Publications by authors named "Clarissa Bartley"

7 Publications

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AMPK Profiling in Rodent and Human Pancreatic Beta-Cells under Nutrient-Rich Metabolic Stress.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Jun 1;21(11). Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Cell Physiology and Metabolism & Faculty Diabetes Center, University of Geneva Medical Center,1206 Geneva, Switzerland.

Chronic exposure of pancreatic β-cells to elevated nutrient levels impairs their function and potentially induces apoptosis. Like in other cell types, AMPK is activated in β-cells under conditions of nutrient deprivation, while little is known on AMPK responses to metabolic stresses. Here, we first reviewed recent studies on the role of AMPK activation in β-cells. Then, we investigated the expression profile of AMPK pathways in β-cells following metabolic stresses. INS-1E β-cells and human islets were exposed for 3 days to glucose (5.5-25 mM), palmitate or oleate (0.4 mM), and fructose (5.5 mM). Following these treatments, we analyzed transcript levels of INS-1E β-cells by qRT-PCR and of human islets by RNA-Seq; with a special focus on AMPK-associated genes, such as the AMPK catalytic subunits α1 () and α2 (). AMPKα and pAMPKα were also evaluated at the protein level by immunoblotting. Chronic exposure to the different metabolic stresses, known to alter glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, did not change AMPK expression, either in insulinoma cells or in human islets. Expression profile of the six AMPK subunits was marginally modified by the different diabetogenic conditions. However, the expression of some upstream kinases and downstream AMPK targets, including K-ATP channel subunits, exhibited stress-specific signatures. Interestingly, at the protein level, chronic fructose treatment favored fasting-like phenotype in human islets, as witnessed by AMPK activation. Collectively, previously published and present data indicate that, in the β-cell, AMPK activation might be implicated in the pre-diabetic state, potentially as a protective mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21113982DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7312098PMC
June 2020

Chronic fructose renders pancreatic β-cells hyper-responsive to glucose-stimulated insulin secretion through extracellular ATP signaling.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2019 07 26;317(1):E25-E41. Epub 2019 Mar 26.

Department of Cell Physiology and Metabolism, University of Geneva Medical Center , Geneva , Switzerland.

Fructose is widely used as a sweetener in processed food and is also associated with metabolic disorders, such as obesity. However, the underlying cellular mechanisms remain unclear, in particular, regarding the pancreatic β-cell. Here, we investigated the effects of chronic exposure to fructose on the function of insulinoma cells and isolated mouse and human pancreatic islets. Although fructose per se did not acutely stimulate insulin exocytosis, our data show that chronic fructose rendered rodent and human β-cells hyper-responsive to intermediate physiological glucose concentrations. Fructose exposure reduced intracellular ATP levels without affecting mitochondrial function, induced AMP-activated protein kinase activation, and favored ATP release from the β-cells upon acute glucose stimulation. The resulting increase in extracellular ATP, mediated by pannexin1 (Panx1) channels, activated the calcium-mobilizer P2Y purinergic receptors. Immunodetection revealed the presence of both Panx1 channels and P2Y1 receptors in β-cells. Addition of an ectonucleotidase inhibitor or P2Y1 agonists to naïve β-cells potentiated insulin secretion stimulated by intermediate glucose, mimicking the fructose treatment. Conversely, the P2Y1 antagonist and Panx1 inhibitor reversed the effects of fructose, as confirmed using Panx1-null islets and by the clearance of extracellular ATP by apyrase. These results reveal an important function of ATP signaling in pancreatic β-cells mediating fructose-induced hyper-responsiveness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00456.2018DOI Listing
July 2019

[Exposure of beta-cells to chronic fructose potentiates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion through ATP signaling].

Rev Med Suisse 2019 Feb;15(638):390-392

Département de physiologie cellulaire et métabolisme et Centre facultaire du diabète, Université de Genève, CMU, 1211 Genève 4.

While the use of fructose as a sweetener and its consumption are associated with increased fat storage prompted by the action of insulin, fructose alone does not acutely stimulate insulin exocytosis from the pancreatic beta-cell, as opposed to the chief secretagogue glucose. We investigated the effects of chronic exposure to fructose on beta-cell function. Our results reveal that chronic fructose induces extracellular ATP signaling in the beta-cell, resulting in the potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. This effect is mediated by the activation of the purinergic P2Y1 receptors and is associated with the release of cellular ATP through pannexin-1 channels. Consequently, the interplay between pannexin channels and purinergic receptors, through ATP signaling, represents a novel cellular target with potential therapeutic implications.
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February 2019

Oleate disrupts cAMP signaling, contributing to potent stimulation of pancreatic β-cell autophagy.

J Biol Chem 2019 01 5;294(4):1218-1229. Epub 2018 Dec 5.

From the Division of Diabetes and Metabolism, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, 384 Victoria Street, Darlinghurst, NSW 2010,

Autophagy is critical for maintaining cellular function via clearance of excess nutrients and damaged organelles. In pancreatic β-cells, it helps counter the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress that impairs insulin secretory capacity during Type 2 diabetes. Chronic exposure of β-cells to saturated fatty acids (FAs) such as palmitate stimulates ER stress and modulates autophagy, but the effects of unsaturated FAs such as oleate, which are also elevated during obesity, are less well understood. We therefore treated MIN6 cells and mouse islets for 8-48 h with either palmitate or oleate, and then monitored autophagic flux, signaling pathways, lysosomal biology, and phospholipid profiles. Compared with palmitate, oleate more effectively stimulated both autophagic flux and clearance of autophagosomes. The flux stimulation occurred independently of ER stress, nutrient-sensing (mTOR) and signaling pathways (protein kinases A, C, and D). Instead the mechanism involved the exchange factor directly activated by cAMP 2 (EPAC2). Oleate reduced cellular cAMP, and its effects on autophagic flux were reproduced or inhibited, respectively, by knockdown or activation. Oleate also increased lysosomal acidity and increased phospholipid saturation, consistent with improved autophagosomal fusion with lysosomes. We conclude that a potent stimulation of autophagy might help explain the known benefits of unsaturated FAs in countering the toxicity of saturated FAs in β-cells during obesity and lipid loading.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.RA118.004833DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6349129PMC
January 2019

A lipidomic screen of palmitate-treated MIN6 β-cells links sphingolipid metabolites with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and impaired protein trafficking.

