (wAMD).

Methods: A prospective randomized clinical trial consisting of 52 eyes from 52 patients with treatment-naïve wAMD. Patients received three monthly aflibercept injections and were then randomized 1:1 to two different dosing protocols. In treat-and-extend protocol with moderate extensions (T&Em), after the loading phase the treatment interval was extended 1 week at a time up to 12 weeks and then by 2 weeks up to 16 weeks. In treat-and-extend protocol with rapid extensions (T&Er), the interval was first extended to 8 weeks and then by 2 weeks at a time up to 16 weeks. Main outcome measure was the number of given aflibercept injections.

Results: Fifty (96%) patients completed the 1-year follow-up. Patient and ophthalmic baseline variables were comparable between the study groups. At 1 year, central subfield macular thickness reduced by 194.3 ± 153.6 μm in T&Em protocol, compared with 194.2 ± 176.6 μm in T&Er (p = 0.997). Eyes with T&Em gained 10.3 ± 11.5 letters from baseline and eyes with T&Er 11.4 ± 10.6 letters (p = 0.434), and dry macula was observed in 72% of eyes with T&Em compared to 68% with T&Er (p = 0.758). At 1 year, the treatment interval was 8.5 ± 2.2 weeks in T&Em and 10.3 ± 2.8 weeks in T&Er (p = 0.017), and the total number of injections 8.64 ± 1.58 and 6.96 ± 0.79, respectively (p < 0.001). In the rapid extensions protocol, 48% of eyes reached a 12-week treatment interval or beyond at 1 year.

Conclusions: At one year, the anatomical and functional responses were comparable between the moderate and rapid extensions protocols, with fewer aflibercept injections in the rapid extension protocol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aos.14231DOI Listing
May 2020

Perioperative subconjunctival triamcinolone acetonide injection for prevention of inflammation and macular oedema after cataract surgery.

Acta Ophthalmol 2020 Feb 18;98(1):36-42. Epub 2019 Jun 18.

Helsinki Retina Research Group, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Purpose: To compare the efficacy, safety and tolerability of a single perioperative subconjunctival injection of triamcinolone acetonide (TA) with steroid drops for the prevention of macular oedema and ocular inflammation after cataract surgery.

Methods: This prospective non-randomized controlled clinical trial analysed 101 eyes of 101 patients having an elective cataract surgery at Kymenlaakso Central Hospital, Kotka, Finland. Fifty eyes received conventional postoperative care with dexamethasone 1 mg/ml eye drops (DEX), and 51 eyes received a perioperative 20 mg subconjunctival injection of TA. None of the eyes received postoperative topical antibiotic prophylaxis. The main outcome measures were aqueous flare, central retinal thickness (CRT), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) and intraocular pressure (IOP) measured at 7, 28 and 90 days after surgery.

Results: Central retinal thickness (CRT) increased in DEX but not in TA-treated eyes at 7 days (+1.2 ± 20.1 μm and -9.2 ± 24.8 μm, p = 0.031), at 28 days (+23.8 ± 62.6 μm and -3.3 ± 27.7 μm, p = 0.008) and at 90 days (+8.5 ± 24.4 μm and -5.5 ± 33.4 μm, p = 0.026). Aqueous flare increased from baseline in both groups but remained higher in DEX eyes at 90 days (+3.3 ± 9.9 photons/ms and -0.2 ± 6.6 photons/ms, p = 0.021). Corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) and IOP changes were similar, and ocular tolerance was good in both groups. No serious adverse events were observed.

Conclusions: Perioperative subconjunctival TA was effective in preventing ocular inflammation and macular oedema after cataract surgery. Subconjunctival TA combined with intracameral cefuroxime provides a noteworthy option for dropless postoperative care in modern cataract surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aos.14175DOI Listing
February 2020

Selective laser trabeculoplasty in exfoliative glaucoma eyes with prior argon laser trabeculoplasty.

Acta Ophthalmol 2020 Feb 15;98(1):58-64. Epub 2019 May 15.

Helsinki Retina Research Group, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Purpose: To explore the efficacy of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) within eyes with exfoliative glaucoma and history of prior argon laser trabeculoplasty (ALT).

Methods: A single-centre trial consisting of 47 patients (47 eyes) with uncontrolled exfoliative glaucoma. The main outcome measure was intraocular pressure (IOP) reduction 3 and 9 months after SLT. Treatment success was defined as reduction from the preoperative IOP by 20% and 2 mmHg (<12 mmHg), 3 mmHg (12-16 mmHg) or 4 mmHg (>16 mmHg) depending on the baseline IOP.

