Publications by authors named "Claudia Höhne"

31 Publications

Hormonal Blood Pressure Regulationduring General Anesthesia Usinga Standardized Propofol Dosagein Children and Adolescents SeemsNot to Be Affected by Body Weight.

J Clin Med 2020 Jul 6;9(7). Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Anesthesiology, Intensive Care Medicine and Pain Therapy, DRK Hospital Berlin-Koepenick, 12559 Berlin, Germany.

Obesity in pediatric surgical patients is a challenge for the anesthesiologist. Despite potentially beneficial properties, propofol might also induce hypotension. This study examined whether a dose adjustment in overweight children could avoid hypotension and if there would be differences regarding hormonal regulation in children under anesthesia. Fifty-nine children undergoing surgery under general anesthesia were enrolled in this prospective observational trial. Participants were allocated into two groups according to their BMI. The induction of anesthesia was conducted using propofol ("overweight": 2 mg/kgBW, "regular": 3.2 mg/kgBW). The maintenance of anesthesia was conducted as total intravenous anesthesia. Hormone levels of renin, angiotensin II, aldosterone, copeptin, norepinephrine and epinephrine were assessed at different timepoints. Blood pressure dropped after the administration of propofol in both groups, with a nadir 2 min after administration-but without a significant difference in the strength of reduction between the two groups. As a reaction, an increase in the plasma levels of renin, angiotensin and aldosterone was observed, while levels of epinephrine, norepinephrine and copeptin dropped. By adjusting the propofol dosage in overweight children, the rate of preincision hypotension could be reduced to the level of normal-weight patients with a non-modified propofol dose. The hormonal counter regulation was comparable in both groups. The release of catecholamines and copeptin as an indicator of arginine vasopressin seemed to be inhibited by propofol.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9072129DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7408938PMC
July 2020

[Current Treatment of Esophageal Atresia with Tracheoesophageal Fistula - Updated Guidelines of the German Society of Pediatric Surgery].

Klin Padiatr 2020 Jul 26;232(4):178-186. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Pediatric Surgery, University Hospital Leipzig, Leipzig.

Esophageal atresia (EA) is a congenital anomaly that entails an interrupted esophagus with or without tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF). Depending on the distance of the two esophageal pouches a "short-gap" is distinguished from a "long-gap" variant. Up to 50% of newborns have additional anomalies. EA is prenatally diagnosed in 32-63% of cases. Recently, the interdisciplinary care in these children underwent substantial changes. Therefore, we summarize the current guideline of the German society of pediatric surgery for the treatment of patients with EA and distal TEF (Gross Type C). Controversies regarding the perioperative management include surgical-technical aspects, such as the thoracoscopic approach to EA, as well as general anesthesia (preoperative tracheobronchoscopy, intraoperative hypercapnia and acidosis). Moreover, postoperative complications and their management like anastomotic stricture are outlined. Despite significant improvements in the treatment of EA, there is still a relevant amount of long-term morbidity after surgical correction. This includes dysmotility of the esophagus, gastroesophageal reflux disease, recurrent respiratory infections, tracheomalacia, failure to thrive, and orthopedic complications following thoracotomy in the neonatal age. Therefore, close follow-up is mandatory to attain optimal quality of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1149-9483DOI Listing
July 2020

Safe pediatric procedural sedation and analgesia by anesthesiologists for elective procedures: A clinical practice statement from the European Society for Paediatric Anaesthesiology.

Paediatr Anaesth 2019 06 13;29(6):583-590. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.

The growing number of medical procedures performed in children that require cooperation of patients, lack of movement, anxiolysis or/and analgesia triggers the increased need for procedural sedation. This document presents the consensus statement of the European Society for Paediatric Anaesthesiology about the principles connected with the safe management of procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) by anaesthesiologists for elective procedures in children. It does not aim to provide a legal statement on how and by whom PSA should be performed. The document highlights that any staff taking part in sedation of children must be appropriately trained with the required competencies and must be able to demonstrate regularly that they have maintained their knowledge, skills and clinical experience. The main goal of creating this document was to reflect the opinions of the community of the paediatric anaesthesiologists in Europe regarding how PSA for paediatric patients should be organized to make it safe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pan.13615DOI Listing
June 2019

[Drama in the Recovery Unit: Paediatric Emergence Delirium].

Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther 2018 Nov 20;53(11-12):766-776. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

The upcoming and ongoing debate on neurotoxicity of anesthetics at a young age put a new spotlight on the emergence delirium of children (paedED). The European Society for Anesthesiology published a consensus guideline on prevention and therapy in 2017 which can be a useful guidance in daily clinical practice. Patient data management systems with their clear documentation concerning pain/therapy of pain and paedED will be valuable tools in order to assess the real incidence of paedED. Differentiating between pain/agitation and paedED migth not always be easy. Age-adapted scores should always be applied. Main focus in the prevention of paedED is the reduction of anxiety. The way this is achieved by the dedicated pediatric anesthesia teams caring for children, e.g. by oral midazolam, clowns, music, smartphone induction, does not matter. Using α-agonists in the perioperative phase and applying propofol seems to be effective. A quiet supportive environment for recovery adds to a relaxed, stress-free awakening. For the future detecting paedED on normal wards becomes an important issue. This may be achieved by structured interviews or questionnaires assessing postoperative negative behavioural changes at the same time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-0575-0473DOI Listing
November 2018

Choosing Wisely in pediatric anesthesia: An interpretation from the German Scientific Working Group of Paediatric Anaesthesia (WAKKA).

