Publications by authors named "Claudia Giliberti"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

How direct measurements on worker eyes with Scheimpflug camera can affect lens dose conversion coefficients in interventional radiology.

J Radiol Prot 2021 Apr 7. Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Industrial Engineering - Montecuccolino Laboratory, University of Bologna, Via dei Colli 16, 40136 Bologna, Italy, Bologna, BO, 40136, ITALY.

The Directive 2013/59/Euratom established a reduction of the occupational exposure limits to the lens. Since it is become crucial to estimate the lens absorbed dose, the individual variability of exposed worker's ocular conformations with respect to the data estimated with their personal dosimetry has been studied. The anterior eye conformation of 45 exposed workers was acquired with Scheimpflug imaging and classified according to eye vision conditions (emmetropia, myopia or hypermetropia). Three eye models were computed, with two lens reconstructions, and implemented in an interventional radiology scenario by using Monte Carlo (MC) code. The models were dosimetrically analysed simulating setup A, a theoretical monoenergetic and isotropic photon's source (10-150 keV) and setup B, a more realistic interventional conditions with an angiographic X-ray unit (50, 75, 100 kV-peak). Scheimpflug imaging provided an average anterior chamber depth of (6.4 ± 0.5) mm and a lens depth of (3.9 ± 0.3) mm, together with a reconstructed equatorial lens length of (7.1 - 10.1) mm. Using this data for model's reconstruction, the dose conversion coefficients (DCs) for all ocular structures were simulated. Regardless of the eye model used, DCs show a similar trend with radiation energy which highlights, for the same energy and setup used, no significant dependence on ocular morphology and worker's visual conditions. The maximum difference obtained does not exceed 1% for all eye models or structures analysed. Therefore, the individual variabilities of worker ocular anatomy do not require any additional correction compared to the personal dosimetry data measured with a dedicated lens dosimeter. To estimate the absorbed dose to the other eye structures, it is essential instead to know the spectrum of the source that has generated the irradiation since there are differences considering monoenergetic sources or more realistic angiographic units.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6498/abf56fDOI Listing
April 2021

DNA damage in lens epithelial cells exposed to occupationally-relevant X-ray doses and role in cataract formation.

Sci Rep 2020 12 10;10(1):21693. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Department of Medical Physics, St. Orsola-Malpighi University Hospital, Bologna, Italy.

The current framework of radiological protection of occupational exposed medical workers reduced the eye-lens equivalent dose limit from 150 to 20 mSv per year requiring an accurate dosimetric evaluation and an increase understanding of radiation induced effects on Lens cells considering the typical scenario of occupational exposed medical operators. Indeed, it is widely accepted that genomic damage of Lens epithelial cells (LEC) is a key mechanism of cataractogenesis. However, the relationship between apoptosis and cataractogenesis is still controversial. In this study biological and physical data are combined to improve the understanding of radiation induced effects on LEC. To characterize the occupational exposure of medical workers during angiographic procedures an INNOVA 4100 (General Electric Healthcare) equipment was used (scenario A). Additional experiments were conducted using a research tube (scenario B). For both scenarios, the frequencies of binucleated cells, micronuclei, p21-positive cells were assessed with different doses and dose rates. A Monte-Carlo study was conducted using a model for the photon generation with the X-ray tubes and with the Petri dishes considering the two different scenarios (A and B) to reproduce the experimental conditions and validate the irradiation setups to the cells. The simulation results have been tallied using the Monte Carlo code MCNP6. The spectral characteristics of the different X-ray beams have been estimated. All irradiated samples showed frequencies of micronuclei and p21-positive cells higher than the unirradiated controls. Differences in frequencies increased with the delivered dose measured with Gafchromic films XR-RV3. The spectrum incident on eye lens and Petri, as estimated with MCNP6, was in good agreement in the scenario A (confirming the experimental setup), while the mean energy spectrum was higher in the scenario B. Nevertheless, the response of LEC seemed mainly related to the measured absorbed dose. No effects on viability were detected. Our results support the hypothesis that apoptosis is not responsible for cataract induced by low doses of X-ray (i.e. 25 mGy) while the induction of transient p21 may interfere with the disassembly of the nuclear envelop in differentiating LEC, leading to cataract formation. Further studies are needed to better clarify the relationship we suggested between DNA damage, transient p21 induction and the inability of LEC enucleation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-78383-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7728785PMC
December 2020

Non-vehicle commuting in Italy: need for ergonomic action for women's lower limbs?

