Publications by authors named "Claire Tourny-Chollet"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The effects of exercise training on plasma volume variations: A systematic review.

Int J Sports Med 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Higher Institute of Sport and Physical Education of Ksar-Saïd, Manouba, Tunisia., Higher Institute of Sport and Physical Education of Ksar-Saïd, Manouba, Tunisia., Tunis, Tunisia.

The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the evidence on the acute and long-term effects of exercise training on PV, in both trained and untrained individuals and to examine associations between changes in %PVV and change in physical/physiological performance. Despite the status of participants and the exercise duration or intensity, all the acute studies reported a significant decrease of PV (effect size: 0.85
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1667-6624DOI Listing
October 2021

Effect of Fatigue on Functional Stability of the Knee: Particularities of Female Handball Players.

Int J Sports Med 2019 Jul 16;40(7):468-476. Epub 2019 May 16.

Universite de Rouen UFR STAPS, CETAPS, EA 3832, Mont-Saint-Aignan, France.

The risk of anterior cruciate ligament injury in female handball players is high. Fatigue of active stabilizers and increases in joint laxity are often mentioned in the literature as causal factors. However, no studies have been carried out on this population. Our objective is to determine the effect of muscle fatigue on active and passive knee stability in female handball players. This prospective study assessed tibiofemoral joint laxity, as well as hamstring and quadriceps strength, before (T), during and 3 min after (T) an isokinetic fatigue protocol (25 repetitions of knee flexion / extension at 180°.s). Laxity values (slope of the displacement-load curve and anterior tibial translation) were measured using a GNRB-Rotab arthrometer; torque values were measured at specific joint angles and peak muscle torque using an isokinetic dynamometer. Nineteen women (20.9±2.4 years, 62.0±4.9 kg, 166±5 cm) were included. Normalized peak torque decreased significantly between the first three and last three repetitions of the fatigue protocol (p<0.0001, ES=3.2 and 3.2). Slope of the displacement-load curve and anterior tibial translation, functional and conventional ratios did not change significantly between T and T Active and passive markers of knee stability were not altered by a fatigue protocol in female handball players, suggesting these players have a large capacity for recovery. These results suggest that muscle strengthening to prevent ACL injury in female handball players may be inappropriate.Level of evidence: Level 2b, Prospective Cohort.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-0866-9482DOI Listing
July 2019

Physiological and Perceived Exertion Responses during International Karate Kumite Competition.

Asian J Sports Med 2013 12 3;4(4):263-71. Epub 2013 Sep 3.

CETAPS, University of Rouen, Mont Saint Aignan, France.

Purpose: Investigate the physiological responses and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) in elite karate athletes and examine the relationship between a subjective method (Session-RPE) and two objective heart-rate (HR)-based methods to quantify training-load (TL) during international karate competition.

Methods: Eleven karatekas took part in this study, but only data from seven athletes who completed three matches in an international tournament were used (four men and three women). The duration of combat was 3 min for men and 2 min for women, with 33.6±7.6 min for the first interval period (match 1-2) and 14.5±3.1 min for the second interval period (match 2-3). HR was continuously recorded during each combat. Blood lactate [La(-)] and (RPE) were measured just before the first match and immediately after each match.

Results: Means total fights time, HR, %HRmax, [La(-)], and session-RPE were 4.7±1.6 min, 182±9 bpm, 91±3%, 9.02±2.12 mmol.L(-1) and 4.2±1.2, respectively. No significant differences in %HRmax, [La(-)], and RPE were noticed across combats. Significant correlations were observed between RPE and both resting HR (r=0.60; P=0.004) and mean HR (r=0.64; P=0.02), session-RPE and Banister training-impulse (TRIMP) (r=0.84; P<0.001) and Edwards TL (r=0.77; P<0.01).

Conclusion: International karate competition elicited near-maximal cardiovascular responses and high [La(-)]. Training should therefore include exercise bouts that sufficiently stimulate the zone between 90 and 100% HRmax. Karate coaches could use the RPE-method to follow competitor's competition loads and consider it in their technical and tactical training.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5812/asjsm.34246DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3977210PMC
December 2013

Prediction of maximal or peak oxygen uptake from ratings of perceived exertion.