Paediatr Anaesth 2018 07 30;28(7):588-596. Epub 2018 May 30.

Clinic for Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

Inspired by the Choosing Wisely initiative, a group of pediatric anesthesiologists representing the German Working Group on Paediatric Anaesthesia (WAKKA) coined and agreed upon 10 concise positive ("dos") or negative ("don'ts") evidence-based recommendations. (i) In infants and children with robust indications for surgical, interventional, or diagnostic procedures, anesthesia or sedation should not be avoided or delayed due to the potential neurotoxicity associated with the exposure to anesthetics. (ii) In children without relevant preexisting illnesses (ie, ASA status I/II) who are scheduled for elective minor or medium-risk surgical procedures, no routine blood tests should be performed. (iii) Parental presence during the induction of anesthesia should be an option for children whenever possible. (iv) Perioperative fasting should be safe and child-friendly with shorter real fasting times and more liberal postoperative drinking and enteral feeding. (v) Perioperative fluid therapy should be safe and effective with physiologically composed balanced electrolyte solutions to maintain a normal extracellular fluid volume; addition of 1%-2.5% glucose to avoid lipolysis, hypoglycemia, and hyperglycemia, and colloids as needed to maintain a normal blood volume. (vi) To achieve safe and successful airway management, the locally accepted airway algorithm and continued teaching and training of basic and alternative techniques of ventilation and endotracheal intubation are required. (vii) Ultrasound and imaging systems (eg, transillumination) should be available for achieving central venous access and challenging peripheral venous and arterial access. (viii) Perioperative disturbances of the patient's homeostasis, such as hypotension, hypocapnia, hypothermia, hypoglycemia, hyponatremia, and severe anemia, should not be ignored and should be prevented or treated immediately. (ix) Pediatric patients with an elevated perioperative risk, eg, preterm and term neonates, infants, and critically ill children, should be treated at institutions where all caregivers have sufficient expertise and continuous clinical exposure to such patients. (x) A strategy for preventing postoperative vomiting, emergence delirium, and acute pain should be a part of every anesthetic procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pan.13383DOI Listing
July 2018

Laryngeal tube suction II or endotracheal intubation for laparoscopic radical prostatectomy in a head down position: A randomised controlled trial.

Eur J Anaesthesiol 2017 07;34(7):441-447

From the Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine (AD, DG, IK, UXK, TB, CH, SB), and Department of Urology, University of Leipzig Medical Faculty, Leipzig, Germany (JUS).

Background: The laryngeal tube suction II (LTS II) is a supraglottic airway device (SAD) with a gastric drainage tube and enhanced seal properties as compared with other SADs. Therefore, its use has been proposed in situations with an elevated risk of aspiration.

Objectives: To compare the safety and efficacy of airway management and controlled mechanical ventilation when using either an LTS II or an endotracheal tube for laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.

Design: Randomised, controlled, blinded and single-centre study.

Setting: Academic tertiary care centre in Leipzig from April 2014 to May 2015.

Patients: It was planned to include 100 patients but the study was stopped after 50 patients following an interim analysis. These 50 patients were randomised to either the LTS II group or the endotracheal tube group. All male patients aged more than 18 years for elective laparoscopic radical prostatectomy were eligible. Exclusion criteria included a BMI more than 30, American Society of Anesthesiologists class III or greater, a history of gastroesophageal reflux or other factors known to increase the risk of aspiration and a known difficult airway.

Interventions: All patients received general anaesthesia. Airway management was with either a LTS II or an endotracheal tube, according to the randomisation.

Main Outcome Measures: The primary endpoint was successful insertion of the particular airway device during anaesthesia for laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.

Results: In 15 of the 28 patients randomised to LTS II, the device had to be removed and an endotracheal tube inserted, mainly because of an airway leak (n = 10) or swelling of the tongue (n = 3). Ventilation was successful in all patients (n = 22) randomised to endotracheal tube. Quality of ventilation was rated better in the endotracheal tube group.

Conclusion: Our data suggest that LTS II should not be the preferred method of airway management in patients undergoing laparoscopic radical prostatectomy.

Trial Registration: DRKS00008985 (German Clinical Trials Register).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/EJA.0000000000000547DOI Listing
July 2017

Perioperative intravenous fluid therapy in children: guidelines from the Association of the Scientific Medical Societies in Germany.

Paediatr Anaesth 2017 Jan 17;27(1):10-18. Epub 2016 Oct 17.

Department of Anesthesia, University Children's Hospital Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

This consensus- based S1 Guideline for perioperative infusion therapy in children is focused on safety and efficacy. The objective is to maintain or re-establish the child's normal physiological state (normovolemia, normal tissue perfusion, normal metabolic function, normal acid- base- electrolyte status). Therefore, the perioperative fasting times should be as short as possible to prevent patient discomfort, dehydration, and ketoacidosis. A physiologically composed balanced isotonic electrolyte solution (BS) with 1-2.5% glucose is recommended for the intraoperative background infusion to maintain normal glucose concentrations and to avoid hyponatremia, hyperchloremia, and lipolysis. Additional BS without glucose can be used in patients with circulatory instability until the desired effect is achieved. The additional use of colloids (albumin, gelatin, hydroxyethyl starch) is recommended to recover normovolemia and to avoid fluid overload when crystalloids alone are not sufficient and blood products are not indicated. Monitoring should be extended in cases with major surgery, and autotransfusion maneuvers should be performed to assess fluid responsiveness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pan.13007DOI Listing
January 2017

[Control of hemodynamic and cerebral perfusion in children - which monitoring should be used?].