Appl Ergon 2020 Feb 4;83:102982. Epub 2019 Nov 4.

INAIL, National Institute for Insurance Against Accidents at Work, Via Roberto Ferruzzi 38-40, 00143, Rome, Italy.

Introduction: The aim of this paper is to examine gender differences in the occurrence of accidents among workers while walking to or from their workplace (non-vehicle commuting accidents). We have previously found that the lower limb is more often injured at work among women, compared to men, so the paper concentrates on lower limb injuries.

Methods: Using the records of the National Institute for Insurance against Injuries at Work (INAIL), we focused on the non-vehicle commuting accidents of women and men recognized as work-related for the period 2013-2017. In particular, we examined the gender difference by work sector and type of trauma suffered with particular attention to lower limb injuries.

Results: The rate of non-vehicle commuting accidents (n. 60,936) among women was significantly higher than for men (1.29‰ vs 0.40‰ men, p < 0.001) for the period studied. Lower limb injuries (50.5% for women and 43.7% for men, p < 0.001) constituted the large majority of these injuries. In particular, dislocation of the ankle (78% for women vs 65.5% for men, p < 0.001), bruise of the knee (71.2% for women vs 54.9% for men, p < 0.001) and fracture of the foot (41% for women vs 33.6% for men, p < 0.001) were all significantly higher among women. The work sectors with higher injury rates were: Transport and Warehouse, Public Administration, Health and care services and Wholesale and retail trade. This result may be due to wear and tear from conditions at work. The women injured were on the average, a decade older than men (50-59 vs 40-49 years old).

Conclusions: Non-vehicle commuting represents an important, albeight neglected, preventable risk for women workers, causing lower limb trauma particularly at the ankle, the foot and the knee. These areas may be particularly injure-prone among women in specific sectors, due to the work environment. Effective prevention of these injuries requires gender-oriented ergonomic actions at work and in the commuting environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apergo.2019.102982DOI Listing
February 2020

In vitro effects of 1-MHz ultrasound on the mitotic spindle.

Environ Mol Mutagen 2019 08 3;60(7):568-575. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Dipartimento di Scienze, Università Roma Tre, Rome, Italy.

The effects of ultrasound on the cytoskeleton, comprising microtubules, had been studied decades ago. Nonetheless, very little attention has been paid to the effects of ultrasound on the mitotic spindle, which is also formed by microtubules. In this study, we treated human fibroblasts and human cancer cells (HeLa and MCF-7) with 1-MHz ultrasound at low intensities (70, 140, and 300 mW/cm ). In all cell lines, 5 min after the end of sonication, we found an intensity-dependent increase of mitotic abnormalities (including multipolar spindles). Two hours after sonication, these abnormalities were present, but at much lower frequencies. Twenty-four hours after sonication, mitotic abnormalities were at the same level of untreated samples, suggesting a transient effect due to ultrasound. Beside abnormalities of the mitotic spindle, we also observed an increase of metaphases with nonaligned chromosomes. The mitotic index of fibroblasts and HeLa cells, two hours after sonication, showed an intensity-dependent decrease; this was not observed in MCF-7 cells. In agreement with this last result, ultrasound-induced growth inhibition (which was also intensity-dependent) was more marked in fibroblasts and HeLa cells compared to MCF-7 cells. This work indicates that therapeutic ultrasound, even at intensities below the cavitation threshold, can affect genome integrity, showing the need to increase the knowledge of the potential risks of ultrasound to human health. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 2019. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/em.22287DOI Listing
August 2019

Very low intensity ultrasounds as a new strategy to improve selective delivery of nanoparticles-complexes in cancer cells.

J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2019 Jan 3;38(1). Epub 2019 Jan 3.

Laboratory of Medical Physics and Expert Systems, IRCCS - Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome, Italy.

Background: The possibility to combine Low Intensity UltraSound (LIUS) and Nanoparticles (NP) could represent a promising strategy for drugs delivery in tumors difficult to treat overcoming resistance to therapies. On one side the NP can carry drugs that specifically target the tumors on the other the LIUS can facilitate and direct the delivery to the tumor cells. In this study, we investigated whether Very Low Intensity UltraSound (VLIUS), at intensities lower than 120 mW/cm, might constitute a novel strategy to improve delivery to tumor cells. Thus, in order to verify the efficacy of this novel modality in terms of increase selective uptake in tumoral cells and translate speedily in clinical practice, we investigated VLIUS in three different in vitro experimental tumor models and normal cells adopting three different therapeutic strategies.