Sports Med 2014 May;44(5):563-78

Faculté des Sciences du Sport et de l'Education Physique, EA 3832, Centre d'Etudes des Transformations des Activités Physiques et Sportives, Université de Rouen, Boulevard Siegfried, 76821, Mont Saint Aignan Cedex, France,

Maximal or peak oxygen uptake (V˙O2 max and V˙O2 peak , respectively) are commonly measured during graded exercise tests (GXTs) to assess cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), to prescribe exercise intensity and/or to evaluate the effects of training. However, direct measurement of CRF requires a GXT to volitional exhaustion, which may not always be well accepted by athletes or which should be avoided in some clinical populations. Consequently, numerous studies have proposed various sub-maximal exercise tests to predict V˙O2 max or V˙O2 peak . Because of the strong link between ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and oxygen uptake (V˙O2), it has been proposed that the individual relationship between RPE and V˙O2 (RPE:V˙O2) can be used to predict V˙O2 max (or V˙O2 peak) from data measured during submaximal exercise tests. To predict V˙O2 max or V˙O2 peak from these linear regressions, two procedures may be identified: an estimation procedure or a production procedure. The estimation procedure is a passive process in which the individual is typically asked to rate how hard an exercise bout feels according to the RPE scale during each stage of a submaximal GXT. The production procedure is an active process in which the individual is asked to self-regulate and maintain an exercise intensity corresponding to a prescribed RPE. This procedure is referred to as a perceptually regulated exercise test (PRET). Recently, prediction of V˙O2max or V˙O2 peak from RPE:V˙O2 measured during both GXT and PRET has received growing interest. A number of studies have tested the validity, reliability and sensitivity of predicted V˙O2 max or V˙O2 peak from RPE:V˙O2 extrapolated to the theoretical V˙O2 max at RPE20 (or RPE19). This review summarizes studies that have used this predictive method during submaximal estimation or production procedures in various populations (i.e., sedentary individuals, athletes and pathological populations). The accuracy of the methods is discussed according to the RPE:V˙O2 range used to plot the linear regression (e.g., RPE9–13 versus RPE9–15 versus RPE9–17 during PRET), as well as the perceptual endpoint used for the extrapolation (i.e., RPE19 and RPE20). The V˙O2 max or V˙O2 peak predictions from RPE:V˙O2 are also compared with heart rate-related predictive methods. This review suggests that V˙O2 max (or V˙O2 peak ) may be predicted from RPE:V˙O2 extrapolated to the theoretical V˙O2 max (or V˙O2 peak) at RPE20 (or RPE19). However, it is generally preferable to (1) extrapolate RPE:V ˙ O 2 to RPE19 (rather than RPE20); (2) use wider RPE ranges (e.g. RPE ≤ 17 or RPE9–17) in order to increase the accuracy of the predictions; and (3) use RPE ≤ 15 or RPE9–15 in order to reduce the risk of cardiovascular complications in clinical populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40279-013-0139-5DOI Listing
May 2014

Environment and scheduling effects on sprint and middle distance running performances.

PLoS One 2013 20;8(11):e79548. Epub 2013 Nov 20.

IRMES (biomedical Research Institute of Sports Epidemiology, Paris, France), INSEP (Institut National du Sport de l'Expertise et de la Performance), Paris, France ; Paris Descartes University, Sorbonne, Paris Cité, Paris, France ; Hôtel-Dieu Hospital, CIMS (Centre d'Investigations en Médecine du Sport), AP-HP (Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris), Paris, France.

Purpose: Achievement of athletes' performances is related to several factors including physiological, environmental and institutional cycles where physical characteristics are involved. The objective of this study is to analyse the performance achieved in professional sprint and middle-distance running events (100 m to 1500 m) depending on the organization of the annual calendar of track events and their environmental conditions.

Methods: From 2002 to 2008, all performances of the Top 50 international athletes in the 100 m to 1500 m races (men and women) are collected. The historical series of world records and the 10 best annual performances in these events, amounted to a total of 26,544 performances, are also included in the study.

Results: Two periods with a higher frequency of peak performances are observed. The first peak occurs around the 27.15(th) ±0.21 week (first week of July) and the second peak around 34.75(th) ±0.14 week (fourth week of August). The second peak tends to be the time of major international competitions (Olympic Games, World Championships, and European Championships) and could be characterized as an institutional moment. The first one, however, corresponds to an environmental optimum as measured by the narrowing of the temperature range at the highest performance around 23.25±3.26°C.

Conclusions: This is the first study to demonstrate that there are two performance peaks at a specific time of year (27th and 34th weeks) in sprint and middle distance. Both institutional and ecophysiological aspects contribute to performance in the 100 m to 1500 m best performances and define the contours of human possibilities. Sport institutions may take this into account in order to provide ideal conditions to improve the next records.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0079548PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3868388PMC
July 2014

Estimated time limit: a brief review of a perceptually based scale.

