Publications by authors named "Claire Mackaaij"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Sensory Innervation of Human Bone: An Immunohistochemical Study to Further Understand Bone Pain.

J Pain 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University Medical Center Utrecht, The Netherlands; SentryX B.V., Woudenbergseweg 41, Austerlitz, The Netherlands.

Skeletal diseases and their surgical treatment induce severe pain. The innervation density of bone potentially explains the severe pain reported. Animal studies concluded that sensory myelinated A∂-fibers and unmyelinated C-fibers are mainly responsible for conducting bone pain, and that the innervation density of these nerve fibers was highest in periosteum. However, literature regarding sensory innervation of human bone is scarce. This observational study aimed to quantify sensory nerve fiber density in periosteum, cortical bone, and bone marrow of axial and appendicular human bones using immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis demonstrated that the total number of sensory and sympathetic nerve fibers was highest in periosteum, followed by bone marrow, and cortical bone for all bones studied. Bone from thoracic vertebral bodies contained most sensory nerve fibers, followed by the upper extremity, lower extremity, and parietal neurocranium. The number of nerve fibers declined with age and did not differ between male and female specimens. Sensory nerve fibers were organized as a branched network throughout the periosteum. The current results provide an explanation for the severe pain accompanying skeletal disease, fracture, or surgery. Further, the results could provide more insight into mechanisms that generate and maintain skeletal pain and might aid in developing new treatment strategies. PERSPECTIVE: This article presents the innervation of human bone and assesses the effect of age, gender, bone compartment and type of bone on innervation density. The presented data provide an explanation for the severity of bone pain arising from skeletal diseases and their surgical treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2021.04.006DOI Listing
May 2021

Sympathetic nerve distribution in human lymph nodes.

J Anat 2021 Mar 6. Epub 2021 Mar 6.

Department of Anatomy, Division of Surgical Specialties, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Various lymph node functions are regulated by the sympathetic nervous system as shown in rodent studies. If human lymph nodes show a comparable neural regulation, their afferent nerves could represent a potential therapeutic target to treat, for example, infectious or autoimmune disease. Little information is available on human lymph node innervation and the aim of this study is to establish a comprehensive and accurate representation of the presence and location of sympathetic nerves in human lymph nodes. Since previous studies mention sympathetic paravascular nerves to occasionally extent into T cell-rich regions, the relation of these nerves with T cells was studied as well. A total number of 15 inguinal lymph nodes were resected from six donated human cadavers. Lymph node sections were stained with HE and a double T/B cell staining for evaluation of their morphology and to screen for general pathologies. A triple stain was used to identify blood vessels, sympathetic nerves and T cells, and, to study the presence and location of sympathetic nerves and their relation to T cells. To evaluate whether the observed nerves were en route to other structures or were involved in local processes, adjacent slides were stained with a marker for varicosities (synaptophysin), which presence is suggestive for synaptic activity. All lymph nodes contained sympathetic nerves, both as paravascular and discrete structures. In 15/15 lymph nodes, nerves were observed in their capsule, medulla and hilum, whereas only 13/15 lymph nodes contained nerves in their cortex. The amount of sympathetic nerves varied between compartments and between and within individuals. In general, if a lymph node contained more paravascular nerves in a specific compartment, more discrete nerves were observed as well. Occasionally, discrete nerves were observed in relation to T cells in lymphoid tissues of the cortex and medulla. Furthermore, discrete nerves were frequently present in the capsule and hilum. The presence of varicosities in a portion of these nerves, independently to their compartment, suggested a local regulatory function for these nerves. Human lymph nodes contain sympathetic nerves in their capsule, trabeculae, cortex, medulla and hilum, both as paravascular or as discrete structures. Discrete nerves were observed in relation to T cells and non-T cell-rich areas such as the hilar and capsular connective tissue. The presence of discrete structures suggests neural regulation of structures other than blood vessels, which was further supported by the presence of varicosities in a portion of these nerves. These observations are of relevance in further understanding neural regulation of lymph node immune responses and in the development of neuromodulatory immune therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/joa.13422DOI Listing
March 2021

Arterial Remodeling of the Intracranial Arteries in Patients With Hypertension and Controls: A Postmortem Study.

