Publications by authors named "Claudia M Denkinger"

132 Publications

Evaluation of the diagnostic performance of laboratory-based c-reactive protein as a triage test for active pulmonary tuberculosis.

PLoS One 2021 12;16(7):e0254002. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics (FIND), Geneva, Switzerland.

Introduction: A highly sensitive triage test that captures most symptomatic patients at increased likelihood of having pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) would 'rule-out' lower-risk patients from expensive confirmatory testing. Although studies have assessed the diagnostic accuracy of a C-reactive protein (CRP) triage test for PTB in HIV+ patients, limited data are available from HIV- cohorts.

Materials And Methods: In this retrospective case-control study, 765 serum samples were selected from FIND's biobank. Each sample had been collected from an adult presenting with respiratory symptomatology to district hospitals in South Africa and referral hospitals in Cambodia, Peru, Georgia and Vietnam between 2007-2017. Serum CRP measurements were obtained using a laboratory-based assay. CRP cutoff-points of ≥8mg/L and ≥10mg/L were predefined as a positive triage test result. The PTB reference standard was two contemporaneously collected sputum liquid culture results.

Results: CRP demonstrated an overall sensitivity for PTB of 79.8% (95%CI 75.5-83.5) and 77.7% (95%CI 73.4-81.6) for cutoff-points of 8mg/L and 10mg/L respectively. Specificity was 62.8% (95%CI 57.8-67.6%) and 66.6% (95%CI 61.1-70.7) respectively. Area-under-the-curve using Receiver Operating Characteristic analysis was 0.77 (95%CI 0.74-0.81). Threshold analysis showed optimal CRP cutoff-points were higher in HIV+ than HIV- participants. An algorithm in which CRP triage was followed by confirmatory Xpert MTB/Rif testing achieved a sensitivity of 75.1% (95%CI 69.0-80.4%) whilst decreasing Xpert usage by 40.6%.

Discussion: CRP may not meet the challenge of a catch-all TB triage test. However, it shows promise in HIV+ individuals. Further research is required in a prospective study using point-of-care platforms to further evaluate its capabilities.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0254002PLOS
July 2021

A novel blood-based assay for treatment monitoring of tuberculosis.

BMC Res Notes 2021 Jun 30;14(1):247. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

FIND, Chemin des Mines 9, Geneva, 1202, Switzerland.

Objectives: A novel 3-gene host transcriptional signature (GBP5, DUSP3 and KLF2) has been validated for tuberculosis (TB) treatment monitoring using laboratory-based RNA sequencing platforms. The signature was recently translated by Cepheid into a prototype cartridge-based test that can be run on the GeneXpert instrument. In this study, we prospectively evaluated the change in the expression of the cartridge-based 3-gene signature following treatment initiation among pulmonary TB patients who were microbiologically cured at the end of treatment.

Results: The 3-gene signature expression level (TB score) changed significantly over time with respect to baseline among 31 pulmonary TB patients. The greatest increase in TB score occurred within the first month of treatment (median fold-increase in TB score: 1.08 [IQR 0.54-1.52]) and plateaued after 4 months of treatment (median TB score: 1.97 [IQR: 1.03-2.33]). The rapid and substantial increase of the TB score in the first month of treatment holds promise for the early identification of patients that respond to TB treatment. The plateau in TB score at 4 months may indicate early clearance of disease and could direct treatment to be shortened. These hypotheses need to be further explored with larger prospective treatment monitoring studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-021-05663-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8243580PMC
June 2021

Diagnostic accuracy and feasibility of patient self-testing with a SARS-CoV-2 antigen-detecting rapid test.

J Clin Virol 2021 May 29;141:104874. Epub 2021 May 29.

Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Institute of Tropical Medicine and International Health, Am Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin, Germany.

Background: Considering the possibility of nasal self-sampling and the ease of use in performing SARS-CoV-2 antigen-detecting rapid diagnostic tests (Ag-RDTs), self-testing is a feasible option.

Objective: The goal of this study was a head-to-head comparison of diagnostic accuracy of patient self-testing with professional testing using a SARS-CoV-2 Ag-RDT.

Study Design: We performed a manufacturer-independent, prospective diagnostic accuracy study of nasal mid-turbinate self-sampling and self-testing with symptomatic adults using a WHO-listed SARS-CoV-2 Ag-RDT. Procedures were observed without intervention. For comparison, Ag-RDTs with nasopharyngeal sampling were professionally performed. Estimates of agreement, sensitivity, and specificity relative to RT-PCR on a combined oro-/nasopharyngeal sample were calculated. Feasibility was evaluated by observer and participant questionnaires.

Results: Among 146 symptomatic adults, 40 (27.4%) were RT-PCR-positive for SARS-CoV-2. Sensitivity with self-testing was 82.5% (33/40; 95% CI 68.1-91.3), and 85.0% (34/40; 95% CI 70.9-92.9) with professional testing. At high viral load (≥7.0 log SARS-CoV-2 RNA copies/ml), sensitivity was 96.6% (28/29; 95% CI 82.8-99.8) for both self- and professional testing. Deviations in sampling and testing were observed in 25 out of the 40 PCR-positives. Most participants (80.9%) considered the Ag-RDT as easy to perform.

Conclusion: Laypersons suspected for SARS-CoV-2 infection were able to reliably perform the Ag-RDT and test themselves. Procedural errors might be reduced by refinement of the instructions for use or the product design/procedures. Self-testing allows more wide-spread and frequent testing. Paired with the appropriate information of the public about the benefits and risks, self-testing may have significant impact on the pandemic.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2021.104874DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8163726PMC
May 2021

Analytical performance of the Xpert MTB/XDR® assay for tuberculosis and expanded resistance detection.

Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis 2021 Apr 20;101(1):115397. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

FIND, Geneva, Switzerland; Division of Tropical Medicine, Center of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

In a manufacturer-independent laboratory validation study, the Xpert MTB/XDR® assay demonstrated equivalent limit of detection to Xpert MTB/RIF®, detected 100% of tested resistance mutations and showed some utility for resistance detection in strain mixtures. The Xpert MTB/XDR assay is a reliable, sensitive assay for tuberculosis and expanded resistance detection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2021.115397DOI Listing
April 2021

Pathways to diagnosis of pediatric TB patients: A mixed methods study from India.

Indian J Tuberc 2021 Jul 31;68(3):363-373. Epub 2020 Dec 31.

Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics, New Delhi, India. Electronic address:

Background: A significant proportion of pediatric tuberculosis (TB) patients go unnotified due to the challenges in diagnosis of TB among children. The experiences of this vulnerable group while going through the TB care cascade remain largely undocumented. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of pediatric TB patients and families along the pathway to TB diagnosis and appropriate treatment in four cities of India.

Methods: The study used a mixed methods, single phased, embedded design. The primary qualitative and secondary quantitative data were collected simultaneously by interviewing families of 100 randomly selected Xpert MTB/RIF positive pediatric TB patients, under the pediatric TB project, in 4 Indian cities using a semi-structured questionnaire. The qualitative component was analyzed to deduce patterns and themes on the patient and family experiences. Descriptive statistics were used to quantify various events along the TB care pathway including various delays (patient, diagnosis and total) and number of providers visited by patients during the diagnostic process.

Results: The median patient, diagnostic and total delays were 3 (IQR: 2,5), 39 (IQR: 23, 91) and 43 days (IQR: 28.5, 98.5), respectively. Patients visited a median of 3 (IQR: 2,4) providers before accessing Xpert MTB/RIF testing. On an average, 68.4% of physicians ordered any test most of them being irrelevant for TB diagnosis. Qualitative data showed considerable suffering for children and their families before and after TB diagnosis including serious concerns of stigma, disruption in education and social life and recurrence of the disease.