Sports Med 2012 Oct;42(10):845-55

Université de Rouen, Faculté des Sciences du Sport et de l'Education Physique, Centre d'Etudes des Transformations des Activités Physiques et Sportives, Mont Saint Aignan, France.

The ability to predict performance is of great interest for athletes and coaches. It is helpful for the selection of athletes to a team, the prescription of individualized training and the determination of the optimal pacing strategy. However, it is often difficult to judge the time to exhaustion without maximal exercise testing, which is often difficult to schedule during a competitive season. Consequently, the purpose of this review is to present a recent tool based on subjective prediction of time to exhaustion than can be achieved without requiring a maximal effort. This tool is the estimated time limit (ETL) scale. This review summarizes all experimentations that have studied the ETL scale. These studies suggest that the ETL scale may be used to predict time to exhaustion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2165/11635370-000000000-00000DOI Listing
October 2012

Shoulder muscles recruitment during a power backward giant swing on high bar: a wavelet-EMG-analysis.

Hum Mov Sci 2012 Apr 24;31(2):472-85. Epub 2012 Apr 24.

Motricité Interactions Performance Laboratory UPRES EA 4334, Faculty of Sports Science, University of Nantes, France.

This study aimed at determining the upper limb muscles coordination during a power backward giant swing (PBGS) and the recruitment pattern of motor units (MU) of co-activated muscles. The wavelet transformation (WT) was applied to the surface electromyographic (EMG) signal of eight shoulder muscles. Total gymnast's body energy and wavelet synergies extracted from the WT-EMG by using a non-negative matrix factorization were analyzed as a function of the body position angle of the gymnast. A cross-correlation analysis of the EMG patterns allowed determining two main groups of co-activated muscles. Two wavelet synergies representing the main spectral features (82% of the variance accounted for) discriminated the recruitment of MU. Although no task-group of MU was found among the muscles, it appeared that a higher proportion of fast MU was recruited within the muscles of the first group during the upper part of the PBGS. The last increase of total body energy before bar release was induced by the recruitment of the muscles of the second group but did not necessitate the recruitment of a higher proportion of fast MU. Such muscle coordination agreed with previous simulations of elements on high bar as well as the findings related to the recruitment of MU.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humov.2012.02.002DOI Listing
April 2012

Effect of the upper limbs muscles activity on the mechanical energy gain in pole vaulting.

J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2012 Apr 30;22(2):207-14. Epub 2011 Nov 30.

Laboratoire Motricité, Interactions, Performance (EA 4334), University of Nantes, F-44300 Nantes, France.

The shoulder muscles are highly solicited in pole vaulting and may afford energy gain. The objective of this study was to determine the bilateral muscle activity of the upper-limbs to explain the actions performed by the vaulter to bend the pole and store elastic energy. Seven experienced athletes performed 5-10 vaults which were recorded using two video cameras (50Hz). The mechanical energy of the centre of gravity (CG) was computed, while surface electromyographic (EMG) profiles were recorded from 5 muscles bilateral: deltoideus, infraspinatus, biceps brachii, triceps, and latissimus dorsi muscles. The level of intensity from EMG profile was retained in four sub phases between take-off (TO1) and complete pole straightening (PS). The athletes had a mean mechanical energy gain of 22% throughout the pole vault, while the intensities of deltoideus, biceps brachii, and latissimus dorsi muscles were sub phases-dependent (p<0.05). Stabilizing the glenohumeral joint (increase of deltoideus and biceps brachii activity) and applying a pole bending torque (increase of latissimus dorsi activity) required specific muscle activation. The gain in mechanical energy of the vaulter could be linked to an increase in muscle activation, especially from latissimusdorsi muscles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jelekin.2011.11.007DOI Listing
April 2012

Catapult effect in pole vaulting: is muscle coordination determinant?

J Electromyogr Kinesiol 2012 Feb 28;22(1):145-52. Epub 2011 Oct 28.

Laboratoire Motricité, Interactions, Performance (MIP) (EA 4334), University of Nantes, F-44300 Nantes, France.

