Publications by authors named "Claire-Lise Gay"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Reference values for the external genitalia of full-term and pre-term female neonates.

Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2021 Jan 19;106(1):39-44. Epub 2020 Jun 19.

Service d'endocrinologie pédiatrique, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Lyon, France.

Background And Objectives: Identifying virilisation of the genitalia in female newborns early during the neonatal period is important to diagnose pathologies. However, there is no clear threshold for clitoromegaly or for the anogenital ratio. The objective of this study was to define reference values for the external genitalia of full-term and pre-term female neonates.

Design: This was a prospective study of all females born in the study centre between May 2014 and July 2016. Clitoral length and anogenital ratio were measured in 619 newborns with a gestational age of 24+2 to 41+3 weeks during their first 3 days of life. Associations between the values at day 3 and gestational age, birth weight and other newborn characteristics were examined by linear regression.

Results: The mean clitoral length at day 3 of life was 3.69±1.53 mm (n=551; 95th percentile, 6.5 mm; maximum, 8 mm), and the mean anogenital ratio was 0.42±0.09 (95th percentile, 0.58). There was no significant variation with gestational age or birth weight, and no significant difference between the results at day 0 and day 3.

Conclusion: These results suggest that clitoromegaly can be defined as a clitoral length >6.5 mm. Values ≥8 mm should prompt further investigations. An anogenital ratio >0.6 should be considered a sign of virilisation. Since clitoral size does not vary with gestational age or birth weight, clitoromegaly should not be attributed to prematurity.
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January 2021

Preoperative Topical Estrogen Treatment vs Placebo in 244 Children With Midshaft and Posterior Hypospadias.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2020 07;105(7)

Centre de Référence Maladies Rares Développement Génital: du Fœtus à l'Adulte, Hospices Civils de Lyon, Bron, France.

Purpose: Urethral fistula and dehiscence are common after hypospadias surgery. Preoperative androgens have been considered to reduce these complications although this consideration is not evidence-based. Dermatologists have reported the benefits of topical estrogens on skin healing. We investigated whether the preoperative use of topical promestriene could reduce healing complications in hypospadias surgery. Our primary objective was to demonstrate a reduction of healing complications with promestriene vs placebo. Impact on reoperations and other complications, clinical tolerance, bone growth, and biological systemic effects of the treatment were also considered.

Methods: We conducted a prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, parallel group trial between 2011 and 2015 in 4 French centers. One-stage transverse preputial island flap urethroplasty (onlay urethroplasty) was selected for severe hypospadias. Promestriene or placebo was applied on the penis for 2 months prior to surgery. The primary outcome was the presence of postoperative urethral fistula or dehiscence in the first year postsurgery. For safety reasons, hormonal and anatomical screenings were performed.

Results: Out of 241 patients who received surgery, 122 patients were randomized to receive placebo, and 119 patients received promestriene. The primary outcome was unavailable for 11 patients. Healing complications were assessed at 16.4% (19/116) in the placebo vs 14.9% (17/114) in the promestriene arm, and the odds ratio adjusted on center was 0.93 (95% confidence interval 0.45-1.94), P = 0.86.

Conclusions And Relevance: Although we observed an overall lower risk of complications compared to previous publications, postsurgery complications were not different between promestriene and placebo, because of a lack of power of the study or the inefficacy of promestriene.
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July 2020

[Atypical genital development and tumor risk].

Bull Cancer 2019 May 23;106(5):461-467. Epub 2019 Mar 23.

Groupement hospitalier Est, hospices Civils de Lyon, institut Multisite de pathologie, 69500 Bron, France.

Atypical genital development (AGD), also called disorders of sex development are a set of miscellaneous pathologies who have in common a morphological and/or functional abnormality of the internal and/or external genital organs. The Chicago classification identifies 3 major groups based on karyotype, hormone balance and genetic studies. Some AGD predispose to the occurrence of tumors, mainly malignant germ cell tumors. The tumor risk depends on many factors: the type of AGD, the position of the gonad, the age of the patient, the phenotype, the function of the gonad and the presence of germ cells in the gonad. AGD with the highest tumor risk are those with gonadal dysgenesis, implying an incomplete differentiation of the bipotential gonad (dysplasia). Monitoring of patients with AGD and indication of prophylactic gonadectomies should be individualized according to tumor risk.
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May 2019

Surgery in disorders of sex development (DSD) with a gender issue: If (why), when, and how?