Conclusion: Our study highlights the significant physical and social distress that the children with TB and their families undergo along the TB care pathway. It also shows diagnostic delay in excess of a month during which multiple providers were met and the patients underwent several diagnostic tests, most of them being inappropriate. Efforts to make Xpert MTB/RIF testing more accessible and part of physicians' toolkit will be of considerable value to ease the complexity of TB diagnosis in children. In addition, communication strategy needs to be developed and implemented to generate awareness among general population around pediatric TB and its management.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijtb.2020.12.011DOI Listing
July 2021

Impact of the diagnostic test Xpert MTB/RIF on patient outcomes for tuberculosis.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 05 6;5:CD012972. Epub 2021 May 6.

University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland.

Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends Xpert MTB/RIF in place of smear microscopy to diagnose tuberculosis (TB), and many countries have adopted it into their diagnostic algorithms. However, it is not clear whether the greater accuracy of the test translates into improved health outcomes.

Objectives: To assess the impact of Xpert MTB/RIF on patient outcomes in people being investigated for tuberculosis.

Search Methods: We searched the following databases, without language restriction, from 2007 to 24 July 2020: Cochrane Infectious Disease Group (CIDG) Specialized Register; CENTRAL; MEDLINE OVID; Embase OVID; CINAHL EBSCO; LILACS BIREME; Science Citation Index Expanded (Web of Science), Social Sciences citation index (Web of Science), and Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Social Science & Humanities (Web of Science). We also searched the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, ClinicalTrials.gov, and the Pan African Clinical Trials Registry for ongoing trials.

Selection Criteria: We included individual- and cluster-randomized trials, and before-after studies, in participants being investigated for tuberculosis. We analysed the randomized and non-randomized studies separately.  DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: For each study, two review authors independently extracted data, using a piloted data extraction tool. We assessed the risk of bias using Cochrane and Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) tools. We used random effects meta-analysis to allow for heterogeneity between studies in setting and design.  The certainty of the  evidence in the randomized trials was assessed by GRADE.

Main Results: We included 12 studies: eight were randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and four were before-and-after studies. Most included RCTs had a low risk of bias in most domains of the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool. There was inconclusive evidence of an effect of Xpert MTB/RIF on all-cause mortality, both overall (risk ratio (RR) 0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.75 to 1.05; 5 RCTs, 9932 participants, moderate-certainty evidence), and restricted to studies with six-month follow-up (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.78 to 1.22; 3 RCTs, 8143 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). There was probably a reduction in mortality in participants known to be infected with HIV (odds ratio (OR) 0.80, 95% CI 0.67 to 0.96; 5 RCTs, 5855 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). It is uncertain whether Xpert MTB/RIF has no or a modest effect on the proportion of participants starting tuberculosis treatment who had a successful treatment outcome (OR) 1.10, 95% CI 0.96 to 1.26; 3RCTs, 4802 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). There was also inconclusive evidence of an effect on the  proportion of participants who were treated for tuberculosis (RR 1.10, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.23; 5 RCTs, 8793 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). The proportion of participants treated for tuberculosis who had bacteriological confirmation was probably higher in the Xpert MTB/RIF group (RR 1.44, 95% CI 1.29 to 1.61; 6 RCTs, 2068 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). The proportion of participants with bacteriological confirmation who were lost to follow-up pre-treatment was probably reduced (RR 0.59, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.85; 3 RCTs, 1217 participants; moderate-certainty evidence).

Authors' Conclusions: We were unable to confidently rule in or rule out the effect on all-cause mortality of using Xpert MTB/RIF rather than smear microscopy. Xpert MTB/RIF probably reduces mortality among participants known to be infected with HIV. We are uncertain whether Xpert MTB/RIF has a modest effect or not on the proportion treated or, among those treated, on the proportion with a successful outcome. It probably does not have a substantial effect on these outcomes. Xpert MTB/RIF probably increases both the proportion of treated participants who had bacteriological confirmation, and the proportion with a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis who were treated. These findings may inform decisions about uptake alongside evidence on cost-effectiveness and implementation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD012972.pub2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8208889PMC
May 2021

A prospective multicentre diagnostic accuracy study for the Truenat tuberculosis assays.

Eur Respir J 2021 May 28. Epub 2021 May 28.

Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: Bringing reliable and accurate tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis closer to patients is a key priority for global TB control. Molbio Diagnostics have developed the Truenat point-of-care molecular assays for detection of TB and rifampicin (RIF) resistance.

Methods: We conducted a prospective multicentre diagnostic accuracy study at 19 primary health care centres and seven reference laboratories in Peru, India, Ethiopia and Papua New Guinea to estimate the diagnostic accuracy of the point-of-care Truenat MTB, MTB Plus and MTB-RIF Dx assays for pulmonary TB using culture and phenotypic drug susceptibility testing as the reference standard, compared to Xpert MTB/RIF or Ultra.

Results: Of 1807 enrolled participants with TB signs/symptoms, 24% were culture positive for , of which 15% were RIF-resistant. In microscopy centres, the pooled sensitivity of Truenat MTB and Truenat MTB Plus was 73% [95% CI: 67, 78] and 80% [95% CI: 75, 84], respectively. Among smear-negative specimens, sensitivities were 36% [95% CI: 27, 47] and 47% [95% CI: 37, 58], respectively. Sensitivity of Truenat MTB-RIF was 84% [95% CI: 62, 95]. Truenat assays showed high specificity. Head-to-head comparison in the central reference laboratories suggested that the Truenat assays have similar performance to Xpert MTB/RIF.

Conclusion: We found performance of Molbio's Truenat MTB, MTB plus and MTB-RIF Dx assays to be comparable to that of the Xpert MTB/RIF assay. Performing the Truenat tests in primary health care centres with very limited infrastructure was feasible. These data supported the development of a WHO policy recommendation of the Molbio assays.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/13993003.00526-2021DOI Listing
May 2021

The Abbott PanBio WHO emergency use listed, rapid, antigen-detecting point-of-care diagnostic test for SARS-CoV-2-Evaluation of the accuracy and ease-of-use.

PLoS One 2021 27;16(5):e0247918. Epub 2021 May 27.

Division of Clinical Tropical Medicine, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany.

Objectives: Diagnostics are essential for controlling the pandemic. Identifying a reliable and fast diagnostic device is needed for effective testing. We assessed performance and ease-of-use of the Abbott PanBio antigen-detecting rapid diagnostic test (Ag-RDT).

Methods: This prospective, multi-centre diagnostic accuracy study enrolled at two sites in Germany. Following routine testing with reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), a second study-exclusive swab was performed for Ag-RDT testing. Routine swabs were nasopharyngeal (NP) or combined NP/oropharyngeal (OP) whereas the study-exclusive swabs were NP. To evaluate performance, sensitivity and specificity were assessed overall and in predefined sub-analyses accordingly to cycle-threshold values, days after symptom onset, disease severity and study site. Additionally, an ease-of-use assessment (EoU) and System Usability Scale (SUS) were performed.

Results: 1108 participants were enrolled between Sept 28 and Oct 30, 2020. Of these, 106 (9.6%) were PCR-positive. The Abbott PanBio detected 92/106 PCR-positive participants with a sensitivity of 86.8% (95% CI: 79.0% - 92.0%) and a specificity of 99.9% (95% CI: 99.4%-100%). The sub-analyses indicated that sensitivity was 95.8% in Ct-values <25 and within the first seven days from symptom onset. The test was characterized as easy to use (SUS: 86/100) and considered suitable for point-of-care settings.

