Publications by authors named "Claire M Steppan"

22 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Discovery of Ketone-Based Covalent Inhibitors of Coronavirus 3CL Proteases for the Potential Therapeutic Treatment of COVID-19.

J Med Chem 2020 11 15;63(21):12725-12747. Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Southern Research Institute, 2000 9th Avenue South, Birmingham, Alabama 35205 United States.

The novel coronavirus disease COVID-19 that emerged in 2019 is caused by the virus SARS CoV-2 and named for its close genetic similarity to SARS CoV-1 that caused severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2002. Both SARS coronavirus genomes encode two overlapping large polyproteins, which are cleaved at specific sites by a 3C-like cysteine protease (3CL) in a post-translational processing step that is critical for coronavirus replication. The 3CL sequences for CoV-1 and CoV-2 viruses are 100% identical in the catalytic domain that carries out protein cleavage. A research effort that focused on the discovery of reversible and irreversible ketone-based inhibitors of SARS CoV-1 3CL employing ligand-protease structures solved by X-ray crystallography led to the identification of and . Preclinical experiments reveal () as a potent inhibitor of CoV-2 3CL with suitable pharmaceutical properties to warrant further development as an intravenous treatment for COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.0c01063DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7571312PMC
November 2020

Photoaffinity Labeling and Quantitative Chemical Proteomics Identify LXRβ as the Functional Target of Enhancers of Astrocytic apoE.

Cell Chem Biol 2021 Feb 29;28(2):148-157.e7. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Electronic address:

Utilizing a phenotypic screen, we identified chemical matter that increased astrocytic apoE secretion in vitro. We designed a clickable photoaffinity probe based on a pyrrolidine lead compound and carried out probe-based quantitative chemical proteomics in human astrocytoma CCF-STTG1 cells to identify liver x receptor β (LXRβ) as the target. Binding of the small molecule ligand stabilized LXRβ, as shown by cellular thermal shift assay (CETSA). In addition, we identified a probe-modified peptide by mass spectrometry and proposed a model where the photoaffinity probe is bound in the ligand-binding pocket of LXRβ. Taken together, our findings demonstrated that the lead chemical matter bound directly to LXRβ, and our results highlight the power of chemical proteomic approaches to identify the target of a phenotypic screening hit. Additionally, the LXR photoaffinity probe and lead compound described herein may serve as valuable tools to further evaluate the LXR pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chembiol.2020.09.002DOI Listing
February 2021

Hit Triage and Validation in Phenotypic Screening: Considerations and Strategies.

Cell Chem Biol 2020 11 3;27(11):1332-1346. Epub 2020 Sep 3.

Discovery Sciences, Pfizer, 445 Eastern Point Road, Groton, CT 06340, USA.

The promise of phenotypic screening resides in its track record of novel biology and first-in-class therapies. However, challenges stemming from major differences between target-based and phenotypic screening do exist. These challenges prompted us to rethink the critical stage of hit triage and validation on the road to clinical candidates and novel drug targets. Whereas this process is usually straightforward for target screening hits, phenotypic screening hits act through a variety of mostly unknown mechanisms within a large and poorly understood biological space. Our analysis suggests successful hit triage and validation is enabled by three types of biological knowledge-known mechanisms, disease biology, and safety-while structure-based hit triage may be counterproductive.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chembiol.2020.08.009DOI Listing
November 2020

The RESOLUTE consortium: unlocking SLC transporters for drug discovery.

