Publications by authors named "Clare Gouldstone"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Multi-institutional dosimetric delivery assessment of intracranial stereotactic radiosurgery on different treatment platforms.

Radiother Oncol 2020 Jun 20;147:153-161. Epub 2020 May 20.

Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK; Radiation Dosimetry Group, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, UK; Radiotherapy Trials Quality Assurance Group, Mount Vernon Hospital, London, UK; Department of Medical Physics, Royal Surrey County Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Guildford, UK.

Background And Purpose: Assessment of dosimetric accuracy of radiosurgery on different treatment platforms.

Material And Methods: Thirty-three single fraction treatment plans were assessed at thirty centres using an anthropomorphic head phantom with target and brainstem structures. The target being a single irregular shaped target, ~8 cc, 10 mm from the brainstem. The phantom was "immobilised", scanned, planned and treated following the local protocols. EBT-XD films and alanine pellets were used to measure absolute dose, inside both the target and the brainstem, and compared with TPS predicted dose distributions.

Results: PTV alanine measurements from gantry-based linacs showed a median percentage difference to the TPS of 0.65%. Cyberknife (CK) had the highest median difference of 2.3% in comparison to the other platforms. GammaKnife (GK) showed the smallest median of 0.3%. Similar trends were observed in the OAR with alanine measurements showing median percentage differences of1.1%, 2.0% and 0.4%, for gantry-based linacs, CK and GK respectively. All platforms showed comparable gamma passing rates between axial and sagittal films.

Conclusions: This comparison has highlighted the dosimetric variation between measured and TPS calculated dose for each delivery platform. The results suggest that clinically acceptable agreement with the predicted dose distributions is achievable by all treatment delivery systems.
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June 2020

Alanine dosimetry in strong magnetic fields: use as a transfer standard in MRI-guided radiotherapy.

Phys Med Biol 2020 06 3;65(11):115001. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, United Kingdom. Joint Department of Physics, The Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom. Author to whom any correspondence should be addressed.

Reference dosimetry in the presence of a strong magnetic field is challenging. Ionisation chambers have shown to be strongly affected by magnetic fields. There is a need for robust and stable detectors in MRI-guided radiotherapy (MRIgRT). This study investigates the behaviour of the alanine dosimeter in magnetic fields and assesses its suitability to act as a reference detector in MRIgRT. Alanine pellets were loaded in a waterproof holder, placed in an electromagnet and irradiated by Co and 6 MV and 8 MV linac beams over a range of magnetic flux densities. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to calculate the absorbed dose, to water and to alanine, with and without magnetic fields. Combining measurements with simulations, the effect of magnetic fields on alanine response was quantified and a correction factor for the presence of magnetic fields on alanine was determined. This study finds that the response of alanine to ionising radiation is modified when the irradiation is in the presence of a magnetic field. The effect is energy independent and may increase the alanine/electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal by 0.2% at 0.35 T and 0.7% at 1.5 T. In alanine dosimetry for MRIgRT, this effect, if left uncorrected, would lead to an overestimate of dose. Accordingly, a correction factor, [Formula: see text], is defined. Values are obtained for this correction as a function of magnetic flux density, with a standard uncertainty which depends on the magnetic field and is 0.6% or less. The strong magnetic field has a measurable effect on alanine dosimetry. For alanine which is used to measure absorbed dose to water in a strong magnetic field, but which has been calibrated in the absence of a magnetic field, a small correction to the reported dose is required. With the inclusion of this correction, alanine/EPR is a suitable reference dosimeter for measurements in MRIgRT.
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June 2020

Development and Implementation of an End-To-End Test for Absolute Dose Verification of Small Animal Preclinical Irradiation Research Platforms.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2020 07 10;107(3):587-596. Epub 2020 Mar 10.

Medical Physics Department, National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, United Kingdom; Department of Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences. University of Surrey, Guildford, United Kingdom.

Purpose: Lack of standardization and inaccurate dosimetry assessment in preclinical research is hampering translational opportunities for new radiation therapy interventions. The aim of this work was to develop and implement an end-to-end dosimetry test for small animal radiation research platforms to monitor and help improve accuracy of dose delivery and standardization across institutions.