Conclusion: The Abbott PanBio Ag-RDT performs well for SARS-CoV-2 testing in this large manufacturer independent study, confirming its WHO recommendation for Emergency Use in settings with limited resources.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0247918PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8158996PMC
June 2021

Head-to-head performance comparison of self-collected nasal versus professional-collected nasopharyngeal swab for a WHO-listed SARS-CoV-2 antigen-detecting rapid diagnostic test.

Med Microbiol Immunol 2021 Aug 24;210(4):181-186. Epub 2021 May 24.

Division of Clinical Tropical Medicine, Centre of Infectious Diseases, Heidelberg University Hospital, Im Neuenheimer Feld 324, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany.

In 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommended two SARS-CoV-2 lateral flow antigen-detecting rapid diagnostics tests (Ag-RDTs), both initially with nasopharyngeal (NP) sample collection. Independent head-to-head studies are necessary for SARS-CoV-2 Ag-RDT nasal sampling to demonstrate comparability of performance with nasopharyngeal (NP) sampling. We conducted a head-to-head comparison study of a supervised, self-collected nasal mid-turbinate (NMT) swab and a professional-collected NP swab, using the Panbio™ Ag-RDT (distributed by Abbott). We calculated positive and negative percent agreement between the sampling methods as well as sensitivity and specificity for both sampling techniques compared to the reference standard reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A SARS-CoV-2 infection could be diagnosed by RT-PCR in 45 of 290 participants (15.5%). Comparing the NMT and NP sampling the positive percent agreement of the Ag-RDT was 88.1% (37/42 PCR positives detected; CI 75.0-94.8%). The negative percent agreement was 98.8% (245/248; CI 96.5-99.6%). The overall sensitivity of Panbio with NMT sampling was 84.4% (38/45; CI 71.2-92.3%) and 88.9% (40/45; CI 76.5-95.5%) with NP sampling. Specificity was 99.2% (243/245; CI 97.1-99.8%) for both, NP and NMT sampling. The sensitivity of the Panbio test in participants with high viral load (> 7 log SARS-CoV-2 RNA copies/mL) was 96.3% (CI 81.7-99.8%) for both, NMT and NP sampling. For the Panbio supervised NMT self-sampling yields comparable results to NP sampling. This suggests that nasal self-sampling could be used for to enable scaled-up population testing.Clinical Trial DRKS00021220.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00430-021-00710-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8142294PMC
August 2021

Lack of antibodies against seasonal coronavirus OC43 nucleocapsid protein identifies patients at risk of critical COVID-19.

J Clin Virol 2021 06 24;139:104847. Epub 2021 Apr 24.

Institute of Virology, Department of Clinical Virology, University Hospital Münster, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: The vast majority of COVID-19 patients experience a mild disease. However, a minority suffers from critical disease with substantial morbidity and mortality.

Objectives: To identify individuals at risk of critical COVID-19, the relevance of a seroreactivity against seasonal human coronaviruses was analyzed.

Methods: We conducted a multi-center non-interventional study comprising 296 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections from four tertiary care referral centers in Germany and France. The ICU group comprised more males, whereas the outpatient group contained a higher percentage of females. For each patient, the serum or plasma sample obtained closest after symptom onset was examined by immunoblot regarding IgG antibodies against the nucleocapsid protein (NP) of HCoV 229E, NL63, OC43 and HKU1.

Results: Median age was 60 years (range 18-96). Patients with critical disease (n=106) had significantly lower levels of anti-HCoV OC43 nucleocapsid protein (NP)-specific antibodies compared to other COVID-19 inpatients (p=0.007). In multivariate analysis (adjusted for age, sex and BMI), OC43 negative inpatients had an increased risk of critical disease (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 2.68 [95% CI 1.09 - 7.05]), higher than the risk by increased age or BMI, and lower than the risk by male sex. A risk stratification based on sex and OC43 serostatus was derived from this analysis.

Conclusions: Our results suggest that prior infections with seasonal human coronaviruses can protect against a severe course of COVID-19. Therefore, anti-OC43 antibodies should be measured for COVID-19 inpatients and considered as part of the risk assessment for each patient. Hence, we expect individuals tested negative for anti-OC43 antibodies to particularly benefit from vaccination against SARS-CoV-2, especially with other risk factors prevailing.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2021.104847DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8065244PMC
June 2021

Performance of Saliva, Oropharyngeal Swabs, and Nasal Swabs for SARS-CoV-2 Molecular Detection: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

J Clin Microbiol 2021 04 20;59(5). Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Division of Clinical Tropical Medicine, Center of Infectious Diseases, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany.

Nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs are considered the highest-yield sample for diagnostic testing for respiratory viruses, including SARS-CoV-2. The need to increase capacity for SARS-CoV-2 testing in a variety of settings, combined with shortages of sample collection supplies, have motivated a search for alternative sample types with high sensitivity. We systematically reviewed the literature to understand the performance of alternative sample types compared to NP swabs. We systematically searched PubMed, Google Scholar, medRxiv, and bioRxiv (last retrieval 1 October 2020) for comparative studies of alternative specimen types (saliva, oropharyngeal [OP], and nasal [NS] swabs) versus NP swabs for SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis using nucleic acid amplification testing (NAAT). A logistic-normal random-effects meta-analysis was performed to calculate % positive alternative-specimen, % positive NP, and % dual positives overall and in subgroups. The QUADAS 2 tool was used to assess bias. From 1,253 unique citations, we identified 25 saliva, 11 NS, 6 OP, and 4 OP/NS studies meeting inclusion criteria. Three specimen types captured lower % positives (NS [82%, 95% CI: 73 to 90%], OP [84%, 95% CI: 57 to 100%], and saliva [88%, 95% CI: 81 to 93%]) than NP swabs, while combined OP/NS matched NP performance (97%, 95% CI: 90 to 100%). Absence of RNA extraction (saliva) and utilization of a more sensitive NAAT (NS) substantially decreased alternative-specimen yield of positive samples. NP swabs remain the gold standard for diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2, although alternative specimens are promising. Much remains unknown about the impact of variations in specimen collection, processing protocols, and population (pediatric versus adult, late versus early in disease course), such that head-to head studies of sampling strategies are urgently needed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.02881-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8091856PMC
April 2021

Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra and Xpert MTB/RIF assays for extrapulmonary tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance in adults.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 01 15;1:CD012768. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Honorary Research Fellow, Department of Clinical Sciences, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, UK.

Background: Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra (Xpert Ultra) and Xpert MTB/RIF are World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended rapid nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) widely used for simultaneous detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and rifampicin resistance in sputum. To extend our previous review on extrapulmonary tuberculosis (Kohli 2018), we performed this update to inform updated WHO policy (WHO Consolidated Guidelines (Module 3) 2020).

Objectives: To estimate diagnostic accuracy of Xpert Ultra and Xpert MTB/RIF for extrapulmonary tuberculosis and rifampicin resistance in adults with presumptive extrapulmonary tuberculosis.

Search Methods: Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register, MEDLINE, Embase, Science Citation Index, Web of Science, Latin American Caribbean Health Sciences Literature, Scopus, ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, the International Standard Randomized Controlled Trial Number Registry, and ProQuest, 2 August 2019 and 28 January 2020 (Xpert Ultra studies), without language restriction.

Selection Criteria: Cross-sectional and cohort studies using non-respiratory specimens. Forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis: tuberculous meningitis and pleural, lymph node, bone or joint, genitourinary, peritoneal, pericardial, disseminated tuberculosis. Reference standards were culture and a study-defined composite reference standard (tuberculosis detection); phenotypic drug susceptibility testing and line probe assays (rifampicin resistance detection).