Methods: VLIUS at different intensities and exposure time were applied to tumor and normal cells to evaluate the efficiency in uptake of labeled human ferritin (HFt)-based NP, the delivery of NP complexed Firefly luciferase reported gene (lipoplex-LUC), and the tumor-killing of chemotherapeutic agent.

Results: Specifically, we found that specific VLIUS intensity (120 mW/cm) increases tumor cell uptake of HFt-based NPs at specific concentration (0.5 mg/ml). Similarly, VLIUS treatments increase significantly tumor cells delivery of lipoplex-LUC cargos. Furthermore, of interest, VLIUS increases tumor killing of chemotherapy drug trabectedin in a time dependent fashion. Noteworthy, VLIUS treatments are well tolerated in normal cells with not significant effects on cell survival, NPs delivery and drug-induced toxicity, suggesting a tumor specific fashion.

Conclusions: Our data shed novel lights on the potential application of VLIUS for the design and development of novel therapeutic strategies aiming to efficiently deliver NP loaded cargos or anticancer drugs into more aggressive and unresponsive tumors niche.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13046-018-1018-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6318873PMC
January 2019

Genomic damage induced by 1-MHz ultrasound in vitro.

Environ Mol Mutagen 2018 01 19;59(1):60-68. Epub 2017 Aug 19.

Dipartimento di Scienze, Universita Roma Tre, Rome, Italy.

Genotoxic effects of therapeutic ultrasound are poorly documented, when compared with the wide use of this physical agent. The aim of this work was to investigate the clastogenic and aneugenic potential of 1 MHz ultrasound, employing intensities (200 and 300 mW/cm ) above the cavitational threshold, but in the range of those normally used in therapeutics. Both normal fibroblasts (AG01522) and tumoral cells (MCF-7) were sonicated. While no effects on viability were noted, significant increases of CREST-negative micronuclei (indicative of clastogenesis) and CREST-positive micronuclei (indicative of aneuploidy) were detected. Clastogenesis was confirmed by increases of γ-H2AX foci, while increases of spindle anomalies confirmed the induction of aneuploidy. Our results confirm previous works that showed ultrasound-induced DNA breakage. Moreover, our experiments show that the known effect of ultrasound-induced damage to microtubules is also able to damage the mitotic spindle and induce aneuploidy. On the overall, this work highlights the importance to further investigate the potential risks related to therapeutics US. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 59:60-68, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/em.22124DOI Listing
January 2018

Gender differences and commuting accidents in Italy: INAIL Data Base analysis on fatalities (2009-2013).

Med Lav 2016 12 13;107(6):462-472. Epub 2016 Dec 13.

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Background: Commuting accidents represent the leading cause of work-related fatalities among women in Italy. For working women, the journey from home to work is the most dangerous part of the day.

Objectives: Analysis of data on fatal commuting accidents in order to identify risk factors among women.

Methods: INAIL Statistical Data (2009-2013) related to fatal commuting were analyzed by gender, age, immigration, activities, geographical area, working time, month and day of the week.

Results: Italian and immigrant women die mainly from commuting accidents (207 cases out of 371; 56%), a significant number of immigrant women also die in commuting accidents involving no vehicles (4%); Italian and immigrant men die mainly from causes related to the work environment (48%), especially immigrants (54%), and not from commuting accidents (921 out of 3997; 23%). Prevalent age at commuting fatality is 35-49 years, and among immigrant women 18-34. Deaths among women occur mostly in Northeast Italy, and among women working in health and social services; among immigrant women accommodation and catering services are also relevant. The highest number of fatal accidents among men occurs in Northwest Italy, among men working in wholesale trade. All fatalities take place mainly going to work, between 5-10 a.m., among women from October to December, among men from July to September, among Italian women are significantly higher on Saturday, among immigrant women on Sunday. Deaths among men are significantly higher in the eighth hour of work, between 3- 8 p.m. and on Monday among Italian workers, on Wednesday among immigrant men.

Conclusions: Commuting fatalities among women, according to INAIL Statistical Data, show specific risk conditions by age, immigration, work activity, geographical area, working time, month and day of the week that require targeted preventive policies.
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December 2016

[Health issues and regulatory aspects of the use of ultrasound in physiotherapy].