Results: Patient age was 79.3 ± 7.6 years (mean ± SD) and gender distribution 15 males and 32 females. The mean pre-SLT IOP was 15.6 ± 5.1 (range 9-28) mmHg, and mean number of glaucoma drugs 2.0 ± 1.2. The mean interval between prior ALT and SLT was 44.0 ± 36.9 (range 11-137) months. After SLT, the mean IOP change was -2.7 ± 4.2 mmHg (-14.8 ± 23.5%) at 3 months, and -2.8 ± 3.5 mmHg (-16.3 ± 19.4%) at 9 months. Pre-SLT IOP correlated with the IOP reduction at 3 months (r = 0.530, p < 0.001) and at 9 months (r = 0.432, p = 0.007). The overall success rate was 50% at 3 months, and 42% at 9 months. At both 3 and at 9 months, the cut-off level for treatment success was achieved when preoperative IOP was 18 mmHg and above. IOP lowering effect of SLT did not correlate with the number of glaucoma drugs, age, gender or use of prostaglandin inhibitors. Neither postoperative iritis nor other adverse effects were documented during the follow-up.

Conclusions: Selective laser trabeculoplasty is a safe and noteworthy treatment option to reduce IOP in exfoliative glaucoma eyes, especially with pre-SLT IOP over 18 mmHg.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aos.14136DOI Listing
February 2020

Diabetes Alone Does Not Impair Recovery From Uneventful Cataract Surgery.

Am J Ophthalmol 2019 04 8;200:270. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Helsinki, Finland, and Kotka, Finland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajo.2019.01.007DOI Listing
April 2019

Anatomical and functional response after conversion to aflibercept using the treat-and-extend regimen protocol in bevacizumab treatment-resistant wet age-related macular degeneration.

Clin Ophthalmol 2019 18;13:17-23. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Helsinki Retina Research Group, Medicum, Faculty of Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland,

Objective: To evaluate the functional and anatomical response after the switch from bevacizumab to aflibercept in treatment-resistant wet age-related macular degeneration (wAMD) using the treat-and-extend regimen protocol.

Design: A retrospective single-center study.

Participants: The registry consisted of 576 patients with wAMD. Of these, a total of 41 eyes of 37 patients met the study inclusion criteria with a minimum of three prior bevacizumab injections and at least 1-year follow-up after the switch to aflibercept injections for the treatment of wAMD.

Methods: Central retinal thickness (CRT) and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were recorded before and after bevacizumab loading phase, before the switch to aflibercept, after aflibercept loading phase, and after the last injection or at the study end point at a minimum of 1 year from the switch.

Results: At the switch to aflibercept injections, the mean CRT was 361.1±117.7 µm (mean±SD) and BCVA was 0.29±0.19 decimals. The switch to aflibercept resulted in mean CRT resolution by 59.9±80.2 µm after the loading phase and by 61.3±102.9 µm at the study end point. Anatomical response to aflibercept switch was found in 34 of 41 eyes (83%) after the loading phase, and in 32 of 41 eyes (78%) at the study end point. BCVA improvement was 0.08±0.13 decimals in 26 of 41 eyes (63%) after the loading phase, and 0.04±0.17 decimals in 17 of 41 eyes (41%) at the study end point. The mean treatment interval of aflibercept was 8.0±2.2 weeks at the study end point.

Conclusion: Regardless of impressive anatomical outcomes of aflibercept switch, functional response was modest for most of the study eyes at long term.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/OPTH.S188624DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6302797PMC
December 2018

Incidence of pseudophakic cystoid macular edema in eyes with and without pupil expansion device.

Acta Ophthalmol 2019 Nov 21;97(7):688-694. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Helsinki Retina Research Group, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Purpose: Novel pupil expansion devices are widely recognized for their intraoperative feasibility in safe small pupil cataract surgeries. To assess whether the use of pupil expansion devices affects recovery from cataract surgery.

Methods: A post hoc analysis of five consecutive prospective randomized clinical trials. 536 eyes of 536 patients undergoing routine cataract surgery were analysed according to the use of pupil expansion device. Thirty-four eyes were operated with pupil expansion device and 502 eyes without. Clinical outcome parameters were recorded at 28 days and 3 months.

Results: Patient age and gender distribution, and baseline clinical outcome parameters were comparable between study groups. Pseudoexfoliation syndrome, glaucoma and medication for benign prostatic hyperplasia were more frequently present; phacoemulsification energy was higher and operation time longer in eyes with pupil expansion device. At 28 days, aqueous flare increased by 12.0 ± 25.1 pu/mseconds and mean central subfield macular thickness by 16.2 ± 24.4 μm in eyes with pupil expansion device, when compared to 4.6 ± 14.8 pu/mseconds (p = 0.015) and 7.0 ± 33.9 μm (p = 0.064) in eyes without the device. At 3-month follow-up, clinically significant pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (PCME) was reported in 12% of eyes with pupil expansion device and in 2% of eyes without (p = 0.006). After adjusting for the presence of confounding factors, hazard for clinically significant PCME was greater in eyes with pupil expansion device than in those without (HR 5.41, 95% CI 1.35-21.71, p = 0.017).