Data Collection And Analysis: Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed risk of bias and applicability using QUADAS-2. For tuberculosis detection, we performed separate analyses by specimen type and reference standard using the bivariate model to estimate pooled sensitivity and specificity with 95% credible intervals (CrIs). We applied a latent class meta-analysis model to three forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. We assessed certainty of evidence using GRADE.

Main Results: 69 studies: 67 evaluated Xpert MTB/RIF and 11 evaluated Xpert Ultra, of which nine evaluated both tests. Most studies were conducted in China, India, South Africa, and Uganda. Overall, risk of bias was low for patient selection, index test, and flow and timing domains, and low (49%) or unclear (43%) for the reference standard domain. Applicability for the patient selection domain was unclear for most studies because we were unsure of the clinical settings. Cerebrospinal fluid Xpert Ultra (6 studies) Xpert Ultra pooled sensitivity and specificity (95% CrI) against culture were 89.4% (79.1 to 95.6) (89 participants; low-certainty evidence) and 91.2% (83.2 to 95.7) (386 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Of 1000 people where 100 have tuberculous meningitis, 168 would be Xpert Ultra-positive: of these, 79 (47%) would not have tuberculosis (false-positives) and 832 would be Xpert Ultra-negative: of these, 11 (1%) would have tuberculosis (false-negatives). Xpert MTB/RIF (30 studies) Xpert MTB/RIF pooled sensitivity and specificity against culture were 71.1% (62.8 to 79.1) (571 participants; moderate-certainty evidence) and 96.9% (95.4 to 98.0) (2824 participants; high-certainty evidence). Of 1000 people where 100 have tuberculous meningitis, 99 would be Xpert MTB/RIF-positive: of these, 28 (28%) would not have tuberculosis; and 901 would be Xpert MTB/RIF-negative: of these, 29 (3%) would have tuberculosis. Pleural fluid Xpert Ultra (4 studies) Xpert Ultra pooled sensitivity and specificity against culture were 75.0% (58.0 to 86.4) (158 participants; very low-certainty evidence) and 87.0% (63.1 to 97.9) (240 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Of 1000 people where 100 have pleural tuberculosis, 192 would be Xpert Ultra-positive: of these, 117 (61%) would not have tuberculosis; and 808 would be Xpert Ultra-negative: of these, 25 (3%) would have tuberculosis. Xpert MTB/RIF (25 studies) Xpert MTB/RIF pooled sensitivity and specificity against culture were 49.5% (39.8 to 59.9) (644 participants; low-certainty evidence) and 98.9% (97.6 to 99.7) (2421 participants; high-certainty evidence). Of 1000 people where 100 have pleural tuberculosis, 60 would be Xpert MTB/RIF-positive: of these, 10 (17%) would not have tuberculosis; and 940 would be Xpert MTB/RIF-negative: of these, 50 (5%) would have tuberculosis. Lymph node aspirate Xpert Ultra (1 study) Xpert Ultra sensitivity and specificity (95% confidence interval) against composite reference standard were 70% (51 to 85) (30 participants; very low-certainty evidence) and 100% (92 to 100) (43 participants; low-certainty evidence). Of 1000 people where 100 have lymph node tuberculosis, 70 would be Xpert Ultra-positive and 0 (0%) would not have tuberculosis; 930 would be Xpert Ultra-negative and 30 (3%) would have tuberculosis. Xpert MTB/RIF (4 studies) Xpert MTB/RIF pooled sensitivity and specificity against composite reference standard were 81.6% (61.9 to 93.3) (377 participants; low-certainty evidence) and 96.4% (91.3 to 98.6) (302 participants; low-certainty evidence). Of 1000 people where 100 have lymph node tuberculosis, 118 would be Xpert MTB/RIF-positive and 37 (31%) would not have tuberculosis; 882 would be Xpert MTB/RIF-negative and 19 (2%) would have tuberculosis. In lymph node aspirate, Xpert MTB/RIF pooled specificity against culture was 86.2% (78.0 to 92.3), lower than that against a composite reference standard. Using the latent class model, Xpert MTB/RIF pooled specificity was 99.5% (99.1 to 99.7), similar to that observed with a composite reference standard. Rifampicin resistance Xpert Ultra (4 studies) Xpert Ultra pooled sensitivity and specificity were 100.0% (95.1 to 100.0), (24 participants; low-certainty evidence) and 100.0% (99.0 to 100.0) (105 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Of 1000 people where 100 have rifampicin resistance, 100 would be Xpert Ultra-positive (resistant): of these, zero (0%) would not have rifampicin resistance; and 900 would be Xpert Ultra-negative (susceptible): of these, zero (0%) would have rifampicin resistance. Xpert MTB/RIF (19 studies) Xpert MTB/RIF pooled sensitivity and specificity were 96.5% (91.9 to 98.8) (148 participants; high-certainty evidence) and 99.1% (98.0 to 99.7) (822 participants; high-certainty evidence). Of 1000 people where 100 have rifampicin resistance, 105 would be Xpert MTB/RIF-positive (resistant): of these, 8 (8%) would not have rifampicin resistance; and 895 would be Xpert MTB/RIF-negative (susceptible): of these, 3 (0.3%) would have rifampicin resistance.

Authors' Conclusions: Xpert Ultra and Xpert MTB/RIF may be helpful in diagnosing extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Sensitivity varies across different extrapulmonary specimens: while for most specimens specificity is high, the tests rarely yield a positive result for people without tuberculosis. For tuberculous meningitis, Xpert Ultra had higher sensitivity and lower specificity than Xpert MTB/RIF against culture. Xpert Ultra and Xpert MTB/RIF had similar sensitivity and specificity for rifampicin resistance. Future research should acknowledge the concern associated with culture as a reference standard in paucibacillary specimens and consider ways to address this limitation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD012768.pub3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8078545PMC
January 2021

A new resource on artificial intelligence powered computer automated detection software products for tuberculosis programmes and implementers.

Tuberculosis (Edinb) 2021 03 4;127:102049. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics, Chemin des Mines, Geneva, 1201, Switzerland. Electronic address:

Recently, the number of artificial intelligence powered computer-aided detection (CAD) products that detect tuberculosis (TB)-related abnormalities from chest X-rays (CXR) available on the market has increased. Although CXR is a relatively effective and inexpensive method for TB screening and triaging, a shortage of skilled radiologists in many high TB-burden countries limits its use. CAD technology offers a solution to this problem. Before adopting a CAD product, TB programmes need to consider not only the diagnostic accuracy but also implementation-relevant features including operational characteristics, deployment mechanism, input and machine compatibility, output format, options for integration into the legacy system, costs, data sharing and privacy aspects, and certification. A landscaping analysis was conducted to collect this information among CAD developers known to have or soon to have a TB product. The responses were reviewed and finalized with the developers, and are published on an open-access website: www.ai4hlth.org. CAD products are constantly being improved and the site will continuously be updated to account for updates and new products. This unique online resource aims to inform the TB community about available CAD tools, their features and set-up procedures, to enable TB programmes to identify the most suitable product to incorporate in interventions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tube.2020.102049DOI Listing
March 2021

Comparing accuracy of lipoarabinomannan urine tests for diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis in children from four African countries: a cross-sectional study.

Lancet Infect Dis 2021 03 11;21(3):376-384. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

FIND (Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics), Geneva, Switzerland; Division of Tropical Medicine, Centre of Infectious Diseases, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: A sensitive and specific non-sputum-based test would be groundbreaking for the diagnosis of childhood tuberculosis. We assessed side by side the diagnostic accuracy of the urine-based lipoarabinomannan assays Fujifilm SILVAMP TB LAM (FujiLAM) and Alere Determine TB LAM Ag (AlereLAM) for detection of childhood tuberculosis.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we tested urine samples from children younger than 15 years with presumed pulmonary tuberculosis. Children were consecutively recruited from four dedicated outpatient childhood tuberculosis clinics in The Gambia, Mali, Nigeria, and Tanzania. Biobanked urine samples were thawed and tested using FujiLAM and AlereLAM assays. We measured diagnostic performance against a microbiological reference standard (confirmed tuberculosis) and a composite reference standard (confirmed and unconfirmed tuberculosis). Sensitivity and specificity were estimated with bivariate random-effects meta-analyses.