Hypertension 2021 Jan 23;77(1):135-146. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Department of Pathology, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam Cardiovascular Sciences, the Netherlands (C.M., I.S.E.W., M.P.D.B., M.J.A.P.D., D.M.A.H.).

The intracranial arteries play a major role in cerebrovascular disease, but arterial remodeling due to hypertension has not been well described in humans. We aimed to quantify this remodeling for: the basilar artery, the vertebral, internal carotid, middle/anterior (inferior)/posterior cerebral, posterior communicating, and superior cerebellar arteries of the circle of Willis. Ex vivo circle of Willis specimens, selected from individuals with (n=24) and without (n=25) a history of hypertension, were imaged at 7T magnetic resonance imaging using a 3-dimensional gradient-echo sequence. Subsequently, histological analysis was performed. We validated the vessel wall thickness and area measurements from magnetic resonance imaging against histology. Next, we investigated potential differences in vessel wall thickness and area between both groups using both techniques. Finally, using histological analysis, we investigated potential differences in arterial wall stiffness and atherosclerotic plaque severity and load. All analyses were unadjusted. Magnetic resonance imaging and histology showed comparable vessel wall thickness (mean difference: 0.04 mm (limits of agreement:-0.12 to 0.19 mm) and area (0.43 mm [-0.97 to 1.8 mm]) measurements. We observed no statistically significant differences in vessel wall thickness and area between both groups using either technique. Histological analysis showed early and advanced atherosclerotic plaques in almost all arteries for both groups. The arterial wall stiffness was significantly higher for the internal carotid artery in the hypertensive group. Concluding, we did not observe vessel wall thickening in the circle of Willis arteries in individuals with a history of hypertension using either technique. Using histological analysis, we observed a difference in vessel wall composition for the internal carotid artery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.120.16029DOI Listing
January 2021

Morphological hallmarks facilitating distinction of omental milky spots and lymph nodes: an exploratory study on their discriminative capacity.

Histol Histopathol 2020 Nov 14;35(11):1275-1284. Epub 2020 Sep 14.

Department of Anatomy, Division of Surgical Specialties, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, the Netherlands.

Background: Omental milky spots (OMSs) are the primary lymphoid structures of the greater omentum. However, the presence of lymph nodes (LNs) has occasionally been mentioned as well. Understanding which lymphoid structures are present is of significance, especially in gastric tumor metastasis; tumor deposits in omental LNs suggest local lymphatic spread, whereas tumor deposits in OMSs suggest peritoneal spread and hence extensive disease. Since LNs and OMSs share morphological characteristics and OMSs might be wrongly identified as LNs, reliable hallmarks facilitating easy discrimination are needed.

Materials And Method: A series of microscopic morphological hallmarks unique to LNs were selected as potential candidates and were assessed for their discriminative capacity: 1) capsule, 2) trabeculae, 3) subcapsular sinus, 4) afferent lymphatic vessels, 5) distinct B- and T cell regions, and 6) a layered organization with, from the outside in a capsule, cortex, paracortex, and medulla. These hallmarks were visualized by multiple staining techniques.

Results: Hallmarks 1, 2 5 and 6 were shown to be the most efficient as these were consistent and discriminative. They were best visualized by Picrosirius red, smooth muscle actin and a B-cell / T-cell double staining.

Conclusion: The presence of a capsule, trabeculae, distinct B- and T-cell regions and a layered organization represent consistent and reliable morphological features which allow to easily distinguish LNs from OMSs, especially when applied in combination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14670/HH-18-254DOI Listing
November 2020

Authors' Response to Letter to the Editor on "Unidentified Variables May Account for Variability in Multiplexing Results".

J Histochem Cytochem 2020 05;68(5):355-356

Department of Dermatology, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, location AMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1369/0022155420925082DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7226621PMC
May 2020

Comparison of Two Different Immunohistochemical Quadruple Staining Approaches to Identify Innate Lymphoid Cells in Formalin-fixed Paraffin-embedded Human Tissue.

J Histochem Cytochem 2020 02 27;68(2):127-138. Epub 2019 Dec 27.

