Publications by authors named "Claudia Casarotto"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Molecular Evolution and Phylogeography of Co-circulating IHNV and VHSV in Italy.

Front Microbiol 2016 23;7:1306. Epub 2016 Aug 23.

Department of Comparative Biomedical Sciences, Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie Padova, Italy.

Infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) and viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) are the most important viral pathogens impacting rainbow trout farming. These viruses are persistent in Italy, where they are responsible for severe disease outbreaks (epizootics) that affect the profitability of the trout industry. Despite the importance of IHNV and VHSV, little is known about their evolution at a local scale, although this is likely to be important for virus eradication and control. To address this issue we performed a detailed molecular evolutionary and epidemiological analysis of IHNV and VHSV in trout farms from northern Italy. Full-length glycoprotein gene sequences of a selection of VHSV (n = 108) and IHNV (n = 89) strains were obtained. This revealed that Italian VHSV strains belong to sublineages Ia1 and Ia2 of genotype Ia and are distributed into 7 genetic clusters. In contrast, all Italian IHNV isolates fell within genogroup E, for which only a single genetic cluster was identified. More striking was that IHNV has evolved more rapidly than VHSV (mean rates of 11 and 7.3 × 10(-4) nucleotide substitutions per site, per year, respectively), indicating that these viruses exhibit fundamentally different evolutionary dynamics. The time to the most recent common ancestor of both IHNV and VHSV was consistent with the first reports of these pathogens in Italy. By combining sequence data with epidemiological information it was possible to identify different patterns of virus spread among trout farms, in which adjacent facilities can be infected by either genetically similar or different viruses, and farms located in different water catchments can be infected by identical strains. Overall, these findings highlight the importance of combining molecular and epidemiological information to identify the determinants of IHN and VHS spread, and to provide data that is central to future surveillance strategies and possibly control.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.01306DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4994472PMC
September 2016

Epidemiology of animal poisoning: An overview on the features and spatio-temporal distribution of the phenomenon in the north-eastern Italian regions.

Forensic Sci Int 2016 Sep 11;266:440-448. Epub 2016 Jul 11.

Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Viale dell'Università 10, Legnaro (PD) 35020, Italy.

In the present paper we analyze and discuss about the records referring to animal poisonings and poisoned baits cases covering the period between 2007 and 2013 and submitted for diagnostic investigations to the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie (IZSVe), which is the public veterinary health institute competent for the north eastern Italian regions. All data were gathered by a passive surveillance system based on voluntary reporting, which became mandatory in 2009 after a decree of the Italian Ministry of Health had come into force. This prohibited the use and detention of poisoned baits and ordered to selected institutions and professionals to carry out standardized surveys to assess suspect and/or confirmed reported cases; all the necessary anatomopathological and toxicological investigations to confirm the reported cases were then performed for free by public veterinary health institutes whenever a veterinarian diagnosis or clinical suspicion were provided. Totally, 1831 suspected animals poisoning and 698 cases of supposed poisoned baits recovery episodes were registered. 642/1831 (35.1%) animal poisoning cases were confirmed and the presence of toxic agents was verified in 292/698 baits (41.8%). The most severely affected territories were the ones with the highest level of urbanization and those most densely populated in the study area. Dogs and cats seemed to be greatly affected by poisoning cases and a characteristic seasonal trend was noticed, with an increase of episodes in late Winter/early Spring and in Autumn. Carbamate insecticides resulted to be the main cause for animal poisoning, while anticoagulants rodenticides played a primary role among toxicants found in poisoned baits. The presented results emphasize that malicious animal poisoning is a widespread problem in north-eastern Italy. The still relevant number of reported poisoning events caused by some banned pesticides poses the problem of identifying where these substances come from and brings to light the popular knowledge about the high toxicity of these compounds. Moreover, the noticeable increase of the number of episodes registered in 2009 pointed out how the above mentioned decree may have contributed to reveal a number of hidden cases which had not been investigated before, probably due to economic reasons related to the costs of toxicological analyses.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2016.07.002DOI Listing
September 2016

2008-2011 sylvatic rabies epidemic in Italy: challenges and experiences.

Pathog Glob Health 2013 Oct;107(7):346-53

After more than 10 years of absence, in 2008 rabies re-emerged and spread in wild foxes in north-eastern Italy. In order to control the infection and to minimize the risk of human exposure, three oral foxes vaccination campaigns were first carried out by manual distribution of baits between January and September 2009, followed by four emergency oral rabies vaccination (ORV) campaigns by aerial distribution in the affected regions starting in December 2009. Ordinary aerial ORV campaigns followed in spring and fall 2011 and 2012, although no cases were reported after February 2011. In our paper, we describe the main characteristics of the rabies epidemic that occurred in north-eastern Italy in 2008-2011, with particular focus on the innovative systems that were implemented to manage and evaluate the efficacy of the aerial ORV. The Italian experience in containing and eliminating rabies in less than 3 years may provide information and suggestions for countries affected by rabies, and sharing a similar geomorphological conformation as Italy.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4083154PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1179/2047772413Z.000000000175DOI Listing
October 2013