Authors:
Giulio Superti-Furga Daniel Lackner Tabea Wiedmer Alvaro Ingles-Prieto Barbara Barbosa Enrico Girardi Ulrich Goldmann Bettina Gürtl Kristaps Klavins Christoph Klimek Sabrina Lindinger Eva Liñeiro-Retes André C Müller Svenja Onstein Gregor Redinger Daniela Reil Vitaly Sedlyarov Gernot Wolf Matthew Crawford Robert Everley David Hepworth Shenping Liu Stephen Noell Mary Piotrowski Robert Stanton Hui Zhang Salvatore Corallino Andrea Faedo Maria Insidioso Giovanna Maresca Loredana Redaelli Francesca Sassone Lia Scarabottolo Michela Stucchi Paola Tarroni Sara Tremolada Helena Batoulis Andreas Becker Eckhard Bender Yung-Ning Chang Alexander Ehrmann Anke Müller-Fahrnow Vera Pütter Diana Zindel Bradford Hamilton Martin Lenter Diana Santacruz Coralie Viollet Charles Whitehurst Kai Johnsson Philipp Leippe Birgit Baumgarten Lena Chang Yvonne Ibig Martin Pfeifer Jürgen Reinhardt Julian Schönbett Paul Selzer Klaus Seuwen Charles Bettembourg Bruno Biton Jörg Czech Hélène de Foucauld Michel Didier Thomas Licher Vincent Mikol Antje Pommereau Frédéric Puech Veeranagouda Yaligara Aled Edwards Brandon J Bongers Laura H Heitman Ad P IJzerman Huub J Sijben Gerard J P van Westen Justine Grixti Douglas B Kell Farah Mughal Neil Swainston Marina Wright-Muelas Tina Bohstedt Nicola Burgess-Brown Liz Carpenter Katharina Dürr Jesper Hansen Andreea Scacioc Giulia Banci Claire Colas Daniela Digles Gerhard Ecker Barbara Füzi Viktoria Gamsjäger Melanie Grandits Riccardo Martini Florentina Troger Patrick Altermatt Cédric Doucerain Franz Dürrenberger Vania Manolova Anna-Lena Steck Hanna Sundström Maria Wilhelm Claire M Steppan

Nat Rev Drug Discov 2020 07;19(7):429-430

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/d41573-020-00056-6DOI Listing
July 2020

Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Kidney Model for Nephrotoxicity Studies.

Drug Metab Dispos 2018 11 31;46(11):1703-1711. Epub 2018 Aug 31.

Discovery Sciences (P.B., C.M.S., S.J.E., T.S.) and Pharmacokinetics, Dynamics, and Metabolism (A.D.R., S.M.), Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Pfizer Inc., Groton, Connecticut

Current in vitro models for identifying nephrotoxins are poorly predictive. We differentiated human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into three-dimensional, multicellular structures containing proximal tubule cells (PTCs) and podocytes and evaluated them as a platform for predicting nephrotoxicity. The PTCs showed megalin-dependent, cubilin-mediated endocytosis of fluorescently labeled dextran and active gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase enzymes. Transporters from both the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) and the solute carrier (SLC) families were present at physiological levels in the differentiated cells, but important renal transporters such as organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1), OAT3, and organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) were present only at lower levels. Radioactive uptake studies confirmed the functional activity of organic cation transporter, novel, type 2 (OCTN2), organic anion transporter polypeptide 4C1 (OATP4C1), and OCTs/multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATEs). When treated with 10 pharmacologic agents as a test of the platform, the known nephrotoxic compounds were distinguished from the more benign compounds by an increase in tubular (PTC, kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1), and heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1)) and glomerular (nephrin [NPHS1]/Wilms tumor protein [WT1]) markers associated with nephrotoxicity, and we were able to distinguish the type of nephrotoxin by examining the relative levels of these markers. Given the functions demonstrated and with improved expression of key renal transporters, this hPSC-derived in vitro kidney model shows promise as a platform for detection of mechanistically different nephrotoxins.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/dmd.118.082727DOI Listing
November 2018

Design and Synthesis of Clinical Candidate PF-06751979: A Potent, Brain Penetrant, β-Site Amyloid Precursor Protein Cleaving Enzyme 1 (BACE1) Inhibitor Lacking Hypopigmentation.

J Med Chem 2018 05 17;61(10):4476-4504. Epub 2018 Apr 17.