Department of Dermatology, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Lack of specific markers for innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) limit our knowledge on their spatial organization in situ. We compared two quadruple-color staining protocols for detection of the three principal human ILC subsets in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded specimens. ILC subset-associated archetypical transcription factors (TFs) T-bet, GATA3, and RORγt were used as positive identifiers in combination with lymphoid lineage markers to exclude non-ILCs. One method ("virtual quadruple staining") comprised of iterative single stainings on the same section performing digital scanning and subsequent immunoglobulin and chromogen stripping after each staining round. The second technique ("true-color quadruple staining") comprised sequential double stainings with permanent colors. Both protocols appeared suitable for accurate detection of each ILC subset, and as added result, concomitant visualization of their T cell subset counterpart. Only true-color quadruple staining enabled simultaneous detection of all three ILC subsets within one section. Furthermore, we found that type 3 and type 1 ILCs (ILC1s) represent the major subsets in colon and that part of the ILC1s typically colocalizes with blood vessels. Our data highlight the utility of TFs combined with lineage markers for the identification of ILC subsets and proposed workflow opens the way to gain deeper insight of their anatomical distribution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1369/0022155419897257DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7003497PMC
February 2020

Profiling the unique protective properties of intracranial arterial endothelial cells.

Acta Neuropathol Commun 2019 10 14;7(1):151. Epub 2019 Oct 14.

Department of Molecular Cell Biology and Immunology, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam Neuroscience, de Boelelaan, 1117, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Cardiovascular disorders, like atherosclerosis and hypertension, are increasingly known to be associated with vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). In particular, intracranial atherosclerosis is one of the main causes of VCI, although plaque development occurs later in time and is structurally different compared to atherosclerosis in extracranial arteries. Recent data suggest that endothelial cells (ECs) that line the intracranial arteries may exert anti-atherosclerotic effects due to yet unidentified pathways. To gain insights into underlying mechanisms, we isolated post-mortem endothelial cells from both the intracranial basilar artery (BA) and the extracranial common carotid artery (CCA) from the same individual (total of 15 individuals) with laser capture microdissection. RNA sequencing revealed a distinct molecular signature of the two endothelial cell populations of which the most prominent ones were validated by means of qPCR. Our data reveal for the first time that intracranial artery ECs exert an immune quiescent phenotype. Secondly, genes known to be involved in the response of ECs to damage (inflammation, differentiation, adhesion, proliferation, permeability and oxidative stress) are differentially expressed in intracranial ECs compared to extracranial ECs. Finally, Desmoplakin (DSP) and Hop Homeobox (HOPX), two genes expressed at a higher level in intracranial ECs, and Sodium Voltage-Gated Channel Beta Subunit 3 (SCN3B), a gene expressed at a lower level in intracranial ECs compared to extracranial ECs, were shown to be responsive to shear stress and/or hypoxia. With our data we present a set of intracranial-specific endothelial genes that may contribute to its protective phenotype, thereby supporting proper perfusion and consequently may preserve cognitive function. Deciphering the molecular regulation of the vascular bed in the brain may lead to the identification of novel potential intervention strategies to halt vascular associated disorders, such as atherosclerosis and vascular cognitive dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40478-019-0805-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6792251PMC
October 2019

Extracellular traps derived from macrophages, mast cells, eosinophils and neutrophils are generated in a time-dependent manner during atherothrombosis.

J Pathol 2019 04 25;247(4):505-512. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