Biochem J 2011 Apr;435(1):267-76

Diabetes and Obesity Program, Garvan Institute of Medical Research, 384 Victoria Street, Darlinghurst, NSW 2010, Australia.

Saturated fatty acids promote lipotoxic ER (endoplasmic reticulum) stress in pancreatic β-cells in association with Type 2 diabetes. To address the underlying mechanisms we employed MS in a comprehensive lipidomic screen of MIN6 β-cells treated for 48 h with palmitate. Both the overall mass and the degree of saturation of major neutral lipids and phospholipids were only modestly increased by palmitate. The mass of GlcCer (glucosylceramide) was augmented by 70% under these conditions, without any significant alteration in the amounts of either ceramide or sphingomyelin. However, flux into ceramide (measured by [3H]serine incorporation) was augmented by chronic palmitate, and inhibition of ceramide synthesis decreased both ER stress and apoptosis. ER-to-Golgi protein trafficking was also reduced by palmitate pre-treatment, but was overcome by overexpression of GlcCer synthase. This was accompanied by increased conversion of ceramide into GlcCer, and reduced ER stress and apoptosis, but no change in phospholipid desaturation. Sphingolipid alterations due to palmitate were not secondary to ER stress since they were neither reproduced by pharmacological ER stressors nor overcome using the chemical chaperone phenylbutyric acid. In conclusion, alterations in sphingolipid, rather than phospholipid, metabolism are more likely to be implicated in the defective protein trafficking and enhanced ER stress and apoptosis of lipotoxic β-cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1042/BJ20101867DOI Listing
April 2011

Dopamine D2-like receptors are expressed in pancreatic beta cells and mediate inhibition of insulin secretion.

J Biol Chem 2005 Nov 29;280(44):36824-32. Epub 2005 Aug 29.

Department of Cell Physiology and Metabolism, University Medical Center, Geneva University Hospitals, CH-1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland.

Dopamine signaling is mediated by five cloned receptors, grouped into D1-like (D1 and D5) and D2-like (D2, D3 and D4) families. We identified by reverse transcription-PCR the presence of dopamine receptors from both families in INS-1E insulin-secreting cells as well as in rodent and human isolated islets. D2 receptor expression was confirmed by immunodetection revealing localization on insulin secretory granules of INS-1E and primary rodent and human beta cells. We then tested potential effects mediated by the identified receptors on beta cell function. Dopamine (10 microM) and the D2-like receptor agonist quinpirole (5 microM) inhibited glucose-stimulated insulin secretion tested in several models, i.e. INS-1E beta cells, fluorescence-activated cell-sorted primary rat beta cells, and pancreatic islets of rat, mouse, and human origin. Insulin exocytosis is controlled by metabolism coupled to cytosolic calcium changes. Measurements of glucose-induced mitochondrial hyperpolarization and ATP generation showed that dopamine and D2-like agonists did not inhibit glucose metabolism. On the other hand, dopamine decreased cell membrane depolarization as well as cytosolic calcium increases evoked by glucose stimulation in INS-1E beta cells. These results show for the first time that dopamine receptors are expressed in pancreatic beta cells. Dopamine inhibited glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, an effect that could be ascribed to D2-like receptors. Regarding the molecular mechanisms implicated in dopamine-mediated inhibition of insulin release, our results point to distal steps in metabolism-secretion coupling. Thus, the role played by dopamine in glucose homeostasis might involve dopamine receptors, expressed in pancreatic beta cells, modulating insulin release.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M505560200DOI Listing
November 2005

The malate-aspartate NADH shuttle member Aralar1 determines glucose metabolic fate, mitochondrial activity, and insulin secretion in beta cells.

J Biol Chem 2004 Dec 19;279(53):55659-66. Epub 2004 Oct 19.

Department of Cell Physiology and Metabolism, University Medical Centre, 1 rue Michel-Servet, CH-1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland.

The NADH shuttle system, which transports reducing equivalents from the cytosol to the mitochondria, is essential for the coupling of glucose metabolism to insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells. Aralar1 and citrin are two isoforms of the mitochondrial aspartate/glutamate carrier, one key constituent of the malate-aspartate NADH shuttle. Here, the effects of Aralar1 overexpression in INS-1E beta cells and isolated rat islets were investigated for the first time. We prepared a recombinant adenovirus encoding for human Aralar1 (AdCA-Aralar1), tagged with the small FLAG epitope. Transduction of INS-1E cells and isolated rat islets with AdCA-Aralar1 increased aralar1 protein levels and immunostaining revealed mitochondrial localization. Compared with control INS-1E cells, overexpression of Aralar1 potentiated metabolism secretion coupling stimulated by 15 mm glucose. In particular, there was an increase of NAD(P)H generation, of mitochondrial membrane hyperpolarization, ATP levels, glucose oxidation, and insulin secretion (+45%, p < 0.01). Remarkably, this was accompanied by reduced lactate production. Rat islets overexpressing Aralar1 secreted more insulin at 16.7 mm glucose (+65%, p < 0.05) compared with controls. These results show that aspartate-glutamate carrier capacity limits glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and that Aralar1 overexpression enhances mitochondrial metabolism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M409303200DOI Listing
December 2004