Medicine Design, Medicinal Chemistry , Pfizer Inc. , Cambridge , Massachusetts 02139 , United States.

A major challenge in the development of β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) inhibitors for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease is the alignment of potency, drug-like properties, and selectivity over related aspartyl proteases such as Cathepsin D (CatD) and BACE2. The potential liabilities of inhibiting BACE2 chronically have only recently begun to emerge as BACE2 impacts the processing of the premelanosome protein (PMEL17) and disrupts melanosome morphology resulting in a depigmentation phenotype. Herein, we describe the identification of clinical candidate PF-06751979 (64), which displays excellent brain penetration, potent in vivo efficacy, and broad selectivity over related aspartyl proteases including BACE2. Chronic dosing of 64 for up to 9 months in dog did not reveal any observation of hair coat color (pigmentation) changes and suggests a key differentiator over current BACE1 inhibitors that are nonselective against BACE2 in later stage clinical development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.8b00246DOI Listing
May 2018

Pharmacological inhibition of diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 and insights into postprandial gut peptide secretion.

World J Gastrointest Pathophysiol 2017 Nov;8(4):161-175

Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Research Unit, Cambridge, MA 02139, United States.

Aim: To examine the role that enzyme Acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase-1 (DGAT1) plays in postprandial gut peptide secretion and signaling.

Methods: The standard experimental paradigm utilized to evaluate the incretin response was a lipid challenge. Following a lipid challenge, plasma was collected cardiac puncture at each time point from a cohort of 5-8 mice per group from baseline at time zero to 10 h. Incretin hormones [glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY) and glucose dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)] were then quantitated. The impact of pharmacological inhibition of DGAT1 on the incretin effect was evaluated in WT mice. Additionally, a comparison of loss of DGAT1 function either by genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition. To further elucidate the pathways and mechanisms involved in the incretin response to DGAT1 inhibition, other interventions [inhibitors of dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (sitagliptin), pancreatic lipase (Orlistat), GPR119 knockout mice] were evaluated.

Results: DGAT1 deficient mice and wildtype C57/BL6J mice were lipid challenged and levels of both active and total GLP-1 in the plasma were increased. This response was further augmented with DGAT1 inhibitor PF-04620110 treated wildtype mice. Furthermore, PF-04620110 was able to dose responsively increase GLP-1 and PYY, but blunt GIP at all doses of PF-04620110 during lipid challenge. Combination treatment of PF-04620110 and Sitagliptin in wildtype mice during a lipid challenge synergistically enhanced postprandial levels of active GLP-1. In contrast, in a combination study with Orlistat, the ability of PF-04620110 to elicit an enhanced incretin response was abrogated. To further explore this observation, GPR119 knockout mice were evaluated. In response to a lipid challenge, GPR119 knockout mice exhibited no increase in active or total GLP-1 and PYY. However, PF-04620110 was able to increase total GLP-1 and PYY in GPR119 knockout mice as compared to vehicle treated wildtype mice.

Conclusion: Collectively, these data provide some insight into the mechanism by which inhibition of DGAT1 enhances intestinal hormone release.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4291/wjgp.v8.i4.161DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5696614PMC
November 2017

Pharmacological inhibition to examine the role of DGAT1 in dietary lipid absorption in rodents and humans.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 2013 Jun 4;304(11):G958-69. Epub 2013 Apr 4.

Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Cardiovascular and Metabolic Diseases Research Unit, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Alterations in fat metabolism, in particular elevated plasma concentrations of free fatty acids and triglycerides (TG), have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Type 2 diabetes, obesity, and cardiovascular disease. Acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), a member of the large family of membrane-bound O-acyltransferases, catalyzes the final step in triacylglycerol formation. In the intestine, DGAT1 is one of the acyltransferases responsible for the reesterficiation of dietary TG. Following a single dose of a selective pharmacological inhibitor of DGAT1, PF-04620110, a dose-dependent inhibition of TG and vitamin A absorption postprandially was demonstrated in rodents and human subjects. In C57/BL6J mice, acute DGAT1 inhibition alters the temporal and spatial pattern of dietary lipid absorption. To understand the impact of DGAT1 inhibition on enterocyte lipid metabolism, lipomic profiling was performed in rat intestine and plasma as well as human plasma. DGAT1 inhibition causes an enrichment of polyunsaturated fatty acids within the TG class of lipids. This pharmacological intervention gives us insight as to the role of DGAT1 in human dietary lipid absorption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpgi.00384.2012DOI Listing
June 2013

Insights into the novel hydrolytic mechanism of a diethyl 2-phenyl-2-(2-arylacetoxy)methyl malonate ester-based microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) inhibitor.

Chem Res Toxicol 2012 Oct 27;25(10):2138-52. Epub 2012 Sep 27.

Pharmacokinetics, Dynamics, and Metabolism-New Chemical Entities, Pfizer Worldwide Research and Development, Groton, Connecticut 06340, USA.

Inhibition of intestinal and hepatic microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) is a potential strategy for the treatment of dyslipidemia and related metabolic disorders. Inhibition of hepatic MTP, however, results in elevated liver transaminases and increased hepatic fat deposition consistent with hepatic steatosis. Diethyl 2-((2-(3-(dimethylcarbamoyl)-4-(4'-(trifluoromethyl)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-2-ylcarboxamido)phenyl)acetoxy)methyl)-2-phenylmalonate (JTT-130) is an intestine-specific inhibitor of MTP and does not cause increases in transaminases in short-term clinical trials in patients with dyslipidemia. Selective inhibition of intestinal MTP is achieved via rapid hydrolysis of its ester linkage by liver-specific carboxylesterase(s), resulting in the formation of an inactive carboxylic acid metabolite 1. In the course of discovery efforts around tissue-specific inhibitors of MTP, the mechanism of JTT-130 hydrolysis was examined in detail. Lack of ¹⁸O incorporation in 1 following the incubation of JTT-130 in human liver microsomes in the presence of H₂¹⁸O suggested that hydrolysis did not occur via a simple cleavage of the ester linkage. The characterization of atropic acid (2-phenylacrylic acid) as a metabolite was consistent with a hydrolytic pathway involving initial hydrolysis of one of the pendant malonate ethyl ester groups followed by decarboxylative fragmentation to 1 and the concomitant liberation of the potentially electrophilic acrylate species. Glutathione conjugates of atropic acid and its ethyl ester were also observed in microsomal incubations of JTT-130 that were supplemented with the thiol nucleophile. Additional support for the hydrolysis mechanism was obtained from analogous studies on diethyl 2-(2-(2-(3-(dimethylcarbamoyl)-4-(4'-trifluoromethyl)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-2-ylcarboxamido)phenyl)acetoxy)ethyl)-2-phenylmalonate (3), which cannot participate in hydrolysis via the fragmentation pathway because of the additional methylene group. Unlike the case with JTT-130, ¹⁸O was readily incorporated into 1 during the enzymatic hydrolysis of 3, suggestive of a mechanism involving direct hydrolytic cleavage of the ester group in 3. Finally, 3-(ethylamino)-2-(ethylcarbamoyl)-3-oxo-2-phenylpropyl 2-(3-(dimethylcarbamoyl)-4-(4'-(trifluoromethyl)-[1,1'-biphenyl]-2-ylcarboxamido)phenyl)acetate (4), which possessed an N,N-diethyl-2-phenylmalonamide substituent (in lieu of the diethyl-2-phenylmalonate motif in JTT-130) proved to be resistant to the hydrolytic cleavage/decarboxylative fragmentation pathway that yielded 1, a phenomenon that further confirmed our hypothesis. From a toxicological standpoint, it is noteworthy to point out that the liberation of the electrophilic acrylic acid species as a byproduct of JTT-130 hydrolysis is similar to the bioactivation mechanism established for felbamate, an anticonvulsant agent associated with idiosyncratic aplastic anemia and hepatotoxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/tx300243vDOI Listing
October 2012

Modeling the mechanism of action of a DGAT1 inhibitor using a causal reasoning platform.