Conclusions: The use of pupil expansion device may predispose eyes to increased risk of clinically significant PCME. Effective anti-inflammatory treatment and follow-up are warranted in eyes with pupil expansion device.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aos.14007DOI Listing
November 2019

Diabetes Alone Does Not Impair Recovery From Uneventful Cataract Surgery.

Am J Ophthalmol 2019 02 9;198:37-44. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Helsinki Retina Research Group, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; Unit of Ophthalmology, Kymenlaakso Central Hospital, Kotka, Finland. Electronic address:

Purpose: To study the outcomes of uneventful cataract surgery in diabetic patients without retinal complications.

Design: A post hoc treatment analysis using data from 2 double-masked randomized clinical trials.

Methods: Setting: Conducted at Kymenlaakso Central Hospital, Kotka, Finland.

Procedure: A total of 276 eyes of 266 patients undergoing routine cataract surgery were included in the study. Patients with type I or II diabetes (n = 56 eyes) were compared to nondiabetic patients (n = 220 eyes). Clinical evaluation was conducted by the operating physician, and outcome measures taken before surgery and day 28 were recorded by a research technician.

Results: Patient age, sex distribution, and all baseline ophthalmic and surgical parameters were comparable for the nondiabetic and diabetic patient groups. Increase in aqueous flare 6.3 ± 16.4 photon units (pu)/ms vs 3.7 ± 8.9 pu/ms (mean ± standard deviation; P = .282), central retinal thickness (CRT) 12.0 ± 38.2 μm vs 5.9 ± 15.8 μm (P = .256), corrected distance visual acuity 0.57 ± 0.31 decimals vs 0.53 ± 0.35 decimals (P = .259), and patient satisfaction 9.3 ± 0.9 vs 9.2 ± 1.1 (P = .644) were comparable for nondiabetic and diabetic patients. In eyes with steroid monotherapy (n = 64), CRT increased 38.1 ± 72.8 μm in nondiabetic patients compared to 7.8 ± 6.6 μm in diabetic ones (P = .010). In eyes with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) monotherapy (n = 157), CRT increased 5.7 ± 18.4 μm in nondiabetic patients compared to 6.2 ± 20.5 μm in diabetic ones (P = .897). Among eyes with steroid and NSAID combination therapy (n = 55), CRT increased 3.6 ± 4.1 μm in nondiabetic patients compared to 2.9 ± 3.2 μm in diabetic ones (P = .606). At 28 days postsurgery, pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (PCME) was reported in 8 eyes, of which 7 were in nondiabetic patients (P = 1.000).

Conclusions: Diabetic patients showed less change in CRT when compared to controls in steroid monotherapy. Other outcome measurements shows no statistical differences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajo.2018.09.030DOI Listing
February 2019

Postoperative management in cataract surgery: nepafenac and preservative-free diclofenac compared.

Acta Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 3;96(8):853-859. Epub 2018 Oct 3.

Helsinki Retina Research Group, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Purpose: Current cataract surgery guidelines recommend routine use of topical nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in preventing pseudophakic cystoid macular oedema (PCME). Here, we compare the clinical efficacy and tolerability of two potent NSAIDs, nepafenac and preservative-free diclofenac following cataract surgery.

Methods: Randomized, double-blind, prospective single-centre study. Ninety-six eyes of 95 patients undergoing routine cataract surgery were randomized 1:1 either to nepafenac (Nevanac, 1 mg/ml) or diclofenac (Dicloabak, 1 mg/ml) for 3 weeks. Seventy-three patients accounting for 73 eyes completed the entire follow-up. Aqueous flare and central retinal thickness (CRT) analysis were conducted preoperatively and at control visits 28 days and 3 months after surgery. A structured home questionnaire and interview were used to record any adverse effects of the topical medications, subjective visual recovery and the dispenser's ease of use.

Results: No differences were observed between the groups for aqueous flare, CRT, speed of recovery or visual acuity gain. Seven patients (16%) on nepafenac and 20 patients (48%) on preservative-free diclofenac reported symptoms related to topical use of NSAID medications (p = 0.001).

Conclusion: No differences in clinical efficacy were found between potent NSAIDs, while tolerability might be an issue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aos.13843DOI Listing
December 2018

Aqueous flare as a marker of retinal disease activity after anti-VEGF injections.

Acta Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 23;96(8):e1043-e1044. Epub 2018 Sep 23.