G Ital Med Lav Ergon 2015 Apr-Jun;37(2):101-6

The use of ultrasounds in medicine requires, like all physical agents potentially harmful to human health, an accurate assessment of the risks to the health of patients. The nature and extent of these risks depend on exposure levels which in turn are differentiated according to the specific diagnostic or therapeutic applications. Intermediate exposure levels are associated to physiotherapic applications. To analyze specific issues relating to the effectiveness and safety of physiotherapic treatments, a review of the scientific literature and technical standards was carried out. At present, the actual effectiveness of ultrasound physiotherapy is still far from being clearly assessed: further clinical and experimental studies are needed in order to optimize therapies, determining the benefits and risks of treatments and deepening the understanding of the action mechanisms of the physical agent, even on the basis of a better characterization of those physical quantities mostly significant for biological effects. The examination of technical standards defining the security requirements of the equipment allowed the identification of some critical issues; on these bases some proposals are suggested for the improvement of quality and safety of treatments.
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September 2015

Potential third-party radiation exposure from patients undergoing therapy with 131I for thyroid cancer or metastases.

Health Phys 2015 Mar;108(3):319-25

*Laboratory of Medical Physics and Expert Systems, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome, Italy; †INAIL, Rome, Italy; ‡Service of Medical Physics, Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei Tumori, Meldola, Italy.

The purpose of this work is to evaluate the potential third-party radiation exposure from patients undergoing therapy with 131I for ablation of residual thyroid tumor or metastases, based in part on serial measurements of exposure rates. Exposure rate measurements were performed at 1 m and 5 cm from the surface of each treated patient until patient release. Dose estimates based on measured exposure rates were compared with those based on analytic point-source (PSM) and line-source (LSM) models. Effective doses D(∞) to travelers, co-workers and sleeping partners were estimated by using the standard gamma factor (Γ) and the physical half-life or the values derived from measured data. Seven hundred ten patients were studied until the exposure at 1 m was below the constraints of 0.010 mSv. The 131I activities administered ranged from 1.85 to 11.0 GBq (median: 3.7 GBq), according to the therapeutic requirements. Based on the PSM and an experimental Γ, the mean/maximum estimated D(∞) to sleeping partners, partners, travelers, and co-workers were 2.60/20.65, 0.32/2.53, 0.96/7.59, and 0.57/4.50 mSv, respectively. Using the LSM and an experimental Γ, the D(∞) values were 2.41/19.15, 0.32/2.50, 0.83/6.62, and 0.57/4.42 mSv, respectively, while they were almost double using the theoretical Γ. The results presented, based on measured data in a large cohort of 131I-treated thyroid cancer patients, will allow more accurate estimation of potential third-party D(∞) following patient release and thus may be used to better inform physicians and hospital staff on recommendations for patient release and post-release precautions following radioiodine therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HP.0000000000000210DOI Listing
March 2015

Potential genotoxic effects of low-intensity ultrasound on fibroblasts, evaluated with the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay.

Mutat Res Genet Toxicol Environ Mutagen 2014 Sep 25;772:20-4. Epub 2014 Jul 25.

Sapienza University, Physics Department, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

Although medical ultrasound offers compelling opportunities to improve therapy in principle, progress in the field has been limited because of an insufficient understanding of the potential genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of ultrasound on biological systems. This paper is mainly focused on an in vitro study of effects with respect to genotoxicity and viability induced by 1- and 3-MHz medical ultrasound in murine fibroblasts (NIH-3T3) at low-intensity exposure (spatial peak temporal average intensity Ita<0.1 W/cm(2)). The NIH-3T3 cells constitute a well-characterized in vitro cell model in which a genotoxic effect can be predicted by means of a reliable and precise murine cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. A statistically significant increase in the incidence of micronuclei was observed in sonicated 3T3 cells. In particular, the effects were more evident at 1 MHz. Moreover, for each frequency investigated, the occurrence of micronuclei was comparatively more frequent with increasing time of exposure. The possible toxicological implications of the medical ultrasound employed herein deal with the existence of a window of exposure parameters (set well below the intensity of ultrasound cavitation) in which some genotoxic effects may occur without significant cytotoxicity. In this respect, they provide new insight toward the correct risk to benefit balancing of ultrasound-based treatments and for designing innovative therapeutic strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mrgentox.2014.07.004DOI Listing
September 2014

Dose evaluation for skin and organ in hepatocellular carcinoma during angiographic procedure.

J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2013 Oct 25;32:81. Epub 2013 Oct 25.

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the radiation dose in patients undergoing liver angiographic procedure and verify the usefulness of different dose measurements to prevent deterministic effects. Gafchromic film, MicroMOSFET data and DIAMENTOR device of the X-ray system were used to characterize the examined interventional radiology (IR) procedure.