Authors:
Claudia Höhne

Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther 2016 Sep 15;51(9):536-9. Epub 2016 Sep 15.

Klinik und Poliklinik für Anästhesiologie und operative Intensivmedizin, Universitätsklinikum Leipzig.

Options for hemodynamic and cerebral perfusion monitoring in pediatric anesthesia are limited, but it should be used to reduce the potential damage due to hypotension and reduced cerebral perfusion. Non-invasive blood pressure measurement should be used in all cases of pediatric anesthesia and near-infrared spectroscopy for risk pediatric patients. In former times measurement of non-invasive blood pressure had no priority, this is not state of the art based on current data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0041-103632DOI Listing
September 2016

A retrospective evaluation of fistula formation in children undergoing hypospadias repair and caudal anesthesia.

Paediatr Anaesth 2016 Mar;26(3):329-30

Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/pan.12845DOI Listing
March 2016

The effect of intraoperative administration of dexamethasone for PONV prophylaxis on perioperative blood glucose level in obese and normal weight children.

J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab 2015 Nov;28(11-12):1287-92

Background: The incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) can be reduced by dexamethasone. Single-dose administration may cause elevated blood glucose levels in obese adults. No data are available for children.

Objective: The aim was to evaluate perioperative blood glucose changes related to body weight in children who received dexamethasone.

Patients And Methods: This prospective observational study included 62 children. All patients received total intravenous anesthesia and a single dose of dexamethasone (0.15 mg/kg, maximum 8 mg). Blood glucose levels were measured up to 6 h. Standard deviation scores (SDS) were calculated using age- and gender-specific body mass index (BMI) percentiles, p<0.05.

Results: A total of 62 children (11.5±2.9 years, median SDS 0.43, 29% overweight/obese) were included. Blood glucose levels increased from 5.52±0.52 to 6.74±0.84 mmol/L 6 h after dexamethasone without correlation to the BMI-SDS.

Conclusions: This study showed an increase of perioperative blood glucose (normoglycemic ranges) after single dose of dexamethasone, but no BMI-dependent effect was observed in children. Therefore, low-dose dexamethasone may be used in obese children for PONV prophylaxis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/jpem-2014-0529DOI Listing
November 2015

Postoperative nausea and vomiting in pediatric anesthesia.

Authors:
Claudia Höhne

Curr Opin Anaesthesiol 2014 Jun;27(3):303-8

Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.

Purpose Of Review: Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) has a high incidence in children and requires prophylactic and therapeutic strategies.

Recent Findings: PONV can be reduced by the avoidance of nitrous oxide, volatile anesthetics, and the reduction of postoperative opioids. The use of dexamethasone, 5-HT3 antagonists, or droperidol alone is potent, but combinations are even more effective to reduce PONV. Droperidol has a Food and Drug Administration warning. Hence, dexamethasone and 5-HT3 antagonists should be preferred as prophylactic drugs. It is further reasonable to adapt PONV prophylaxis to different risk levels. Prolonged surgery time, inpatients, types of surgery (e.g. strabismus and ear-nose-throat surgery), and patients with PONV in history should be treated as high risk, whereas short procedures and outpatients are to be treated as low risk.

Summary: Concluding from the existing guidelines and data on the handling of PONV in children at least 3 years, the following recommendations are given: outpatients undergoing small procedures should receive a single prophylaxis, outpatients at high risk a double prophylaxis, inpatients with surgery time of more than 30 min and use of postoperative opioids should get double prophylaxis, and inpatients receiving a high-risk surgical procedure or with other risk factors a triple prophylaxis (two drugs and total intravenous anesthesia). Dimenhydrinate can be used as a second choice, whereas droperidol and metoclopramide can only be recommended as rescue therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ACO.0000000000000073DOI Listing
June 2014

Pulmonary vasodilation by acetazolamide during hypoxia: impact of methyl-group substitutions and administration route in conscious, spontaneously breathing dogs.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2014 Apr 30;116(7):715-23. Epub 2014 Jan 30.

Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Campus Charité Mitte and Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charité-University Medicine, Berlin, Germany;

Acetazolamide (ACZ) prevents hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) in isolated lungs, animals, and humans, but not by carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibition. We studied administration routes in, and certain structural aspects of, ACZ critical to HPV inhibition. Analogs of ACZ during acute hypoxia were tested in unanesthetized dogs. Dogs breathed normoxic gas for 1 h (inspired O2 fraction = 0.21), followed by 10% O2 for 2 h (hypoxia) in these protocols: 1) controls; 2) ACZ intravenously (2 mg · kg(-1) · h(-1)); 3) ACZ orally (5 mg/kg, 12 and 1 h before the experiment); 4) inhaled ACZ (750 mg); 5) methazolamide (MTZ) intravenously (3 mg · kg(-1) · h(-1)); and 6) N-methyl-acetazolamide (NMA) intravenously (10 mg · kg(-1) · h(-1)). In controls, mean pulmonary arterial pressure (MPAP) increased 7 mmHg, and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) 224 dyn · s · cm(-5) with hypoxia (P < 0.05). With intravenous and inhaled ACZ, MPAP and PVR did not change during hypoxia. With oral ACZ, HPV was only slightly suppressed; MPAP increased 5 mmHg and PVR by 178 dyn · s · cm(-5) during hypoxia. With MTZ and NMA, the MPAP rise (4 ± 2 mmHg) was reduced, and PVR did not increase during hypoxia compared with normoxia (MTZ intravenous: 81 ± 77 and 68 ± 82 dyn · s · cm(-5) with NMA intravenous). Inhaled ACZ prevents HPV, but not without causing systemic CA inhibition. NMA, a compound lacking CA inhibiting effects by methylation at the sulfonamide moiety, and MTZ, a CA-inhibiting analog methylated at the thiadiazole ring, are only slightly less effective than ACZ in reducing HPV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.01235.2013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3972746PMC
April 2014