Findings: Between July 1, 2017, and Dec 1, 2018, we obtained and stored urine samples from 415 children. 63 (15%) children had confirmed tuberculosis, 113 (27%) had unconfirmed tuberculosis, and 239 (58%) were unlikely to have tuberculosis. 61 children were HIV-positive (prevalence 15%). Using the microbiological reference standard, the sensitivity of FujiLAM was 64·9% (95% CI 43·7-85·2; positive in 40 of 63 confirmed samples) and the sensitivity of AlereLAM was 30·7% (8·6-61·6; 19 of 63). The specificity of FujiLAM was 83·8% (95% CI 76·5-89·4; negative in 297 of 352 unconfirmed and unlikely samples) and the specificity of AlereLAM was 87·8% (79·0-93·7; 312 of 352). Against the composite reference standard, both assays had decreased sensitivity; the sensitivity of FujiLAM was 32·9% (95% CI 24·6-41·9; positive in 58 of 176 confirmed and unconfirmed samples) and the sensitivity of AlereLAM was 20·2% (12·3-29·4; 36 of 176). The specificity of FujiLAM was 83·3% (95% CI 71·8-91·7; negative in 202 of 239 unlikely samples) and the specificity of AlereLAM was 90·0% (81·6-95·6; 216 of 239).

Interpretation: By comparison with AlereLAM, FujiLAM showed higher sensitivity and similar specificity. FujiLAM could potentially add value to the rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis in children.

Funding: German Federal Ministry of Education and Research, the Global Health Innovative Technology Fund, the UK Research and Innovation Global Challenges Research Fund, and the UK Medical Research Council.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30598-3DOI Listing
March 2021

The potential impact of urine-LAM diagnostics on tuberculosis incidence and mortality: A modelling analysis.

PLoS Med 2020 12 11;17(12):e1003466. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

MRC Centre for Global Infectious Disease Analysis, Imperial College London, London, United Kingdom.

Background: Lateral flow urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) tests could offer important new opportunities for the early detection of tuberculosis (TB). The currently licensed LAM test, Alere Determine TB LAM Ag ('LF-LAM'), performs best in the sickest people living with HIV (PLHIV). However, the technology continues to improve, with newer LAM tests, such as Fujifilm SILVAMP TB LAM ('SILVAMP-LAM') showing improved sensitivity, including amongst HIV-negative patients. It is important to anticipate the epidemiological impact that current and future LAM tests may have on TB incidence and mortality.

Methods And Findings: Concentrating on South Africa, we examined the impact that widening LAM test eligibility would have on TB incidence and mortality. We developed a mathematical model of TB transmission to project the impact of LAM tests, distinguishing 'current' tests (with sensitivity consistent with LF-LAM), from hypothetical 'future' tests (having sensitivity consistent with SILVAMP-LAM). We modelled the impact of both tests, assuming full adoption of the 2019 WHO guidelines for the use of these tests amongst those receiving HIV care. We also simulated the hypothetical deployment of future LAM tests for all people presenting to care with TB symptoms, not restricted to PLHIV. Our model projects that 2,700,000 (95% credible interval [CrI] 2,000,000-3,600,000) and 420,000 (95% CrI 350,000-520,000) cumulative TB incident cases and deaths, respectively, would occur between 2020 and 2035 if the status quo is maintained. Relative to this comparator, current and future LAM tests would respectively avert 54 (95% CrI 33-86) and 90 (95% CrI 55-145) TB deaths amongst inpatients between 2020 and 2035, i.e., reductions of 5% (95% CrI 4%-6%) and 9% (95% CrI 7%-11%) in inpatient TB mortality. This impact in absolute deaths averted doubles if testing is expanded to include outpatients, yet remains <1% of country-level TB deaths. Similar patterns apply to incidence results. However, deploying a future LAM test for all people presenting to care with TB symptoms would avert 470,000 (95% CrI 220,000-870,000) incident TB cases (18% reduction, 95% CrI 9%-29%) and 120,000 (95% CrI 69,000-210,000) deaths (30% reduction, 95% CrI 18%-44%) between 2020 and 2035. Notably, this increase in impact arises largely from diagnosis of TB amongst those with HIV who are not yet in HIV care, and who would thus be ineligible for a LAM test under current guidelines. Qualitatively similar results apply under an alternative comparator assuming expanded use of GeneXpert MTB/RIF ('Xpert') for TB diagnosis. Sensitivity analysis demonstrates qualitatively similar results in a setting like Kenya, which also has a generalised HIV epidemic, but a lower burden of HIV/TB coinfection. Amongst limitations of this analysis, we do not address the cost or cost-effectiveness of future tests. Our model neglects drug resistance and focuses on the country-level epidemic, thus ignoring subnational variations in HIV and TB burden.

Conclusions: These results suggest that LAM tests could have an important effect in averting TB deaths amongst PLHIV with advanced disease. However, achieving population-level impact on the TB epidemic, even in high-HIV-burden settings, will require future LAM tests to have sufficient performance to be deployed more broadly than in HIV care.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003466DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7732057PMC
December 2020

Diagnostic Accuracy Study of a Novel Blood-Based Assay for Identification of Tuberculosis in People Living with HIV.

J Clin Microbiol 2021 02 18;59(3). Epub 2021 Feb 18.

FIND, Geneva, Switzerland.

A nonsputum triage test to rule out tuberculosis (TB) disease is a WHO high-priority diagnostic, and a combinatory score based on a 3-gene host signature has shown promise in discriminating TB from other illnesses. We evaluated the accuracy of an early-prototype cartridge assay ("Xpert MTB Host Response" or Xpert-MTB-HR-Prototype) of this 3-gene signature on biobanked blood samples from people living with HIV (PLHIV) against a comprehensive microbiological reference standard (CMRS) and against Xpert MTB/RIF on the first sputum sample alone. We depict results based on performance targets set by the WHO in comparison with a laboratory-based C-reactive protein (CRP) assay. Of 201 patients included, 67 were culture positive for The areas under the concentration-time curve (AUCs) for Xpert-MTB-HR-Prototype were 0.89 (confidence interval [CI], 0.83 to 0.94) against the CMRS and 0.94 (CI, 0.89 to 0.98) against Xpert MTB/RIF. Considering Xpert-MTB-HR-Prototype as a triage test (at the nearest upper value of sensitivity to 90%), specificities were 55.8% (CI, 47.2 to 64.1%) compared to the CMRS and 85.9% (CI, 79.3 to 90.7%) compared to Xpert MTB/RIF as confirmatory tests. Considering Xpert-MTB-HR-Prototype as a stand-alone diagnostic test, at a specificity near 95%, the test achieved a sensitivity of 65.7% (CI, 53.7 to 75.9%), while the CRP assay achieved a sensitivity of only 13.6% (CI, 7.3 to 23.4%). In this first accuracy study of a prototype blood-based host marker assay, we show the possible value of the assay for triage and diagnosis in PLHIV.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.01643-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8106701PMC
February 2021

"I got tested at home, the help came to me": acceptability and feasibility of home-based TB testing of household contacts using portable molecular diagnostics in South Africa.

Trop Med Int Health 2021 03 4;26(3):343-354. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Objective: The effectiveness of household contact investigations is limited by low referral uptake for clinic-based TB testing by symptomatic household contacts. We qualitatively investigated the acceptability and perceived benefits of home-based TB testing using a portable GeneXpert-I instrument (GX-I) in an urban South African township.

Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with household contacts tested and those that observed testing. Semi-structured interviews explored household contact's understanding of TB, perceptions of the GX-I device and testing procedures, confidentiality, willingness to refer others, and views on home- vs. clinic-based testing. Focus group discussions with home-based TB testing implementing staff assessed operational considerations for scale-up. Data were analysed using a constant comparison approach to qualitatively evaluate the acceptability and feasibility of home-based TB testing.

Results: Thirty in-depth interviews and two focus group discussions were conducted. Observing one's own sputum being tested resulted in an emergent trust in home-based TB testing, the GX-I device and one's test results. Home-based TB testing was considered convenient, helped to overcome apathy towards testing and mitigated barriers to clinic-based testing. Perceptions that home-based TB testing contributes to improved household and community health resulted in an emergent theme of alleviation of health insecurities. Operational concerns regarding inadvertent disclosure of one's diagnosis to household members and time spent in people's homes were identified.

Conclusions: Home-based TB testing was acceptable and feasible. Individuals expressed belief in the machine by being able to witness the testing process. Though most themes mirrored qualitative studies of home-based HIV testing, the alleviation of health insecurities theme is unique to home-based TB testing. Future research must evaluate the impact of home-based TB testing on case finding yield, time-to-treatment initiation and household outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tmi.13533DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8060432PMC
March 2021

Comparative Analytical Evaluation of Four Centralized Platforms for the Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex and Resistance to Rifampicin and Isoniazid.

J Clin Microbiol 2021 02 18;59(3). Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics, Geneva, Switzerland.

Failure to rapidly identify drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) increases the risk of patient mismanagement, the amplification of drug resistance, and ongoing transmission. We generated comparative analytical data for four automated assays for the detection of TB and multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB): Abbott RealTie MTB and MTB RIF/INH (Abbott), Hain Lifescience FluoroType MTBDR (Hain), BD Max MDR-TB (BD), and Roche cobas MTB and MTB-RIF/INH (Roche). We included Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert) and GenoType MTBDR as comparators for TB and drug resistance detection, respectively. We assessed analytical sensitivity for the detection of the complex using inactivated strains ( H37Rv and ) spiked into TB-negative sputa and computed the 95% limits of detection (LOD). We assessed the accuracy of rifampicin and isoniazid resistance detection using well-characterized strains with high-confidence mutations accounting for >85% of first-line resistance mechanisms globally. For H37Rv and , we measured LOD values of 3,781 and 2,926 (Xpert), 322 and 2,182 (Abbott), 826 and 4,301 (BD), 10,398 and 23,139 (Hain), and 2,416 and 2,136 (Roche) genomes/ml, respectively. Assays targeting multicopy genes or targets (Abbott, BD, and Roche) showed increased analytical sensitivity compared to Xpert. Quantification of the panel by quantitative real-time PCR prevents the determination of absolute values, and results reported here can be interpreted for comparison purposes only. All assays showed accuracy comparable to that of Genotype MTBDR for the detection of rifampicin and isoniazid resistance. The data from this analytical study suggest that the assays may have clinical performances similar to those of WHO-recommended molecular TB and MDR-TB assays.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.02168-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8106716PMC
February 2021

Cost-effectiveness of a novel lipoarabinomannan test for tuberculosis in patients with HIV.

Clin Infect Dis 2020 Nov 17. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Medical Practice Evaluation Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: A novel urine lipoarabinomannan assay (FujiLAM) has higher sensitivity and higher cost than the first-generation AlereLAM assay. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of FujiLAM for tuberculosis testing among hospitalized people with HIV irrespective of symptoms.

Methods: We used a microsimulation model to project clinical and economic outcomes of three testing strategies: 1) sputum Xpert MTB/RIF (Xpert); 2) sputum Xpert plus urine AlereLAM (Xpert+AlereLAM); 3) sputum Xpert plus urine FujiLAM (Xpert+FujiLAM). The modelled cohort matched that of a two-country clinical trial. We applied diagnostic yields from a retrospective study (yields for Xpert/Xpert+AlereLAM/Xpert+FujiLAM among those with CD4<200/µL: 33%/62%/70%; among those with CD4≥200/µL: 33%/35%/47%). Costs of Xpert/AlereLAM/FujiLAM were USD15/3/6 (South Africa) and USD25/3/6 (Malawi). Xpert+FujiLAM was considered cost-effective if its incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (USD/year-of-life saved) was <$940 (South Africa) and <$750 (Malawi). We varied key parameters in sensitivity analysis and performed a budget impact analysis of implementing FujiLAM countrywide.

Results: Compared with Xpert+AlereLAM, Xpert+FujiLAM increased life expectancy by 0.2 years for those tested in South Africa and Malawi. Xpert+FujiLAM was cost-effective in both countries. Xpert+FujiLAM for all patients remained cost-effective compared with sequential testing and CD4-stratified testing strategies. FujiLAM use added 3.5% (South Africa) and 4.7% (Malawi) to five-year healthcare costs of tested patients, primarily reflecting ongoing HIV treatment costs among survivors.

Conclusions: FujiLAM with Xpert for tuberculosis testing in hospitalized people with HIV is likely to increase life expectancy and be cost-effective at the currently anticipated price in South Africa and Malawi. Additional studies should evaluate FujiLAM in clinical practice settings.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1698DOI Listing
November 2020

Can we predict the severe course of COVID-19 - a systematic review and meta-analysis of indicators of clinical outcome?

medRxiv 2020 Nov 12. Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Background: COVID-19 has been reported in over 40million people globally with variable clinical outcomes. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we assessed demographic, laboratory and clinical indicators as predictors for severe courses of COVID-19.

Methods: We systematically searched multiple databases (PubMed, Web of Science Core Collection, MedRvix and bioRvix) for publications from December 2019 to May 31 2020. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to calculate pooled odds ratios and differences of medians between (1) patients admitted to ICU versus non-ICU patients and (2) patients who died versus those who survived. We adapted an existing Cochrane risk-of-bias assessment tool for outcome studies.

Results: Of 6,702 unique citations, we included 88 articles with 69,762 patients. There was concern for bias across all articles included. Age was strongly associated with mortality with a difference of medians (DoM) of 13.15 years (95% confidence interval (CI) 11.37 to 14.94) between those who died and those who survived. We found a clinically relevant difference between non-survivors and survivors for C-reactive protein (CRP; DoM 69.10, CI 50.43 to 87.77), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; DoM 189.49, CI 155.00 to 223.98), cardiac troponin I (cTnI; DoM 21.88, CI 9.78 to 33.99) and D-Dimer (DoM 1.29mg/L, CI 0.9 - 1.69). Furthermore, cerebrovascular disease was the co-morbidity most strongly associated with mortality (Odds Ratio 3.45, CI 2.42 to 4.91) and ICU admission (Odds Ratio 5.88, CI 2.35 to 14.73).

Discussion: This comprehensive meta-analysis found age, cerebrovascular disease, CRP, LDH and cTnI to be the most important risk-factors in predicting severe COVID-19 outcomes and will inform decision analytical tools to support clinical decision-making.

Summary: In this systematic review we meta-analyzed 88 articles for risk factors of ICU admission and mortality in COVID-19. We found age, cerebrovascular disease, CRP, LDH and cTnI are the most important risk-factors for ICU admission or mortality.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2020.11.09.20228858DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7668761PMC
November 2020

Differential yield of universal versus selective drug susceptibility testing of patients with tuberculosis in high-burden countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMJ Glob Health 2020 10;5(10)

Center of Infectious Disease, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany

Introduction: Although universal drug susceptibility testing (DST) is a component of the End-TB Strategy, over 70% of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB) cases globally remain undetected. This detection gap reflects difficulties in DST scale-up and substantial heterogeneity in policies and implemented practices. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess whether implementation of universal DST yields increased DR-TB detection compared with only selectively testing high-risk groups.