Materials And Methods: A liver embolization procedure, the SIRT (Selective Internal Radiation Therapy), was investigated. The exposure parameters from the DIAMENTOR as well as patient and geometrical data were registered. Entrance skin dose map obtained using Gafchromic film (ESDGAF) in a standard phantom as well as in 12 patients were used to calculate the maximum skin dose (MSDGAF). MicroMOSFETs were used to assess ESD in relevant points/areas. Moreover, the maximum value of five MicroMOSFETs array, due to the extension of treated area and to the relative distance of 2-3 cm of two adjacent MicroMOSFETs, was useful to predict the MSD without interfering with the clinical practice. PCXMC vers.1.5 was used to calculate effective dose (E) and equivalent dose (H).

Results: The mean dose-area product (DAPDIAMENTOR) for SIRT procedures was 166 Gycm2, although a wide range was observed. The mean MSDGAF for SIRT procedures was 1090 mGy, although a wide range was experienced. A correlation was found between the MSDGAF measured on a patient and the DAPDIAMENTOR value for liver embolizations. MOSFET and Gafchromic data were in agreement within 5% in homogeneous area and within 20% in high dose gradient regions. The mean equivalent dose in critical organs was 89.8 mSv for kidneys, 22.9 mSv for pancreas, 20.2 mSv for small intestine and 21.0 mSv for spleen. Whereas the mean E was 3.7 mSv (range: 0.5-13.7).

Conclusions: Gafchromic films result useful to study patient exposure and determine localization and amplitude of high dose skin areas to better predict the skin injuries. Then, DAPDIAMENTOR or MOSFET data could offer real-time methods, as on-line dose alert, to avoid any side effects during liver embolization with prolonged duration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-9966-32-81DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3832252PMC
October 2013

Structural and permeability sensitivity of cells to low intensity ultrasound: Infrared and fluorescence evidence in vitro.

Ultrasonics 2014 Apr 14;54(4):1020-8. Epub 2013 Dec 14.

Sapienza University, Physics Department, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

This work is focused on the in vitro study of the effects induced by medical ultrasound (US) in murine fibroblast cells (NIH-3T3) at a low-intensity of exposure (spatial peak temporal average intensity Ita<0.1Wcm(-2)). Conventional 1MHz and 3MHz US devices of therapeutic relevance were employed with varying intensity and exposure time parameters. In this framework, upon cells exposure to US, structural changes at the molecular level were evaluated by infrared spectroscopy; alterations in plasma membrane permeability were monitored in terms of uptake efficiency of small cell-impermeable model drug molecules, as measured by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. The results were related to the cell viability and combined with the statistical PCA analysis, confirming that NIH-3T3 cells are sensitive to therapeutic US, mainly at 1MHz, with time-dependent increases in both efficiency of uptake, recovery of wild-type membrane permeability, and the size of molecules entering 3T3. On the contrary, the exposures from US equipment at 3MHz show uptakes comparable with untreated samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultras.2013.12.003DOI Listing
April 2014

Ultrasound well below the intensity threshold of cavitation can promote efficient uptake of small drug model molecules in fibroblast cells.

Drug Deliv 2013 Sep-Oct;20(7):285-95

Physics Department, Sapienza University , Rome , Italy .

Ultrasound (US) induced enhancement of plasma membrane permeability is a hugely promising tool for delivering exogenous vectors at the specific biological site in a safe and efficient way. In this respect, here we report effects of membrane permeability alteration on fibroblast-like cells undergoing very low-intensity of US. The change in permeability was pointed out in terms of high uptake efficiency of the fluoroprobe calcein, thus resembling internalization of small cell-impermeable model drugs, as measured by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Fluorescence evidences moreover suggests that the higher the time of exposure, the larger will be the size of molecules can be internalized. The uptake events were related to the cell viability and also with structural changes occurring at membrane level as revealed by infrared spectroscopy and preliminary membrane fluidity and atomic force microscopy (AFM) investigation. Thus, the question of whether the uptake of cell-impermeable molecules is consistent with the presence of disruptions on the cell membrane (sonopore formation) has been addressed. In this framework, our findings may constitute experimental evidence in support of sub-cavitation sonoporation models recently proposed, and they may also provide some hints towards the actual working condition of medical US dealing with the optimum risk to benefit therapeutic ratio.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10717544.2013.836620DOI Listing
April 2014

Ultrasound-mediated structural changes in cells revealed by FTIR spectroscopy: a contribution to the optimization of gene and drug delivery.

Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 2011 Dec 18;84(1):74-85. Epub 2011 Sep 18.

Università di Roma Sapienza, Dipartimento di Fisica, Roma, Italy.

Ultrasound effects on biological samples are gaining a growing interest concerning in particular, the intracellular delivery of drugs and genes in a safe and in a efficient way. Future progress in this field will require a better understanding of how ultrasound and acoustic cavitation affect the biological system properties. The morphological changes of cells due to ultrasound (US) exposure have been extensively studied, while little attention has been given to the cells structural changes. We have exposed two different cell lines to 1 MHz frequency ultrasound currently used in therapy, Jurkat T-lymphocytes and NIH-3T3 fibroblasts, both employed as models respectively in the apoptosis and in the gene therapy studies. The Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy was used as probe to reveal the structural changes in particular molecular groups belonging to the main biological systems. The genotoxic damage of cells exposed to ultrasound was ascertained by the Cytokinesis-Block Micronucleus (CBMN) assay. The FTIR spectroscopy results, combined with multivariate statistical analysis, regarding all cellular components (lipids, proteins, nucleic acids) of the two cell lines, show that Jurkat cells are more sensitive to therapeutic ultrasound in the lipid and protein regions, whereas the NIH-3T3 cells are more sensitive in the nucleic acids region; a meaningful genotoxic effect is present in both cell lines only for long sonication times while in the Jurkat cells also a significant cytotoxic effect is revealed for long times of exposure to ultrasound.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2011.08.074DOI Listing
December 2011

Metamorphosis delay in Xenopus laevis (Daudin) tadpoles exposed to a 50 Hz weak magnetic field.

Int J Radiat Biol 2010 Jan;86(1):37-46

Department of Ecology and Economical Sustainable Development, Tuscia University, Viterbo, Italy.

Purpose: The experiment was performed to prove that exposure to a relatively weak extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic field retards tadpoles' development.

Methods: Two cohorts of Xenopus laevis laevis (Daudin) tadpoles were exposed during their immature period ( approximately 60 days) to a 50 Hz magnetic field of 63.9 < or = B < or = 76.4 microT rms (root mean square, average values) magnetic flux density in a solenoid. At the same time, as controls, two comparable cohorts were reared in two aquariums remote from the solenoid. Cohorts' degree of development was quantified by daily inspections of animal limbs and attributing them to a stage of the Nieuwkoop and Faber ( 1956 ) classification. The experiment was replicated three times.

Results: (a) Mean developmental rate of exposed cohorts was reduced with respect to controls (0.43 vs. 0.48 stages/day, p < 0.001) starting from early larval stages; (b) Exposure increased the mean metamorphosis period of tadpoles by 2.4 days compared with the controls (p < 0.001); (c) Maturation rates of exposed and control tadpoles changed during maturation period; and (d) Important mortality, malformations or teratogenic effects were not observed in exposed matured tadpoles.

Conclusion: A long-term exposure of X. laevis tadpoles to a relatively weak 50 Hz magnetic field causes a sub-lethal effect that slows down their larval developmental rate and delays their metamorphosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/09553000903137687DOI Listing
January 2010

Monitoring of people and workers exposure to the electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields in an Italian National Cancer Institute.

J Exp Clin Cancer Res 2008 Jul 3;27:16. Epub 2008 Jul 3.

Laboratorio di Fisica Medica e Sistemi Esperti, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome, Italy.

Background: The paper reports the electric, magnetic and electromagnetic fields (emf) measurements carried out in the Regina Elena National Cancer Institute (NCI). Several devices, used in diagnostics and in medical cures, can represent sources of emf for the workers and for the public subjected to the treatments. The aim is to evaluate their exposition, in order to assess the compliance with the law.

Methods: The investigations have been carried out in the departments of: intensive care, physiotherapy, MR presstherapy and in the surgical rooms. The measurements have been performed using broad band probes in the frequency ranges 5 Hz/30 kHz and 100 kHz-3 GHz.

Results: The variability of the magnetic induction (B(microT)) levels is between 0,05 microT and 80 microT. The statistical distribution shows that most of the measurements are in the range 0,05
Conclusion: The measurement of the emf levels in the NCI is recommended because of the presence of the oncological patients; their long stay near the equipments and their day-long exposure represent additional risk factors for which a prudent avoidance strategy have to de adopted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-9966-27-16DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2478644PMC
July 2008