This study focused on the phase between the time of straightened pole and the maximum height (HP) of vaulter and aimed at determining the catapult effect in pole vaulting on HP. Seven experienced vaulters performed 5-10 vaults recorded by two video cameras, while the surface electromyography (sEMG) activity of 10 upper limbs muscles was recorded. HP was compared with an estimated maximum height (HP(est)) allowing the computation of a push-off index. Muscle synergies were extracted from the sEMG activity profiles using a non-negative matrix factorization algorithm. No significant difference (p>0.47) was found between HP(est) (4.64±0.21m) and HP (4.69±0.23m). Despite a high inter-individual variability in sEMG profiles, two muscle synergies were extracted for all the subjects which accounted for 96.1±2.9% of the total variance. While, the synergy activation coefficients were very similar across subjects, a higher variability was found in the muscle synergy vectors. Consequently, whatever the push-off index among the pole vaulters, the athletes used different muscle groupings (i.e., muscle synergy vectors) which were activated in a similar fashion (i.e., synergy activation coefficients). Overall, these results suggested that muscle coordination adopted between the time of straightened pole and the maximum height does not have a major influence on HP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jelekin.2011.10.001DOI Listing
February 2012

Influence of the scale function on wavelet transformation of the surface electromyographic signal.

Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin 2012 24;15(2):111-20. Epub 2011 May 24.

Centre d'Etude des Transformations des Activités Physiques et Sportives Laboratory UPRES EA 3832, University of Rouen, Mont Saint Aignan, France.

The scale function in wavelet transformation (WT) determines wavelet dilation and optimises the processing of a given signal. Here, the objective was to determine the influence of the scale function on the WT of 160 surface electromyograms using second-degree polynomial (WT(poly)) and exponential (WT(exp)) scale functions. For each WT, a mean frequency (MNF) was calculated from the original wavelet spectrum and from the cubic spline interpolated wavelet spectrum, and these were compared with the MNF obtained from a fast Fourier transform (FFT). The total intensity (Tp) for each WT was compared with the root mean square (RMS). The MNFs computed from the original wavelet spectra were significantly (P < 0.05) lower and higher when computed from the reconstructed wavelet spectra than those from the FFT. The Tp computed from WT(poly) showed significantly higher agreement with the RMS than the Tp from WT(exp). Finally, the WT(poly) may serve as a reference in electromyography.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10255842.2010.517199DOI Listing
May 2012

Mechanics of pole vaulting: a review.

Sports Biomech 2010 Jun;9(2):123-38

CETAPS, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Rouen, Mont Saint Aignan Cedex, France.

A good understanding of the mechanics of pole vaulting is fundamental to performance because this event is quite complex, with several factors occurring in sequence and/or in parallel. These factors mainly concern the velocities of the vaulter-pole system, the kinetic and potential energy of the vaulter and the strain energy stored in the pole, the force and torque applied by the athlete, and the pole design. Although the pole vault literature is vast, encompassing several fields such as medicine, sports sciences, mechanics, mathematics, and physics, the studies agree that pole vault performance is basically influenced by the energy exchange between the vaulter and pole. Ideally, as the athlete clears the crossbar, the vaulter mechanical energy must be composed of high potential energy and low kinetic energy, guaranteeing the high vertical component of the vault. Moreover, the force and torque applied by the vaulter influences this energy exchange and these factors thus must be taken into consideration in the analysis of performance. This review presents the variables that influence pole vault performance during the run-up, take-off, pole support, and free flight phases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14763141.2010.492430DOI Listing
June 2010

Apnea training effects on swimming coordination.

J Strength Cond Res 2009 Sep;23(6):1909-14

C.E.T.A.P.S., UPRES EA No 3832: University of Rouen, Faculty of Sports Sciences, 76130 Mont-Saint-Aignan, France.

Triathletes and elite breath-hold divers show an adaptive response to hypoxia induced by repeated epochs of breath holding. We hypothesized that hypoxic training could also improve swimming coordination. Before and after a 3-month breath-hold training program, 4 male swimmers performed a maximal incremental test on bicycle and a 50-m front crawl race at maximal speed without breathing so that interarm coordination could be assessed. Swim velocity, stroke rate (SR), stroke length (SL), and the arm stroke phases were calculated from video analysis. Arm coordination was quantified in terms of an index of coordination (IdC) based on the time gap between the propulsive phases of each arm. After apnea training, the forced expiratory volume in 1 second was higher (4.85 +/- 0.78 vs. 4.94 +/- 0.81 L, p < 0.05), with concomitant increases in VO2peak, minimal arterial oxygen saturation, and respiratory compensation point values (W and W x kg(-1)) during the incremental test. Swimming performance was not improved (clean velocity and time on 50 m); however, SR was decreased and SL and IdC were increased. These results indicate that apnea training improves effectiveness at both peak exercise and submaximal exercise and can also improve swimming technique by promoting greater propulsive continuity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181b073a8DOI Listing
September 2009

Study of the fatigue curve in quadriceps and hamstrings of soccer players during isokinetic endurance testing.