Endothelin receptor subtype A blockade does not affect the haemodynamic recovery from haemorrhage during xenon/remifentanil or isoflurane/remifentanil anaesthesia in dogs.

Vet Anaesth Analg 2010 May 11;37(3):258-68. Epub 2010 Mar 11.

Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin, Germany.

Objective: To test the compensatory role of endothelin-1 when acute blood loss is superimposed on anaesthesia, by characterizing the effect of systemic endothelin receptor subtype A (ET(A)) blockade on the haemodynamic and hormonal responses to haemorrhage in dogs anaesthetized with xenon/remifentanil (X/R) or isoflurane/remifentanil (I/R).

Study Design: Prospective experimental randomized controlled study.

Animals: Six female Beagle dogs, 13.4 +/- 1.3 kg.

Methods: Animals were anaesthetized with remifentanil 0.5 microg kg(-1) minute(-1) plus either 0.8% isoflurane (I/R) or 63% xenon (X/R), with and without (Control) the systemic intravenous endothelin receptor subtype A antagonist atrasentan (four groups, n = 6 each). After 60 minutes of baseline anaesthesia, the dogs were bled (20 mL kg(-1)) over 5 minutes and hypovolemia was maintained for 1 hour. Continuous haemodynamic monitoring was performed via femoral and pulmonary artery catheters; vasoactive hormones were measured before and after haemorrhage.

Results: In Controls, systemic vascular resistance (SVR), vasopressin and catecholamine plasma concentrations were higher with X/R than with I/R anaesthesia at pre-haemorrhage baseline. The peak increase after haemorrhage was higher during X/R than during I/R anaesthesia (SVR 7420 +/- 867 versus 5423 +/- 547 dyne seconds cm(-5); vasopressin 104 +/- 23 versus 44 +/- 6 pg mL(-1); epinephrine 2956 +/- 310 versus 177 +/- 99 pg mL(-1); norepinephrine 862 +/- 117 versus 195 +/- 33 pg mL(-1), p < 0.05). Haemorrhage reduced central venous pressure from 3 +/- 1 to 1 +/- 1 cm H(2)O (I/R, ns) and from 8 +/- 1 to 5 +/- 1 cm H(2)O (X/R, p < 0.05), but did not reduce mean arterial pressure, nor cardiac output. Atrasentan did not alter the haemodynamic and hormonal response to haemorrhage during either anaesthetic protocol.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: Selective ET(A) receptor blockade with atrasentan did not impair the haemodynamic and hormonal compensation of acute haemorrhage during X/R or I/R anaesthesia in dogs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-2995.2010.00530.xDOI Listing
May 2010

[Obesity in pediatric anesthesia].

Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther 2009 Sep 11;44(9):592-87; quiz 598. Epub 2009 Sep 11.

Klinik und Poliklinik für Anästhesiologie und Intensivtherapie des Universitätsklinikums Leipzig im Frauen-Kind-Zentrum als Oberärztin.

The incidence of overweight and obesity in children and adolescents who need an anesthesia is increasing. These children have a higher risk for perioperative complications. The review discusses definition and causes of obesity in children, gives information about relevant pathophysiological changes, and focuses anesthesiological management and complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0029-1241163DOI Listing
September 2009

[Intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome--basic knowledge and anesthesiological aspects].

Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther 2009 May 13;44(5):336-42; quiz 343. Epub 2009 May 13.

Uniklinikum Dresden.

The increase in intra-abdominal pressure may be followed by a renal, gut, respiratory and cardial dysfunction and an increase in intra-cranial pressure. The review focuses risk factors and pathophysiological consequences of intra-abdominal hypertension and of abdominal compartment syndrome. Patients with intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome are critical ill and need special anesthesiological care due to risk of pulmonary aspiration, hemodynamic disturbances and difficult mechanical ventilation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0029-1224779DOI Listing
May 2009

Detection of catecholamines and metanephrines by radio-immunoassay in canine plasma.

Vet J 2010 Feb 20;183(2):228-31. Epub 2008 Nov 20.

Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Augustenburger Platz 1, 13353 Berlin, Germany.

This study investigated the applicability of two human radio-immunoassays (RIA) to detect epinephrine (EPI), norepinephrine (NE), and their O-methylated metabolites metanephrine (MN) and normetanephrine (NMN) in canine plasma. The analysis yielded a positive correlation between metabolites and their respective parent compounds: EPI and MN (r=0.63), NE and NMN (r=0.47), as well as between parent compounds, EPI and NE (r=0.48), and between metabolites MN and NMN (r=0.71). Moreover, EPI (r=0.99) and NE (r=0.77) concentrations determined by RIA did correlate positively with high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). However, there was limited agreement between both methods. It was concluded that complete validation tests for accuracy, precision and agreement are needed before this RIA can be applied to quantify catecholamines, metanephrine, and normetanephrine in canine plasma. The assay may prove to be a potential alternative to HPLC or tandem mass spectrometry in the work-up of pheochromocytoma and the detection of overall sympathetic activity in dogs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2008.10.008DOI Listing
February 2010

The haemodynamic and catecholamine response to xenon/remifentanil anaesthesia in Beagle dogs.