Methods: PubMed, Embase, Global Health, Cochrane Library and Web of Science Core Collection were searched for publications reporting on the differential yield of universal versus selective DST implementation on the proportion of DR-TB, from January 2007 to June 2019. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to calculate respective pooled proportions of DR-TB cases detected; Higgins test and prediction intervals were used to assess between-study heterogeneity. We adapted an existing risk-of-bias assessment tool for prevalence studies.

Results: Of 18 736 unique citations, 101 studies were included in the qualitative synthesis. All studies used WHO-endorsed DST methods, and most (87.1%) involved both high-risk groups and the general population. We found only cross-sectional, observational, non-randomised studies that compared universal with selective DST strategies. Only four studies directly compared the testing approaches in the same study population, with the proportion of DR-TB cases detected ranging from 2.2% (95% CI: 1.4% to 3.2%) to 12.8% (95% CI: 11.4% to 14.3%) with selective testing, versus 4.4% (95% CI: 3.3% to 5.8%) to 9.8% (95% CI: 8.9% to 10.7%) with universal testing. Broad population studies were very heterogeneous. The vast majority (88/101; 87.1%) reported on the results of universal testing. However, while 37 (36.6%)/101 included all presumptive TB cases, an equal number of studies applied sputum-smear as a preselection criterion. A meaningful meta-analysis was not possible.

Conclusion: Given the absence of randomised studies and the paucity of studies comparing strategies head to head, and selection bias in many studies that applied universal testing, our findings have limited generalisability. The lack of evidence reinforces the need for better data to inform policies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjgh-2020-003438DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7549483PMC
October 2020

A Randomized Open label Phase-II Clinical Trial with or without Infusion of Plasma from Subjects after Convalescence of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in High-Risk Patients with Confirmed Severe SARS-CoV-2 Disease (RECOVER): A structured summary of a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

Trials 2020 Oct 6;21(1):828. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Department of Internal Medicine V, Heidelberg University Hospital, Heidelberg, Germany.

Objectives: Primary objectives • To assess the time from randomisation until an improvement within 84 days defined as two points on a seven point ordinal scale or live discharge from the hospital in high-risk patients (group 1 to group 4) with SARS-CoV-2 infection requiring hospital admission by infusion of plasma from subjects after convalescence of SARS-CoV-2 infection or standard of care. Secondary objectives • To assess overall survival, and the overall survival rate at 28 56 and 84 days. • To assess SARS-CoV-2 viral clearance and load as well as antibody titres. • To assess the percentage of patients that required mechanical ventilation. • To assess time from randomisation until discharge.

Trial Design: Randomised, open-label, multicenter phase II trial, designed to assess the clinical outcome of SARS-CoV-2 disease in high-risk patients (group 1 to group 4) following treatment with anti-SARS-CoV-2 convalescent plasma or standard of care.

Participants: High-risk patients >18 years of age hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infection in 10-15 university medical centres will be included. High-risk is defined as SARS-CoV-2 positive infection with Oxygen saturation at ≤ 94% at ambient air with additional risk features as categorised in 4 groups: • Group 1, pre-existing or concurrent hematological malignancy and/or active cancer therapy (incl. chemotherapy, radiotherapy, surgery) within the last 24 months or less. • Group 2, chronic immunosuppression not meeting the criteria of group 1. • Group 3, age ≥ 50 - 75 years meeting neither the criteria of group 1 nor group 2 and at least one of these criteria: Lymphopenia < 0.8 x G/l and/or D-dimer > 1μg/mL. • Group 4, age ≥ 75 years meeting neither the criteria of group 1 nor group 2. Observation time for all patients is expected to be at least 3 months after entry into the study. Patients receive convalescent plasma for two days (day 1 and day 2) or standard of care. For patients in the standard arm, cross over is allowed from day 10 in case of not improving or worsening clinical condition. Nose/throat swabs for determination of viral load are collected at day 0 and day 1 (before first CP administration) and subsequently at day 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 28 or until discharge. Serum for SARS-Cov-2 diagnostic is collected at baseline and subsequently at day 3, 7, 14 and once during the follow-up period (between day 35 and day 84). There is a regular follow-up of 3 months. All discharged patients are followed by regular phone calls. All visits, time points and study assessments are summarized in the Trial Schedule (see full protocol Table 1). All participating trial sites will be supplied with study specific visit worksheets that list all assessments and procedures to be completed at each visit. All findings including clinical and laboratory data are documented by the investigator or an authorized member of the study team in the patient's medical record and in the electronic case report forms (eCRFs).

Intervention And Comparator: This trial will analyze the effects of convalescent plasma from recovered subjects with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in high-risk patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Patients at high risk for a poor outcome due to underlying disease, age or condition as listed above are eligible for enrollment. In addition, eligible patients have a confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection and O saturation ≤ 94% while breathing ambient air. Patients are randomised to receive (experimental arm) or not receive (standard arm) convalescent plasma in two bags (238 - 337 ml plasma each) from different donors (day 1, day 2). A cross over from the standard arm into the experimental arm is possible after day 10 in case of not improving or worsening clinical condition.

Main Outcomes: Primary endpoints: The main purpose of the study is to assess the time from randomisation until an improvement within 84 days defined as two points on a seven-point ordinal scale or live discharge from the hospital in high-risk patients (group 1 to group 4) with SARS-CoV-2 infection requiring hospital admission by infusion of plasma from subjects after convalescence of a SARS-CoV-2 infection or standard of care. Secondary endpoints: • Overall survival, defined as the time from randomisation until death from any cause 28-day, 56-day and 84-day overall survival rates. • SARS-CoV-2 viral clearance and load as well as antibody titres. • Requirement mechanical ventilation at any time during hospital stay (yes/no). • Time until discharge from randomisation. • Viral load, changes in antibody titers and cytokine profiles are analysed in an exploratory manner using paired non-parametric tests (before - after treatment).

Randomisation: Upon confirmation of eligibility (patients must meet all inclusion criteria and must not meet exclusion criteria described in section 5.3 and 5.4 of the full protocol), the clinical site must contact a centralized internet randomization system ( https://randomizer.at/ ). Patients are randomized using block randomisation to one of the two arms, experimental arm or standard arm, in a 1:1 ratio considering a stratification according to the 4 risk groups (see Participants).

Blinding (masking): The study is open-label, no blinding will be performed.

Numbers To Be Randomised (sample Size): A total number of 174 patients is required for the entire trial, n=87 per group.

Trial Status: Protocol version 1.2 dated 09/07/2020. A recruitment period of approximately 9 months and an overall study duration of approximately 12 months is anticipated. Recruitment of patients starts in the third quarter of 2020. The study duration of an individual patient is planned to be 3 months. After finishing all study-relevant procedures, therapy, and follow-up period, the patient is followed in terms of routine care and treated if necessary. Total trial duration: 18 months Duration of the clinical phase: 12 months First patient first visit (FPFV): 3 Quarter 2020 Last patient first visit (LPFV): 2 Quarter 2021 Last patient last visit (LPLV): 3 Quarter 2021 Trial Report completed: 4 Quarter 2021 TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT Number: 2020-001632-10, https://www.clinicaltrialsregister.eu/ctr-search/trial/2020-001632-10/DE , registered on 04/04/2020.