Department of Pathology, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Extracellular traps generated by neutrophils contribute to thrombus progression in coronary atherosclerotic plaques. It is not known whether other inflammatory cell types in coronary atherosclerotic plaque or thrombus also release extracellular traps. We investigated their formation by macrophages, mast cells, and eosinophils in human coronary atherosclerosis, and in relation to the age of thrombus of myocardial infarction patients. Coronary arteries with thrombosed or intact plaques were retrieved from patients who died from myocardial infarction. In addition, thrombectomy specimens from patients with myocardial infarction were classified histologically as fresh, lytic or organised. Neutrophil and macrophage extracellular traps were identified using sequential triple immunostaining of CD68, myeloperoxidase, and citrullinated histone H3. Eosinophil and mast cell extracellular traps were visualised using double immunostaining for eosinophil major basic protein or tryptase, respectively, and citrullinated histone H3. Single- and double-stained immunopositive cells in the plaque, adjacent adventitia, and thrombus were counted. All types of leucocyte-derived extracellular traps were present in all thrombosed plaques, and in all types of the in vivo-derived thrombi, but only to a much lower extent in intact plaques. Neutrophil traps, followed by macrophage traps, were the most prominent types in the autopsy series of atherothrombotic plaques, including the adventitia adjacent to thrombosed plaques. In contrast, macrophage traps were more numerous than neutrophil traps in intact plaques (lipid cores) and organised thrombi. Mast cell and eosinophil extracellular traps were also present, but sparse in all instances. In conclusion, not only neutrophils but also macrophages, eosinophils, and mast cells are sources of etosis involved in evolving coronary thrombosis. Neutrophil traps dominate numerically in early thrombosis and macrophage traps in late (organising) thrombosis, implying that together they span all the stages of thrombus progression and maturation. © 2018 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/path.5212DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6590313PMC
April 2019

Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Participate in All Different Types of Thrombotic and Haemorrhagic Complications of Coronary Atherosclerosis.

Thromb Haemost 2018 06 19;118(6):1078-1087. Epub 2018 Apr 19.

Department of Pathology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Acute coronary syndromes can be initiated by either atherosclerotic fibrous cap ruptures, superficial plaque erosions or intraplaque haemorrhages (IPHs). Since neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) display pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic properties, we investigated the presence, extent and distribution of neutrophils and NETs in different types of plaque complications in relation to the age of overlying thrombus mass or haemorrhage. Sixty-four paraffin-embedded coronary plaque segments of 30 acute myocardial infarction patients were retrieved from the autopsy archives, which contained 44 complicated plaques (17 IPHs, 9 erosions and 18 ruptures) and 20 intact plaques. Complicated plaques were further categorized according to the histological age of thrombus or haemorrhage. Immunohistochemistry was performed to visualize neutrophils (anti-myeloperoxidase, anti-elastase and anti-CD177) and NETs (anti-citrullinated histone-3 and anti-peptidyl-arginine-deiminase-4). The results were scored semi-quantitatively. Neutrophils and NETs were abundantly present in all types of complicated, but not in intact, plaques ( < 0.05). They were found in thrombus, haemorrhages and at the thrombus-plaque interface, with no significant differences in extent between ruptures, erosions and IPHs. Interestingly, adjacent perivascular tissue of complicated, but not of intact plaques, also contained high numbers of neutrophils and NETs ( < 0.05). In thrombus and haemorrhage of different age, neutrophils and NETs were more frequently present in non-organized (fresh) thrombi and in on-going IPHs. In conclusion, netosis is a prominent pro-thrombotic participant in all distinct types of atherothrombosis, which may facilitate the progression of thrombotic or haemorrhagic complications and thus the onset of ensuing clinical coronary ischemic syndromes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0038-1641749DOI Listing
June 2018

Immunophenotypic analysis of the chronological events of tissue repair in aortic medial dissections.

Cardiovasc Pathol 2018 May - Jun;34:9-14. Epub 2018 Feb 10.

Dept. of Pathology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105, AZ, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Acute medial dissection of aorta can occur in the context of a sudden and unexpected death. For medico-legal reasons it is important to estimate as accurately the histological age of dissections. We evaluated the additional value of a systematic application of immunohistochemistry, compared with conventional histology only, in determining chronological steps of injury and repair. Thirty two paraffin embedded specimens of aortic dissection were retrospectively allocated to one of four defined stages: acute (I), subacute (II), early organizing (III) and scarring (IV) using Hematoxylin and Eosin and Elastica van Gieson stained sections. Subsequent immunohistochemically staining was performed with the following markers: (myeloperoxidase (neutrophils), citrullinated-Histone 3 (neutrophil extracellular traps), CD68 (macrophages), CD3 (T-cells), CD31 and CD34 (endothelial cells), and smooth muscle actin. Immune stained sections were scored semi-quantitatively. Histologically, five cases were identified as stage I, 16 as II, 7 as III and 4 as IV. Additional immunostaining for smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells altered the classification in 25% of cases (all in groups II and III). Immunostaining and semi-quantitative grading of involvement of neutrophils, macrophages and NETs also provided specific distribution patterns over the 4 age categories, including unexpected involvement of the peri adventitial fat tissue. In conclusion, it appears that semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry of resident vascular wall cells, inflammatory cells and NETS represents a useful adjunct in detailed histopathological grading of the chronological age of aortic dissections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carpath.2018.01.009DOI Listing
October 2018

Inhibition of hypoxia inducible factor 1 and topoisomerase with acriflavine sensitizes perihilar cholangiocarcinomas to photodynamic therapy.