Lab Anim 2008 Jul;42(3):338-49

Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum and Campus Charité Mitte, Augustenburger Platz 1, Berlin, Germany.

The noble gas xenon seems to have minimal cardiovascular side-effects and so may be an ideal anaesthetic agent when investigating cardiovascular physiology. In comparison with standard modern anaesthetics, we investigated the haemodynamic and hormonal effects of xenon in Beagle dogs. After a 30 min baseline period, anaesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with either (1) 1.2% isoflurane/70% nitrous oxide (N(2)O), (2) 0.8% isoflurane/0.5 microg/kg/min remifentanil or (3) 63% xenon/0.5 microg/kg/min remifentanil (n = 6 per group). Haemodynamics were recorded and blood samples taken before and 60 min after induction. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was higher in conscious dogs than during isoflurane/N(2)O (86 +/- 2 vs. 65 +/- 2 mmHg, mean +/- SEM) and isoflurane/remifentanil anaesthesia (95 +/- 2 vs. 67 +/- 3 mmHg), whereas MAP did not decrease significantly in response to xenon/remifentanil anaesthesia (96 +/- 4 vs. 85 +/- 6 mmHg). Bradycardia was present during isoflurane/remifentanil (54 +/- 2/min) and xenon/remifentanil (40 +/- 3/min), but not during isoflurane/N(2)O anaesthesia (98 +/- 3/min, P < 0.05). Xenon/remifentanil anaesthesia induced the highest reduction in cardiac output (CO) (-61%), and the highest increase in systemic vascular resistance (+120%) among all treatment groups (P < 0.05). A simultaneous increase in endogenous adrenaline and noradrenaline concentrations could only be observed in the xenon/remifentanil group, whereas angiotensin II and vasopressin concentrations increased in all groups. In conclusion, xenon/remifentanil anaesthesia maintains MAP but reduces heart rate and CO and is associated with a considerable stimulation of vasopressor hormones in Beagle dogs. Therefore, xenon/remifentanil exerts a new quality of adverse haemodynamic effects different from volatile anaesthetics and may not perform better during studies of cardiovascular physiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1258/la.2007.007048DOI Listing
July 2008

ETA-receptor blockade impairs vasoconstriction after hemorrhage in xenon-anesthetized dogs treated with an AT1-receptor antagonist.

Can J Physiol Pharmacol 2008 Jun;86(6):373-9

Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, University Hospital Leipzig, Liebigstrasse 20, Leipzig D-04103, Germany.

Unlabelled: The effects of endothelin receptor subtype A (ETA) blockade on hemodynamics and hormonal adaptation during hemorrhage were studied in xenon/remifentanil-anesthetized dogs (n=6) pretreated with an angiotensin II type 1 (AT1)-receptor blocker.

Controls: after a baseline awake period, anesthesia was induced in the dogs with propofol and maintained with xenon/remifentanil (baseline anesthesia). Sixty minutes later, 20 mL x kg(-1) of blood was withdrawn within 5 min and the dogs observed for another hour (hemorrhage). AT1 group followed the same protocol as controls except the AT1-receptor blocker losartan (i.v. 100 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) was started at the beginning of the experiment. AT1+ETA group was the same as AT1 group but with the addition of the ETA-receptor blocker atrasentan (i.v. 1 mg x kg(-1), then 0.01 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1)). In controls, mean arterial pressure (MAP) remained unchanged during baseline anesthesia, whereas systemic vascular resistance (SVR) increased from 3282+/-281 to 7321+/-803 dyn.s.cm-5, heart rate (HR) decreased from 86+/-4 to 40+/-3 beats x min(-1), and cardiac output (CO) decreased from 2.3+/-0.2 to 0.9+/-0.1 L x min(-1) (p<0.05), with no further changes after hemorrhage. In AT1-inhibited dogs, MAP (71+/-6 mm Hg) and SVR (5939+/-611 dyn x s x cm(-5)) were lower during baseline anesthesia and after hemorrhage, but greater than those in AT1+ETA (66+/-7 mm Hg, 5034+/-658 dyn x s x cm(-5)) (p<0.05). HR and CO were not different between groups. Plasma concentration of vasopressin was highest with AT1+ETA inhibition after hemorrhage. Combined AT1+ETA-receptor blockade impaired vasoconstriction more than did AT1-receptor blockade alone, both during baseline xenon anesthesia and after hemorrhage. Even a large increase in vasoconstrictor hormones could not prevent the decrease in blood pressure and the smaller increase in SVR. Thus, endothelin is an important vasoconstrictor during hemorrhage, and both endothelin and angiotensin II are essential hormones for cardiovascular stabilization after hemorrhage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/Y08-038DOI Listing
June 2008

Anesthesia in an infant with a CINCA syndrome.

Paediatr Anaesth 2008 Jun 28;18(6):575-7. Epub 2008 Feb 28.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-9592.2008.02504.xDOI Listing
June 2008

[Pediatric resuscitation. Current guidelines and treatment recommendations].

Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther 2008 Jan;43(1):8-17; quiz 18

Klinik für Anästhesiologie undoperative Intensivmedizin der Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin.