Full Protocol: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol. The study protocol has been reported in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Clinical Interventional Trials (SPIRIT) guidelines (Additional file 2). The eCRF is attached (Additional file 3).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-020-04735-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7538058PMC
October 2020

Prediction of local COVID-19 spread in Heidelberg.

F1000Res 2020 2;9:232. Epub 2020 Apr 2.

Division of Tropical Medicine, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany.

Since the first identified case of COVID-19 in Wuhan, China, the disease has developed into a pandemic, imposing a major challenge for health authorities and hospitals worldwide. Mathematical transmission models can help hospitals to anticipate and prepare for an upcoming wave of patients by forecasting the time and severity of infections. Taking the city of Heidelberg as an example, we predict the ongoing spread of the disease for the next months including hospital and ventilator capacity and consider the possible impact of currently imposed countermeasures.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.23034.1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7445560PMC
September 2020

Diagnostic accuracy of centralised assays for TB detection and detection of resistance to rifampicin and isoniazid: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Eur Respir J 2021 02 4;57(2). Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics, Geneva, Switzerland.

Various diagnostic companies have developed high throughput molecular assays for tuberculosis (TB) and resistance detection for rifampicin and isoniazid. We performed a systematic review and meta-analyses to assess the diagnostic accuracy of five of these tests for pulmonary specimens. The tests included were Abbott RealTime MTB, Abbott RealTime RIF/INH, FluoroType MTB, FluoroType MTDBR and BD Max MDR-TB assay.A comprehensive search of six databases for relevant citations was performed. Cross-sectional, case-control, cohort studies, and randomised controlled trials of any of the index tests were included. Respiratory specimens (such as sputum, bronchoalveolar lavage, tracheal aspirate, ) or their culture isolates.A total of 21 included studies contributed 26 datasets. We could only meta-analyse data for three of the five assays identified, as data were limited for the remaining two. For TB detection, the included assays had a sensitivity of 91% or more and the specificity ranged from 97% to 100%. For rifampicin resistance detection, all the included assays had a sensitivity of more than 92%, with a specificity of 99-100%. Sensitivity for isoniazid resistance detection varied from 70 to 91%, with higher specificity of 99-100% across all index tests. Studies that included head-to-head comparisons of these assays with Xpert MTB/RIF for detection of TB and rifampicin resistance suggested comparable diagnostic accuracy.In people with symptoms of pulmonary TB, the centralised molecular assays demonstrate comparable diagnostic accuracy for detection of TB, rifampicin and isoniazid resistance to Xpert MTB/RIF assay, a WHO recommended molecular test.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/13993003.00747-2020DOI Listing
February 2021

Accuracy of a Novel Urine Test, Fujifilm SILVAMP Tuberculosis Lipoarabinomannan, for the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Children.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 05;72(9):e280-e288

Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: An accurate point-of-care test for tuberculosis (TB) in children remains an elusive goal. Recent evaluation of a novel point-of-care urinary lipoarabinomannan test, Fujifilm SILVAMP Tuberculosis Lipoarabinomannan (FujiLAM), in adults living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) showed significantly superior sensitivity than the current Alere Determine Tuberculosis Lipoarabinomannan test (AlereLAM). We therefore compared the accuracy of FujiLAM and AlereLAM in children with suspected TB.

Methods: Children hospitalized with suspected TB in Cape Town, South Africa, were enrolled (consecutive admissions plus enrichment for a group of children living with HIV and with TB), their urine was collected and biobanked, and their sputum was tested with mycobacterial culture and Xpert MTB/RIF or Xpert MTB/RIF Ultra. Biobanked urine was subsequently batch tested with FujiLAM and AlereLAM. Children were categorized as having microbiologically confirmed TB, unconfirmed TB (clinically diagnosed), or unlikely TB.

Results: A total of 204 children were enrolled and had valid results from both index tests, as well as sputum microbiological testing. Compared to a microbiological reference standard, the sensitivity of FujiLAM and AlereLAM was similar (42% and 50%, respectively), but lower than that of Xpert MTB/RIF of sputum (74%). The sensitivity of FujiLAM was higher in children living with HIV (60%) and malnourished children (62%). The specificity of FujiLAM was substantially higher than that of AlereLAM (92% vs 66%, respectively). The specificity of both tests was higher in children 2 years or older (FujiLAM, 96%; AlereLAM, 72%).

Conclusions: The high specificity of FujiLAM suggests utility as a "rule-in" test for children with a high pretest probability of TB, including hospitalized children living with HIV or with malnutrition.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa1052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8096212PMC
May 2021

Advances in Molecular Diagnosis of Tuberculosis.

J Clin Microbiol 2020 09 22;58(10). Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics, and Occupational Health, McGill University, Montreal, Canada

Molecular tests for tuberculosis (TB) have the potential to help reach the three million people with TB who are undiagnosed or not reported each year and to improve the quality of care TB patients receive by providing accurate, quick results, including rapid drug-susceptibility testing. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended the use of molecular nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) tests for TB detection instead of smear microscopy, as they are able to detect TB more accurately, particularly in patients with paucibacillary disease and in people living with HIV. Importantly, some of these WHO-endorsed tests can detect mycobacterial gene mutations associated with anti-TB drug resistance, allowing clinicians to tailor effective TB treatment. Currently, a wide array of molecular tests for TB detection is being developed and evaluated, and while some tests are intended for reference laboratory use, others are being aimed at the point-of-care and peripheral health care settings. Notably, there is an emergence of molecular tests designed, manufactured, and rolled out in countries with high TB burden, of which some are explicitly aimed for near-patient placement. These developments should increase access to molecular TB testing for larger patient populations. With respect to drug susceptibility testing, NAATs and next-generation sequencing can provide results substantially faster than traditional phenotypic culture. Here, we review recent advances and developments in molecular tests for detecting TB as well as anti-TB drug resistance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.01582-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7512154PMC
September 2020

Upfront Xpert MTB/RIF for diagnosis of pediatric TB-Does it work? Experience from India.

PLoS One 2020 5;15(8):e0236057. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics, New Delhi, India.

Background: Diagnosis of TB in pediatric population poses several challenges. A novel initiative was implemented in several major cities of India aimed at providing upfront access to free-of-cost Xpert MTB/RIF to presumptive pediatric TB cases. This paper aims to describe the experience of implementing this large initiative and assess feasibility of the intervention in high TB burden settings.

Methods: Data were drawn from the pediatric TB project implemented in 10 major cities of India between April 2014 and March 2018. In each city, providers, both public and private, were engaged and linked with a high throughput Xpert MTB/RIF lab (established in that city) through rapid specimen transportation and electronic reporting system. Rates and proportions were estimated to describe the characteristics of this cohort.

Results: Of the total 94,415 presumptive pediatric TB cases tested in the project, 6,270 were diagnosed positive for MTB (6.6%) on Xpert MTB/RIF (vs 2% on smear microscopy). Among MTB positives, 545 cases were rifampicin resistant (8.7%). The median duration between collection of specimens and reporting of results was 0 days (same day) and >89% cases were initiated on treatment. Approximately 50% of the specimens tested were non-sputum. The number of providers/facilities engaged under the project increased >10-fold (from 124 in Q2'14 to 1416 in Q1'18).

Conclusion: This project, which was one of the largest initiatives globally among pediatric population, demonstrated the feasibility of sustaining rapid and upfront access to free-of-cost Xpert MTB/RIF testing. The project underscores the efficiency of this rapid diagnostic assay in tackling several challenges in pediatric TB diagnosis, identifies opportunities for further interventions as well as brings to light scope for effective engagement with healthcare providers. The findings have facilitated a policy decision by National TB Programme mandating the use of Xpert MTB/RIF as a primary diagnostic tool for TB diagnosis in children, which is being scaled-up.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0236057PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7406076PMC
September 2020