Methods And Materials: The test is based on a bespoke zoomorphic heterogeneous mouse and WT1 Petri dish phantoms with alanine as a reference detector. Alanine measurements within the mouse phantom were validated with Monte Carlo simulations at 0.5 mm Cu x-ray reference beam. Energy dependence of alanine in medium x-ray beam qualities was taken into consideration. For the end-to-end test, treatment plans considering tissue heterogeneities were created in Muriplan treatment planning systems (TPS) and delivered to the phantoms at 5 institutions using Xstrahl's small animal irradiation platforms. Mean calculated dose to the pellets were compared with alanine measured dose.

Results: Monte Carlo simulations and in phantom alanine measurements in NPL's reference beam were in excellent agreement, validating the experimental approach. At 1 institute, initial measurements showed a larger than 12% difference between calculated and measured dose caused by incorrect input data. The physics data used by the calculation engine were corrected, and the TPS was recommissioned. Subsequent end-to-end test measurements showed differences <5%. With an anterior field, 4 of the participating institutes delivered dose within 5% to both phantoms.

Conclusions: An end-to-end dosimetry test was developed and implemented for dose evaluation in preclinical irradiation with small animal irradiation research platforms. The test was capable of detecting treatment planning commissioning errors and highlighted critical elements in dose calculation. Absolute dosimetry with alanine in relevant preclinical irradiation conditions showed reasonable levels of accuracy compared with TPS calculations. This work provides an independent and traceable dosimetric validation in preclinical research involving small animal irradiation.
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July 2020

A national dosimetry audit for stereotactic ablative radiotherapy in lung.

Radiother Oncol 2017 03 20;122(3):406-410. Epub 2017 Jan 20.

Department of Medical Physics, Royal Surrey County Hospital NHS Trust, Guildford, UK; Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford, UK; National Physical Laboratory, Teddington, UK.

Background And Purpose: A UK national dosimetry audit was carried out to assess the accuracy of Stereotactic Ablative Body Radiotherapy (SABR) lung treatment delivery.

Methods And Materials: This mail-based audit used an anthropomorphic thorax phantom containing nine alanine pellets positioned in the lung region for dosimetry, as well as EBT3 film in the axial plane for isodose comparison. Centres used their local planning protocol/technique, creating 27 SABR plans. A range of delivery techniques including conformal, volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) and Cyberknife (CK) were used with six different calculation algorithms (collapsed cone, superposition, pencil-beam (PB), AAA, Acuros and Monte Carlo).

Results: The mean difference between measured and calculated dose (excluding PB results) was 0.4±1.4% for alanine and 1.4±3.4% for film. PB differences were -6.1% and -12.9% respectively. The median of the absolute maximum isodose-to-isodose distances was 3mm (-6mm to 7mm) and 5mm (-10mm to +19mm) for the 100% and 50% isodose lines respectively.

Conclusions: Alanine and film is an effective combination for verifying dosimetric and geometric accuracy. There were some differences across dose algorithms, and geometric accuracy was better for VMAT and CK compared with conformal techniques. The alanine dosimetry results showed that planned and delivered doses were within ±3.0% for 25/27 SABR plans.
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March 2017

A multi-institutional dosimetry audit of rotational intensity-modulated radiotherapy.

Radiother Oncol 2014 Nov 23;113(2):272-8. Epub 2014 Nov 23.

Department of Medical Physics, Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford, UK; Centre for Nuclear and Radiation Physics, University of Surrey, UK.

Background: Rotational IMRT (VMAT and Tomotherapy) has now been implemented in many radiotherapy centres. An audit to verify treatment planning system modelling and treatment delivery has been undertaken to ensure accurate clinical implementation.

Material And Methods: 34 institutions with 43 treatment delivery systems took part in the audit. A virtual phantom planning exercise (3DTPS test) and a clinical trial planning exercise were planned and independently measured in each institution using a phantom and array combination. Point dose differences and global gamma index (γ) were calculated in regions corresponding to PTVs and OARs.

Results: Point dose differences gave a mean (±sd) of 0.1±2.6% and 0.2±2.0% for the 3DTPS test and clinical trial plans, respectively. 34/43 planning and delivery combinations achieved all measured planes with >95% pixels passing γ<1 at 3%/3mm and rose to 42/43 for clinical trial plans. A statistically significant difference in γ pass rates (p<0.01) was seen between planning systems where rotational IMRT modelling had been designed for the manufacturer's own treatment delivery system and those designed independently of rotational IMRT delivery.