Helsinki Retina Research Group, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aos.13821DOI Listing
December 2018

Macular edema after cataract surgery in eyes with and without pseudoexfoliation syndrome.

Eur J Ophthalmol 2019 Sep 12;29(5):504-509. Epub 2018 Sep 12.

Helsinki Retina Research Group, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Background: The purpose of the study was to identify macular edema after cataract surgery in eyes with and without pseudoexfoliation syndrome. The study was a post-hoc analysis of a randomized, double-blind, prospective single-center study. Patients were enrolled between January 2016 and October 2016 as per the national guidelines for the management of cataract in the Department of Ophthalmology, Kymenlaakso Central Hospital, Kotka, Finland.

Methods: One hundred and fifty-six eyes of 149 patients undergoing routine cataract surgery. Postoperatively anti-inflammatory medication was either dexamethasone (N = 78) or diclofenac (N = 78). Spectral domain optical coherence tomography imaging and laser flare meter measurement of the anterior chamber were conducted before surgery and at the control visit 28 days postoperatively.

Results: Baseline variables were comparable between eyes with pseudoexfoliation syndrome (N = 32) and those without (N = 124), except for intraocular pressure ( = 0.002) and glaucoma medication ( < 0.001). In patients having pseudoexfoliation syndrome, central retinal thickness increase (mean ± standard error of the mean) was 63.3 ± 35.5 μm for dexamethasone and 17.6 ± 5.8 μm for diclofenac, compared to 28.9 ± 8.0 μm ( = NS) and 6.9 ± 1.3 μm ( = 0.014) in eyes without pseudoexfoliation syndrome, respectively. Aqueous flare at 28 days was 25.8 ± 5.4 pu/ms for patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome and 18.3 ± 1.8 pu/ms for those without ( = 0.030). Best corrected visual acuity gain and best corrected visual acuity at 28 days were less in patients having pseudoexfoliation syndrome compared to those without (0.39 ± 0.07 vs 0.59 ± 0.03 decimals,  = 0.007; and 0.77 ± 0.06 vs 0.92 ± 0.03 decimals,  = 0.008, respectively).

Conclusion: Eyes with pseudoexfoliation syndrome may be predisposed to an increased aqueous flare and macular edema after cataract surgery. This study outlines the need to determine the optimal anti-inflammatory medication after cataract surgery in patients with pseudoexfoliation syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1120672118799622DOI Listing
September 2019

Systemic use of calcium channel blockers associated with less increase in central retinal thickness after uncomplicated cataract surgery.

Acta Ophthalmol 2019 Mar 5;97(2):178-184. Epub 2018 Sep 5.

Helsinki Retina Research Group, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

Purpose: To examine the role of systemic medication on the risk of pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (PCME) following uneventful cataract surgery.

Methods: A total of 269 eyes undergoing routine cataract surgery. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography imaging was conducted before surgery and at 28 days. Information about medication of the participants was gathered from The National Archive of Health Information (Kanta), an electronic pharmaceutical database.

Results: Systemic medication with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin II receptor antagonists (p < 0.001), beta-blockers (β-blockers) (p = 0.002), calcium channel blockers (CCBs) (p < 0.001), nitrates (p =0.021) and lipophilic HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) (p < 0.001) were more frequently prescribed to diabetic compared with nondiabetic patients. In eyes with steroid monotherapy (N = 135), concomitant systemic medication with β-blockers (12.9 ± 24.0 μm versus 28.6 ± 59.5 μm, p = 0.045), CCBs (12.0 ± 22.1 μm versus 26.3 ± 55.6 μm, p = 0.041) and statins (12.9 ± 22.8 μm versus 30.0 ± 61.9 μm, p = 0.038) attenuated a change in central retinal thickness (CRT) when compared to patients not receiving medication. In multivariable analysis, the use of CCBs remained as an independent protective factor against macular swelling at 28 days (-0.23; 95% CI [-0.43 to -0.04]; p = 0.021), when all systemic medications showing statistical significance were included (i.e. β-blockers, CCBs and statins) together with diabetes status. In eyes with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) monotherapy (N = 67) and steroid and NSAID combination therapy (N = 67), CRT increase was moderate both with and without use of systemic medications.

Conclusion: Systemic vasoactive medication may be protective against CRT change induced by cataract surgery in eyes at risk of PCME such as those with postoperative steroid monotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aos.13911DOI Listing
March 2019

Preoperative visual acuity does not correlate with patient satisfaction for cataract surgery.

Acta Ophthalmol 2018 Dec 20;96(8):e1038. Epub 2018 Apr 20.

Helsinki Retina Research Group, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/aos.13792DOI Listing
December 2018
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