PLoS One 2011 4;6(11):e27009. Epub 2011 Nov 4.

Compound Safety Prediction Group, Pfizer Inc, Groton, Connecticut, United States of America.

Triglyceride accumulation is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes. Genetic disruption of diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1), which catalyzes the final reaction of triglyceride synthesis, confers dramatic resistance to high-fat diet induced obesity. Hence, DGAT1 is considered a potential therapeutic target for treating obesity and related metabolic disorders. However, the molecular events shaping the mechanism of action of DGAT1 pharmacological inhibition have not been fully explored yet. Here, we investigate the metabolic molecular mechanisms induced in response to pharmacological inhibition of DGAT1 using a recently developed computational systems biology approach, the Causal Reasoning Engine (CRE). The CRE algorithm utilizes microarray transcriptomic data and causal statements derived from the biomedical literature to infer upstream molecular events driving these transcriptional changes. The inferred upstream events (also called hypotheses) are aggregated into biological models using a set of analytical tools that allow for evaluation and integration of the hypotheses in context of their supporting evidence. In comparison to gene ontology enrichment analysis which pointed to high-level changes in metabolic processes, the CRE results provide detailed molecular hypotheses to explain the measured transcriptional changes. CRE analysis of gene expression changes in high fat habituated rats treated with a potent and selective DGAT1 inhibitor demonstrate that the majority of transcriptomic changes support a metabolic network indicative of reversal of high fat diet effects that includes a number of molecular hypotheses such as PPARG, HNF4A and SREBPs. Finally, the CRE-generated molecular hypotheses from DGAT1 inhibitor treated rats were found to capture the major molecular characteristics of DGAT1 deficient mice, supporting a phenotype of decreased lipid and increased insulin sensitivity.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0027009PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3208573PMC
March 2012

Discovery of a clinical candidate from the structurally unique dioxa-bicyclo[3.2.1]octane class of sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors.

J Med Chem 2011 Apr 30;54(8):2952-60. Epub 2011 Mar 30.

Groton Laboratories, Pfizer Global Research & Development, Groton, Connecticut 06340, United States.

Compound 4 (PF-04971729) belongs to a new class of potent and selective sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors incorporating a unique dioxa-bicyclo[3.2.1]octane (bridged ketal) ring system. In this paper we present the design, synthesis, preclinical evaluation, and human dose predictions related to 4. This compound demonstrated robust urinary glucose excretion in rats and an excellent preclinical safety profile. It is currently in phase 2 clinical trials and is being evaluated for the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jm200049rDOI Listing
April 2011

N-benzylimidazole carboxamides as potent, orally active stearoylCoA desaturase-1 inhibitors.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2011 Mar 31;21(6):1621-5. Epub 2011 Jan 31.

Pfizer Global Research & Development, Groton Laboratories, Pfizer Inc., Groton, CT 06340, USA.

A potent, small molecule inhibitor with a favorable pharmacokinetic profile to allow for sustained SCD inhibition in vivo was identified. Starting from a low MW acyl guanidine (5a), identified with a RapidFire High-Throughput Mass Spectrometry (RF-MS) assay, iterative library design was used to rapidly probe the amide and tail regions of the molecule. Singleton synthesis was used to probe core changes. Biological evaluation of a SCD inhibitor (5b) included in vitro potency at SCD-1 and in vivo modulation of the plasma desaturation index (DI) in rats on a low essential fatty acid (LEFA) diet. In addition to dose-dependent decrease in DI, effects on rodent ocular tissue were noted. Therefore, in rat, these SCD inhibitors only recapitulate a portion of phenotype exhibited by the SCD-1 knockout mouse.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2011.01.113DOI Listing
March 2011

C-Aryl glycoside inhibitors of SGLT2: Exploration of sugar modifications including C-5 spirocyclization.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2010 Mar 21;20(5):1569-72. Epub 2010 Jan 21.