Conclusions: A dosimetry audit of rotational radiotherapy has shown that TPS modelling and delivery for rotational IMRT can achieve high accuracy of plan delivery.
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November 2014

Detector to detector corrections: a comprehensive experimental study of detector specific correction factors for beam output measurements for small radiotherapy beams.

Med Phys 2014 Jul;41(7):072103

National Physical Laboratory, Acoustics and Ionising Radiation Division, Teddington TW11 0LW, United Kingdom and EBG MedAustron GmbH, Medical Physics Department, A-2700 Wiener Neustadt, Austria.

Purpose: The aim of the present study is to provide a comprehensive set of detector specific correction factors for beam output measurements for small beams, for a wide range of real time and passive detectors. The detector specific correction factors determined in this study may be potentially useful as a reference data set for small beam dosimetry measurements.

Methods: Dose response of passive and real time detectors was investigated for small field sizes shaped with a micromultileaf collimator ranging from 0.6 × 0.6 cm(2) to 4.2 × 4.2 cm(2) and the measurements were extended to larger fields of up to 10 × 10 cm(2). Measurements were performed at 5 cm depth, in a 6 MV photon beam. Detectors used included alanine, thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), stereotactic diode, electron diode, photon diode, radiophotoluminescent dosimeters (RPLDs), radioluminescence detector based on carbon-doped aluminium oxide (Al2O3:C), organic plastic scintillators, diamond detectors, liquid filled ion chamber, and a range of small volume air filled ionization chambers (volumes ranging from 0.002 cm(3) to 0.3 cm(3)). All detector measurements were corrected for volume averaging effect and compared with dose ratios determined from alanine to derive a detector correction factors that account for beam perturbation related to nonwater equivalence of the detector materials.

Results: For the detectors used in this study, volume averaging corrections ranged from unity for the smallest detectors such as the diodes, 1.148 for the 0.14 cm(3) air filled ionization chamber and were as high as 1.924 for the 0.3 cm(3) ionization chamber. After applying volume averaging corrections, the detector readings were consistent among themselves and with alanine measurements for several small detectors but they differed for larger detectors, in particular for some small ionization chambers with volumes larger than 0.1 cm(3).

Conclusions: The results demonstrate how important it is for the appropriate corrections to be applied to give consistent and accurate measurements for a range of detectors in small beam geometry. The results further demonstrate that depending on the choice of detectors, there is a potential for large errors when effects such as volume averaging, perturbation and differences in material properties of detectors are not taken into account. As the commissioning of small fields for clinical treatment has to rely on accurate dose measurements, the authors recommend the use of detectors that require relatively little correction, such as unshielded diodes, diamond detectors or microchambers, and solid state detectors such as alanine, TLD, Al2O3:C, or scintillators.
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July 2014

A methodology for dosimetry audit of rotational radiotherapy using a commercial detector array.

Radiother Oncol 2013 Jul 12;108(1):78-85. Epub 2013 Jun 12.

Department of Medical Physics, Royal Surrey County Hospital, Guildford, UK.

Purpose: To develop a methodology for the use of a commercial detector array in dosimetry audits of rotational radiotherapy.

Materials And Methods: The methodology was developed as part of the development of a national audit of rotational radiotherapy. Ten cancer centres were asked to create a rotational radiotherapy treatment plan for a three-dimensional treatment-planning-system (3DTPS) test and audited. Phantom measurements using a commercial 2D ionisation chamber (IC) array were compared with measurements using 0.125 cm(3) IC, Gafchromic film and alanine pellets in the same plane. Relative and absolute gamma index (γ) comparisons were made for Gafchromic film and 2D-Array planes, respectively.

Results: Comparisons between individual detectors within the 2D-Array against the corresponding IC and alanine measurement showed a statistically significant concordance correlation coefficient (both ρc>0.998, p<0.001) with mean difference of -1.1 ± 1.1% and -0.8 ± 1.1%, respectively, in a high dose PTV. In the γ comparison between the 2D-Array and film it was that the 2D-Array was more likely to fail planes where there was a dose discrepancy due to the absolute analysis performed.

Conclusions: It has been found that using a commercial detector array for a dosimetry audit of rotational radiotherapy is suitable in place of standard systems of dosimetry.
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July 2013