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation of a child is a rare, emotionally affective, challenging and potentially frightful event. Current guidelines have been largely simplified to facilitate teaching and retention, to encourage bystander resuscitation, and to improve the quality of resuscitation by healthcare professionals. This article is a practical approach to the current european guidelines (ERC), including basic and advanced life support algorithms, as well as recommendations on the post-resuscitation periode and parental presence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2008-1038086DOI Listing
January 2008

Evaluation of [18F]fluoro-L-DOPA positron emission tomography-computed tomography for surgery in focal congenital hyperinsulinism.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2008 Mar 11;93(3):869-75. Epub 2007 Dec 11.

Clinic for Pediatric Surgery, Institute for Pathology, Charité University Medicine Berlin, Campus Virchow Klinikum, Augustenburger Platz 1, Mittelallee 8, D-13353 Berlin, Germany.

Context: In congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI), the identification and precise localization of a focal lesion is essential for successful surgery.

Objective: Our objective was to evaluate the predictive value and accuracy of integrated [18F]fluoro-L-DOPA ([18F]FDOPA) positron emission tomography (PET)-computed tomography (CT) for the surgical therapy of CHI.

Design: This was an observational study.

Setting: The study was performed in the Department of Pediatric Surgery at a university hospital.

Patients: From February 2005 to September 2007, 10 children with the clinical signs of CHI and an increased radiotracer uptake in a circumscribed area of the pancreas in the [18F]FDOPA PET-CT were evaluated.

Interventions: Guided by the [18F]FDOPA PET-CT report, all children underwent partial pancreatic resection, in two cases twice.

Main Outcome Measures: Correlation of the anatomical findings at surgery with the report of the [18F]FDOPA PET-CT, and the results of surgery and clinical outcome were determined.

Results: In nine children the intraoperative situation corresponded exactly to the description of the [18F]FDOPA PET-CT. A limited resection of the pancreas was curative in eight cases at the first surgery, in one case at the second intervention. We observed no diabetes mellitus or exocrine insufficiency in the follow up so far. In one child, hypoglycemia persisted even after two partial resections of the pancreatic head. Histological analysis finally revealed an atypical intermediate form of CHI.

Conclusions: The integrated [18F]FDOPA PET-CT is accurate to localize the lesion in focal CHI and is a valuable tool to guide the surgeon in limited pancreatic resection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2007-2036DOI Listing
March 2008

[Regional anesthesia in preterm, newborns and small infants].

Authors:
Claudia Höhne

Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther 2007 Sep;42(9):616-22

Klinik und Poliklinik für Anästhesiologie und Intensivtherapie des Universitätsklinikums Leipzig im Mutter-Kind-Zentrum, Germany.

Regional anesthesia has many advantages as intraoperative and more important as postoperative analgesia in pediatric anesthesia. There are special requirements for a sufficient acute pain management in preterms, newborns and small infants. This review focuses these special features regarding to local anesthetics and supplements, caudal and spinal anesthesia, and peripheral blockades.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-990210DOI Listing
September 2007

[Small patients, big challenges].

Anasthesiol Intensivmed Notfallmed Schmerzther 2007 Sep;42(9):614-5

Klinik und Poliklinik für Anästhesiologie und Intensivtherapie des Universitätsklinikums Leipzig im Mutter-Kind-Zentrum, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-990209DOI Listing
September 2007

Pulmonary vasodilation by acetazolamide during hypoxia is unrelated to carbonic anhydrase inhibition.

Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 2007 Jan 25;292(1):L178-84. Epub 2006 Aug 25.

Klinik für Anaesthesiologie und operative Intensivmedizin, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum und Campus Mitte, Augustenburger Platz 1, D-13353 Berlin, Germany.

Acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction can be inhibited by high doses of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide. This study aimed to determine whether acetazolamide is effective at dosing relevant to human use at high altitude and to investigate whether its efficacy against hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction is dependent on carbonic anhydrase inhibition by testing other potent heterocyclic sulfonamide carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Six conscious dogs were studied in five protocols: 1) controls, 2) low-dose intravenous acetazolamide (2 mg.kg(-1).h(-1)), 3) oral acetazolamide (5 mg/kg), 4) benzolamide, a membrane-impermeant inhibitor, and 5) ethoxzolamide, a membrane-permeant inhibitor. In all protocols, unanesthetized dogs breathed spontaneously during the first hour (normoxia) and then breathed 9-10% O(2) for the next 2 h. Arterial oxygen tension ranged between 35 and 39 mmHg during hypoxia in all protocols. In controls, mean pulmonary artery pressure increased by 8 mmHg and pulmonary vascular resistance by 200 dyn.s.cm(-5) (P <0.05). With intravenous acetazolamide, mean pulmonary artery pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance remained unchanged during hypoxia. With oral acetazolamide, mean pulmonary artery pressure increased by 5 mmHg (P < 0.05), but pulmonary vascular resistance did not change during hypoxia. With benzolamide and ethoxzolamide, mean pulmonary artery pressure increased by 6-7 mmHg and pulmonary vascular resistance by 150-200 dyn.s.cm(-5) during hypoxia (P < 0.05). Low-dose acetazolamide is effective against acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in vivo. The lack of effect with two other potent carbonic anhydrase inhibitors suggests that carbonic anhydrase is not involved in the mediation of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and that acetazolamide acts on a different receptor or channel.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajplung.00205.2006DOI Listing
January 2007

Endothelin-a receptor blockade does not debilitate the cardiovascular and hormonal adaptation to xenon or isoflurane anesthesia in dogs.

Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2006 Jun;231(6):834-9

Department of Anesthesiology and Surgical Intensive Care Medicine, Experimental Anesthesia, Charité--Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Germany.

The objective of this study was to investigate whether circulatory and hormonal changes during xenon plus remifentanil or isoflurane plus remifentanil anesthesia are altered by endothelin-A (ET(A)) receptor blockade. Eight beagle dogs were studied in four protocols (n = 7 each). After a 30-min awake period, anesthesia was induced with 8 mg/kg propofol, administered intravenously (iv), and maintained with either 0.8% +/- 0.01% (vol/vol) isoflurane plus 0.5 microg/kg/min remifentanil (Protocol 1) or 63% +/- 1% (vol/vol) xenon plus 0.5 microg/kg/min remifentanil (Protocol 2) for 1 hr. Protocols 3 and 4 were preceded by ET(A) blockade with ABT-627 (Atrasentan; iv bolus of 1 mg/kg, then 100 microg/kg/h continuously). Irrespective of Atrasentan administration, the mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) ranged between 92 and 96 mm Hg in the awake state and fell to 67 +/- 3 mm Hg in controls (mean +/- SEM) and to 64 +/- 2 mm Hg in the Atrasentan group during isoflurane plus remifentanil anesthesia, whereas MAP remained constant during xenon plus remifentanil anesthesia. A decrease in heart rate was observed during either kind of anesthesia, but bradycardia was most prominent during xenon plus remifentanil anesthesia. In the control groups, and in the Atrasentan-treated dogs, a decrease in cardiac output and an increase in systemic vascular resistance were more prominent during xenon plus remifentanil than during isoflurane plus remifentanil anesthesia. Hormonal alterations during anesthesia remained unaffected by ET(A) receptor blockade. Angiotensin II and vasopressin increased in all protocols, and adrenaline and noradrenaline concentrations rose only during xenon plus remifentanil anesthesia. We conclude that the hemodynamic and hormonal adaptation after xenon plus remifentanil and isoflurane plus remifentanil anesthesia does not depend on the endothelin system, because it is unaffected by ET(A) receptor inhibition. Therefore, the use of Atrasentan does not impair cardiovascular stability during xenon- or isoflurane-based anesthesia in our dog model. However, the way anesthesia is performed is of crucial importance for hemodynamic and hormonal reactions observed during research in animals because the release of vasopressin and catecholamines may be intensified by xenon plus remifentanil anesthesia.
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June 2006

Ultrasound-guided central venous cannulation in a very small preterm neonate.

Paediatr Anaesth 2005 Apr;15(4):325-7

Klinik für Anästhesiologie und operative Intensivmedizin, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Berlin, Germany.

Percutaneous central venous cannulation of small infants is a challenging procedure. The use of ultrasound guidance has been shown to increase the success rate generally in children and to decrease the incidence of associated complications. To demonstrate that this technique is also suitable in very small infants we describe the case of a preterm neonate of 850 g body weight (BW), in which percutaneous central venous cannulation was performed successfully using ultrasound imaging for guidance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-9592.2005.01432.xDOI Listing
April 2005

Acetazolamide prevents hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in conscious dogs.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2004 Aug;97(2):515-21

Experimentelle Anaesthesie, Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Augustenburger Platz 1, D-13353 Berlin, Germany.

Acute hypoxia increases pulmonary arterial pressure and vascular resistance. Previous studies in isolated smooth muscle and perfused lungs have shown that carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibition reduces the speed and magnitude of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV). We studied whether CA inhibition by acetazolamide (Acz) is able to prevent HPV in the unanesthetized animal. Ten chronically tracheotomized, conscious dogs were investigated in three protocols. In all protocols, the dogs breathed 21% O(2) for the first hour and then 8 or 10% O(2) for the next 4 h spontaneously via a ventilator circuit. The protocols were as follows: protocol 1: controls given no Acz, inspired O(2) fraction (Fi(O(2))) = 0.10; protocol 2: Acz infused intravenously (250-mg bolus, followed by 167 microg.kg(-1).min(-1) continuously), Fi(O(2)) = 0.10; protocol 3: Acz given as above, but with Fi(O(2)) reduced to 0.08 to match the arterial Po(2) (Pa(O(2))) observed during hypoxia in controls. Pa(O(2)) was 37 Torr during hypoxia in controls, mean pulmonary arterial pressure increased from 17 +/- 1 to 23 +/- 1 mmHg, and pulmonary vascular resistance increased from 464 +/- 26 to 679 +/- 40 dyn.s(-1).cm(-5) (P < 0.05). In both Acz groups, mean pulmonary arterial pressure was 15 +/- 1 mmHg, and pulmonary vascular resistance ranged between 420 and 440 dyn.s(-1).cm(-5). These values did not change during hypoxia. In dogs given Acz at 10% O(2), the arterial Pa(O(2)) was 50 Torr owing to hyperventilation, whereas in those breathing 8% O(2) the Pa(O(2)) was 37 Torr, equivalent to controls. In conclusion, Acz prevents HPV in conscious spontaneously breathing dogs. The effect is not due to Acz-induced hyperventilation and higher alveolar Po(2), nor to changes in plasma endothelin-1, angiotensin-II, or potassium, and HPV suppression occurs despite the systemic acidosis with CA inhibition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.01217.2003DOI Listing
August 2004

Hemorrhage during isoflurane-nitrous oxide anesthesia: effects of endothelin-A or angiotensin II receptor blockade or both.