Oncotarget 2016 Jan;7(3):3341-56

Department of Experimental Surgery, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) induces tumor cell death by oxidative stress and hypoxia but also survival signaling through activation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). Since perihilar cholangiocarcinomas are relatively recalcitrant to PDT, the aims were to (1) determine the expression levels of HIF-1-associated proteins in human perihilar cholangiocarcinomas, (2) investigate the role of HIF-1 in PDT-treated human perihilar cholangiocarcinoma cells, and (3) determine whether HIF-1 inhibition reduces survival signaling and enhances PDT efficacy.

Results: Increased expression of VEGF, CD105, CD31/Ki-67, and GLUT-1 was confirmed in human perihilar cholangiocarcinomas. PDT with liposome-delivered zinc phthalocyanine caused HIF-1α stabilization in SK-ChA-1 cells and increased transcription of HIF-1α downstream genes. Acriflavine was taken up by SK-ChA-1 cells and translocated to the nucleus under hypoxic conditions. Importantly, pretreatment of SK-ChA-1 cells with acriflavine enhanced PDT efficacy via inhibition of HIF-1 and topoisomerases I and II.

Methods: The expression of VEGF, CD105, CD31/Ki-67, and GLUT-1 was determined by immunohistochemistry in human perihilar cholangiocarcinomas. In addition, the response of human perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (SK-ChA-1) cells to PDT with liposome-delivered zinc phthalocyanine was investigated under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Acriflavine, a HIF-1α/HIF-1β dimerization inhibitor and a potential dual topoisomerase I/II inhibitor, was evaluated for its adjuvant effect on PDT efficacy.

Conclusions: HIF-1, which is activated in human hilar cholangiocarcinomas, contributes to tumor cell survival following PDT in vitro. Combining PDT with acriflavine pretreatment improves PDT efficacy in cultured cells and therefore warrants further preclinical validation for therapy-recalcitrant perihilar cholangiocarcinomas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.6490DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4823110PMC
January 2016

Accurate quantitation of Ki67-positive proliferating hepatocytes in rabbit liver by a multicolor immunohistochemical (IHC) approach analyzed with automated tissue and cell segmentation software.

J Histochem Cytochem 2013 Jan 1;61(1):11-8. Epub 2012 Sep 1.

Department of Pathology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Determination of hepatocyte proliferation activity is hampered by the presence of Ki67-positive non-parenchymal cells. We validated a multicolor immunohistochemical (IHC) approach using multispectral tissue and cell segmentation software. Portal vein branches to the cranial liver lobes of 10 rabbits were embolized, leading to atrophy of the cranial lobes and hyperplasia of the caudal lobes. Slides from cranial and caudal lobes (n=20) were double-stained (CK8+18 and Ki67) and triple-stained (CK8+18, Ki67, and CD31). The Ki67 proliferation index was calculated using automated tissue and cell segmentation software and compared with manual counting by two independent observers. A substantial variation was seen in the number of Ki67-positive hepatocytes in the different specimens in both double and triple staining (range, 0-50). Correlation coefficients between manual counting and the digital analysis were 0.76 for observer 1 (p<0.001) and 0.78 for observer 2 (p<0.001) with double staining and R(2) = 0.91 for observer 1 and R(2) = 0.89 for observer 2, p<0.001 with triple staining. In conclusion, in rabbit, the hepatocellular proliferation index can be reliably determined using automated tissue and cell segmentation software in combination with IHC multiple staining. Our findings may be useful in clinical practice when Ki67 proliferation index yields prognostic significance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1369/0022155412461154DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3534316PMC
January 2013