J Pediatr Urol 2016 Jun 9;12(3):139-49. Epub 2016 Apr 9.

Penn State Hershey Pediatric Endocrinology, PA, USA.

Ten years after the consensus meeting on disorders of sex development (DSD), genital surgery continues to raise questions and criticisms concerning its indications, its technical aspects, timing and evaluation. This standpoint details each distinct situation and its possible management in 5 main groups of DSD patients with atypical genitalia: the 46,XX DSD group (congenital adrenal hyperplasia); the heterogeneous 46,XY DSD group (gonadal dysgenesis, disorders of steroidogenesis, target tissues impairments …); gonosomic mosaicisms (45,X/46,XY patients); ovo-testicular DSD; and "non-hormonal/non chromosomal" DSD. Questions are summarized for each DSD group with the support of literature and the feed-back of several world experts. Given the complexity and heterogeneity of presentation there is no consensus regarding the indications, the timing, the procedure nor the evaluation of outcome of DSD surgery. There are, however, some issues on which most experts would agree: 1) The need for identifying centres of expertise with a multidisciplinary approach; 2) A conservative management of the gonads in complete androgen insensitivity syndrome at least until puberty although some studies expressed concerns about the heightened tumour risk in this group; 3) To avoid vaginal dilatation in children after surgical reconstruction; 4) To keep asymptomatic mullerian remnants during childhood; 5) To remove confirmed streak gonads when Y material is present; 6) It is likely that 46,XY cloacal exstrophy, aphallia and severe micropenis would do best raised as male although this is based on limited outcome data. There is general acknowledgement among experts that timing, the choice of the individual and irreversibility of surgical procedures are sources of concerns. There is, however, little evidence provided regarding the impact of non-treated DSD during childhood for the individual development, the parents, society and the risk of stigmatization. The low level of evidence should lead to design collaborative prospective studies involving all parties and using consensual protocols of evaluation.
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June 2016

Late prenatal dexamethasone and phenotype variations in 46,XX CAH: concerns about current protocols and benefits for surgical procedures.

J Pediatr Urol 2014 Oct 15;10(5):941-7. Epub 2014 Mar 15.

Service d'Urologie Pédiatrique, Hôpital Mère-Enfant, Centre Hospitalo-Universitaire de Lyon, GHE, 59, boulevard Pinel, 69677 Bron Cedex, France. Electronic address:

Objective: To describe the action of prenatal dexamethasone (PreDex) on the anatomy of female congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) genitalia when started at later stages of gestation.

Materials And Methods: Our group follows a large cohort of French CAH patients who underwent PreDex therapy, of whom 258 were recently reported. Four 46,XX patients with a delayed PreDex treatment presented with a virilized genitalia and required surgical reconstruction. This is a retrospective report on genital phenotyping at the time of surgery of these four patients who began PreDex therapy at 8, 12, 20, and 28 weeks of gestation.

Results: Although this series is limited in number, the anatomical description of the length of the genital tubercle, the height of the urethra-vaginal confluence, and the degree of fusion of the genital folds seems to be dependent upon the starting date of PreDex. Most PreDex treatments prescribed up to now have covered the full duration of gestation.

Conclusions: Our findings suggest that PreDex therapy could be limited to the period of the partitioning window. It is hoped that further prospective multicentric clinical studies will obtain ethical approval in order to elucidate the place and protocols of PreDex therapy in the management of CAH.
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October 2014

Impaired puberty, fertility, and final stature in 45,X/46,XY mixed gonadal dysgenetic patients raised as boys.

Eur J Endocrinol 2012 Apr 11;166(4):687-94. Epub 2012 Jan 11.

Pediatric Endocrinology Department, Bicêtre Hospital, 78 Rue du Général Leclerc, Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France.

Context: Gender assignment followed by surgery and hormonal therapy is a difficult decision in the management of 45,X/46,XY patients with abnormal external genitalia at birth considering the paucity of studies evaluating pubertal development and fertility outcome, most notably for patients raised as boys.

Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe the pubertal course of 20 45,X/46,XY patients born with ambiguous genitalia and raised as boys.

Methods: This is a multicenter retrospective study.