Anesthesiology 2004 Apr;100(4):885-93

Clinic of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charité, Humboldt-University of Berlin, Germany.

Background: The objective of this study was to determine whether endothelin-A receptor blockade (ETAB) impairs hemodynamic and hormonal regulation compared with controls and angiotensin II receptor blockade (AT1B) during hypotensive hemorrhage in dogs under isoflurane-nitrous oxide anesthesia.

Methods: Six dogs were studied in four protocols: (1) control experiments (controls); (2) ETA blockade using ABT-627 (ETAB); (3) AT1 blockade using losartan (AT1B); and (4) combined AT1B and ETAB (AT1B + ETAB). After a 30-min awake period, isoflurane-nitrous oxide anesthesia was established (1.3 minimum anesthetic concentration). After 60 min of anesthesia, 20 ml blood/kg body weight was withdrawn within 5 min, and the dogs were observed for another hour. Thereafter, the blood was retransfused, and the dogs were observed for a final hour.

Results: Anesthesia: Cardiac output decreased in all protocols, whereas mean arterial pressure decreased more in AT1B and AT1B + ETAB than in controls and ETAB. Hemorrhage: After 60 min, cardiac output had decreased less in controls than in all other protocols. Mean arterial pressure decreased more during ETAB than in controls, but most severely during AT1B and AT1B + ETAB. Angiotensin II increased further only in controls and ETAB, whereas vasopressin and catecholamines increased similarly in all protocols. Retransfusion: Mean arterial pressure remained below controls in all protocols but was lowest when the AT1 receptor was blocked. Cardiac output fully recovered in all but the ETAB protocol.

Conclusions: ETAB impairs long-term hemodynamic regulation after hemorrhage and retransfusion during anesthesia despite an activation of vasoconstrictive hormones. This suggests that endothelins have a role in long-term cardiovascular regulation. AT1B impairs both short- and long-term blood pressure regulation during anesthesia and after hemorrhage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00000542-200404000-00019DOI Listing
April 2004

Haemodynamic and hormonal changes during haemorrhage in conscious dogs treated with an endothelin-A receptor antagonist.

Clin Sci (Lond) 2002 Aug;103 Suppl 48:336S-339S

Experimental Anaesthesia, Clinic of Anaesthesiology and Surgical Intensive Care Medicine, Campus Virchow-Klinikum, Charité, Augustenburger Platz 1, D-13353 Berlin, Germany.

This study compares the haemodynamic and hormonal responses during haemorrhage of conscious dogs pre-treated with an endothelin-A (ET-A) receptor inhibitor. The dogs were studied in two different randomized groups: the control group and a group that was given the ET-A receptor antagonist ABT-627 (as a bolus of 1 mg x kg of body weight(-1) followed by 0.01 mg x kg body weight(-1) x min(-1) intravenously). The time-course was the same for both groups: after a 1 h baseline period (pre-haemorrhage), blood (25 ml x kg of body weight(-1)) was withdrawn within 5 min. Haemodynamics were continuously recorded and hormone levels measured after 1 h (post-haemorrhage). Thereafter, the blood withdrawn was retransfused within 5 min and haemodynamics again observed for 1 h (post-retransfusion). In ABT-627-treated dogs, the decrease in mean arterial pressure from 87+/-3 to 64+/-3 mmHg (P<0.05 versus pre-haemorrhage), and cardiac output from 2.1+/-0.1 to 1.3+/-0.1 l x min(-1) (P<0.05 versus pre-haemorrhage) and the increase in systemic vascular resistance from 3286+/-174 to 4211+/-230 dyn.s.cm(-5) (P<0.05 versus pre-haemorrhage) during acute haemorrhage are comparable with controls. During haemorrhage in controls, vasopressin levels increased from 0+/-0 to 13+/-2 pg x ml(-1) (P<0.05 versus pre-haemorrhage), angiotensin II levels increased from 9+/-1 to 28+/-9 pg x ml(-1) (P<0.05 versus pre-haemorrhage) and adrenaline levels increased from 134+/-22 to 426+/-74 pg x ml(-1) (P<0.05 versus pre-haemorrhage) whereas noradrenaline levels did not change (approx. 200 pg x ml(-1)). In ABT-627-treated dogs, vasopressin levels increased from 0.2+/-0.0 to 22.2+/-6.1 pg x ml(-1) (P<0.05 versus pre-haemorrhage and P<0.05 versus control), angiotensin II levels increased from 8+/-1 to 37+/-8 pg x ml(-1) (P<0.05 versus pre-haemorrhage), noradrenaline levels increased from 147+/-16 to 405+/-116 pg x ml(-1) (P<0.05 versus pre-haemorrhage) and adrenaline levels did not change (200 pg x ml(-1)) during haemorrhage. We conclude from our results that dogs receiving the selective ET-A inhibitor ABT-627 seem to show a different hormonal response after haemorrhage compared with controls, displaying considerably higher noradrenaline concentrations. Independent of ET-A receptor inhibition, cardiac output during haemorrhage was maintained within the control range. This may indicate that the organism is defending blood flow (cardiac output) over blood pressure during haemorrhage, and that this defence strategy is not compromised by ET-A receptor inhibition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/CS103S336SDOI Listing
August 2002