J Strength Cond Res 2008 Sep;22(5):1458-67

Faculty of Sports Sciences, University of Rouen, Mont Saint Aignan, France.

Many studies have presented regression models of quadriceps (Q) muscle strength loss with fatigue development. Paradoxically, the hamstrings (H), which are the principal site of muscle injury in soccer players, have received little attention, and no regression model has been established. This study investigated strength loss in the Q and H to establish a regression model using the lowest number of flexions-extensions during isokinetic endurance testing. Twenty-four semiprofessional soccer players performed 50 flexion-extension movements at 180 degrees x s(-1) on an isokinetic dynamometer. The theoretical equations were calculated from the first 10, first 15, first 20, and first 25 contractions for each muscle group by several regression models (linear, quadratic, cubic). The linear model was the best fit to this exercise protocol to describe the strength loss in both muscle groups. The quadratic model was the best fit to predict the changes in the H/Q ratio. This study showed that a regression model can be established for both muscle groups. A minimum of 20 extensions and 15 flexions was needed to establish a linear model that represented strength loss in, respectively, Q and H. A minimum of 25 flexions-extensions was needed with the quadratic model to accurately determine the decrease in the H/Q ratio. Isokinetic endurance testing can be carried out with only 25 flexions-extensions. This reduction should facilitate the implementation of this protocol. Regular evaluation would contribute to the efforts to prevent muscle injury during competitive sports activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e318181ab41DOI Listing
September 2008

Effect of breathing pattern on arm coordination symmetry in front crawl.

J Strength Cond Res 2008 Sep;22(5):1670-6

University of Rouen, Faculty of Sports Sciences, CETAPS EA 3832, Rouen, France.

This study analyzed the relationship between breathing pattern and arm coordination symmetry in 11 expert male swimmers who performed the front crawl at their 100-m race pace using seven randomized breathing patterns. Two indexes of coordination (IdCP and IdCNP) and a symmetry index (SI) based on the difference of IdCP - IdCNP were calculated. IdCP calculated the lag time between the beginning of arm propulsion on the nonpreferential breathing side and the end of arm propulsion on the preferential breathing side; IdCNP did the converse. The IdCP and IdCNP comparisons and the SI showed coordination asymmetries among the seven breathing patterns. Specifically, breathing to the preferential side led to an asymmetry, in contrast to the other breathing patterns, and the asymmetry was even greater when the swimmer breathed to his nonpreferential side. These findings highlight the effect of breathing laterality in that coordination was symmetric in patterns with breathing that was bilateral, axed (as in breathing with a frontal snorkel), or removed (as in apnea). One practical application is that arm coordination asymmetry can be prevented or reduced by using breathing patterns that balance the coordination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e318182029dDOI Listing
September 2008

Static apnea effect on heart rate and its variability in elite breath-hold divers.

Aviat Space Environ Med 2008 Feb;79(2):99-104

Centre d'Etudes des Transformations des Activités Physiques et Sportives, Equipe d'Accueil, Faculté des Sciences du Sport et de l'Education Physique de Rouen, Université de Rouen, France.

Background: The diving response includes cardiovascular adjustments known to decrease oxygen uptake and thus prolong apnea duration. As this diving response is in part characterized by a pronounced decrease in heart rate (HR), it is thought to be vagally mediated.

Methods: In five professional breath-hold divers (BHDs) and five less-trained controls (CTL), we investigated whether the diving response is in fact associated with an increase in the root mean square successive difference of the R-R intervals (RMSSD), a time-domain heart rate variability (HRV) index. HR behavior and arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) were continuously recorded during one maximal apnea. Short-term changes in SaO2, HR, and RMSSD were calculated over the complete apnea duration.

Results: BHDs presented bi-phasic HR kinetics, with two HR decreases (32 +/- 17% and 20 +/- 10% of initial HR). The second HR decrease, which was concomitant to the pronounced SaO2 decrease, was also simultaneous to a marked increase in RMSSD. CTL showed only one HR decrease (50 +/- 10% of initial HR), which appeared before the concomitant SaO2 and RMSSD changes. When all subject data were combined, arterial desaturation was positively correlated with total apnea time (r = 0.87, P < 0.01).

Conclusion: This study indicates that baroreflex stimulation and hypoxia may be involved in the bi-phasic HR response of BHDs and thus in their longer apnea duration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3357/asem.2142.2008DOI Listing
February 2008
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