Results: Mean age at study was 25.6±2.4 years. Eighty-five percent of the patients presented a 'classical' mixed gonadal dysgenetic phenotype at birth. Puberty was initially spontaneous in all but three boys, although in six other patients, testosterone therapy was subsequently necessary for completion of puberty. Sixty-seven percent of the remaining patients presented signs of declined testicular function at the end of puberty (increased levels of FSH and low levels of testosterone and/or inhibin B). Moreover, an abnormal structure of the Y chromosome, known to alter fertility, was found in 10 out of 16 (63%) patients. Two patients developed testicular cancer. Half of the patients have adult penile length of <80 mm. Mean adult height is 156.9±2 cm, regardless of GH treatment.

Conclusions: In summary, 45,X/46,XY children born with ambiguous genitalia and raised as boys have an altered pubertal course and impaired fertility associated with adult short stature, which should, therefore, be taken into consideration for the management of these patients.
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April 2012

The surgical challenges of disorders of sex development (DSD).

Arch Esp Urol 2010 Sep;63(7):495-504

Department of Paediatric Urology, Hôspital Mère-Enfant, Groupement Hospitalier Est, Bron, France.

Disorders of Sex Development (DSD) remain a fascinating challenge for the paediatricians, endocrinologists, biologists, psychiatrists, geneticists, radiologists, surgeons and for the whole society. This article aims at highlighting the current controversies and questions met with genital reconstruction in children born with abnormal genitalia. The main current techniques of masculinization and feminization are reviewed with their progress and their problems. The tools of decision used to assign a gender in some newborns with complex DSD are discussed showing that at the dawn of the third millenium, one still does not know why a boy is a boy, and a girl is a girl.
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September 2010

Does androgen stimulation prior to hypospadias surgery increase the rate of healing complications? - A preliminary report.

J Pediatr Urol 2011 Apr 8;7(2):158-61. Epub 2010 Jun 8.

Department of Pediatric Urology, Hôpital Mère-Enfants, Bron Cedex, France.

Objective: Androgens have a positive effect on penile growth in children, but they may also have a repressive effect on the healing process. The aim of this prospective study was to compare the outcomes of onlay urethroplasty with and without preoperative androgen stimulation in patients with severe hypospadias.

Patients And Method: Of 300 severe hypospadias cases treated at a single institution, 126 operated on by the same surgeon had complete follow-up data, and 30 of these received preoperative androgen treatment (human chorionic gonadotrophin and/or systemic testosterone) 1-24 months before surgery.

Results: Thirty-five patients presented with a complication (27.7%) of whom 26 (20.6%) had a fistula or dehiscence. Among patients on androgen stimulation there was a 30% healing complication rate (9/30) whereas for those without this was 17.7% (17/96). When androgenic treatment was given > 3 months prior to surgery the healing complication rate was 21.7% (5/23), and when < 3 months prior to surgery the rate reached 57% (4/7). Mean follow up was 41 months (10-97).

Conclusion: Although the numbers were too small in this series to reach statistical significance, the tissular interactions of androgens in the healing process reported by dermatologists should alert the hypospadiologists and lead to a further prospective study to define the optimal protocol for stimulation of the penis in specific cases without affecting outcome.
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April 2011

Surgical options in disorders of sex development (dsd) with ambiguous genitalia.

Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab 2010 Apr;24(2):311-24

Department of Paediatric Urology and Surgery, Hôpital Mère-Enfants, and Claude-Bernard University, 69677 Bron, France.

Disorders of sexual development (DSD) include three main groups of patients: (1) The virilised 46,XX DSD essentially represented by congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) ; (2) The undervirilised 46,XY DSD essentially represented by hypospadias; and (3) the chromosomic jigsaws essentially represented by mixed gonadal dysgenesis. It is in this last group that gender assignment remains a difficult decision involving various indicators, which can be split into four categories: (1) the inside sex (i.e., genes, hormones and target tissues); (2) the outside sex (i.e., anatomy of genitalia including size of the genital tubercle, mullerian cavity and potential adult height of the patient); (3) the functional sex (i.e., potential sexuality and fertility); and (4) and the social sex (i.e., the cultural medium in which the child is brought up). The challenge is to outline the future individual identity of the child in the postnatal period using these indicators. Current evolutions of surgical techniques of 'feminisation' and 'masculinisation' are described as well as their outcomes.
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April 2010