Pfizer Global Research & Development, Groton Laboratories Eastern Point Rd, Groton, CT 06340, United States.

Modifications to the sugar portion of C-aryl glycoside sodium glucose transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors were explored, including systematic deletion and modification of each of the glycoside hydroxyl groups. Based on results showing activity to be quite tolerant of structural change at the C-5 position, a series of novel C-5 spiro analogues was prepared. Some of these analogues exhibit low nanomolar potency versus SGLT2 and promote urinary glucose excretion (UGE) in rats. However, due to sub-optimal pharmacokinetic parameters (in particular half-life), predicted human doses did not meet criteria for further advancement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2010.01.075DOI Listing
March 2010

HIV protease inhibitor-specific alterations in human adipocyte differentiation and metabolism.

Obesity (Silver Spring) 2006 Jun;14(6):994-1002

Division of Endocrinology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Objective: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients on antiretroviral regimens frequently develop a syndrome of abnormal fat distribution, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. This lipodystrophic syndrome has been most closely linked to the use of HIV protease inhibitors (PIs). Several mechanisms have been postulated to explain these adverse effects of PIs, based largely on studies of rodent adipocytes. Intriguingly, atazanavir, a newer PI equally effective against HIV, is associated with fewer signs of lipodystrophy. We hypothesized that the less deleterious clinical effects of atazanavir would be reflected in physiological differences observed in PI-treated adipocytes.

Research Methods And Procedures: We compared the effects of atazanavir and an older PI associated with lipodystrophy, ritonavir, on differentiation, gene expression, adipocytokine secretion, and insulin signaling in a human adipocyte cell line.

Results: Ritonavir inhibited human adipocyte differentiation and induced apoptosis to a greater extent than atazanavir. Treatment of mature adipocytes with ritonavir, but not atazanavir, also selectively decreased insulin signaling. Moreover, ritonavir also selectively decreased expression of adiponectin, an insulin-sensitizing adipocytokine, while inducing interleukin-6, a proinflammatory cytokine implicated in insulin resistance.

Discussion: These data suggest that the distinct metabolic side effect profiles of these PIs could be a consequence of their differential effects on adipocyte physiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/oby.2006.114DOI Listing
June 2006

Mouse and human resistins impair glucose transport in primary mouse cardiomyocytes, and oligomerization is required for this biological action.

J Biol Chem 2005 Sep 27;280(36):31679-85. Epub 2005 Jun 27.

Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Diabetes, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, USA.

The adipocytokine resistin impairs glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in rodents. Here, we examined the effect of resistin on glucose uptake in isolated adult mouse cardiomyocytes. Murine resistin reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, establishing the heart as a resistin target tissue. Notably, human resistin also impaired insulin action in mouse cardiomyocytes, providing the first evidence that human and mouse resistin homologs have similar functions. Resistin is a cysteine-rich molecule that circulates as a multimer of a dimeric form dependent upon a single intermolecular disulfide bond, which, in the mouse, involves Cys26; mutation of this residue to alanine (C26A) produces a monomeric molecule that appears to be bioactive in the liver. Remarkably, unlike native resistin, monomeric C26A resistin had no effect on basal or insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in mouse cardiomyocytes. Resistin impairs glucose uptake in cardiomyocytes by mechanisms that involve altered vesicle trafficking. Thus, in cardiomyocytes, both mouse and human resistins directly impair glucose transport; and in contrast to effects on the liver, these actions of resistin require oligomerization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M504008200DOI Listing
September 2005

Activation of SOCS-3 by resistin.

Mol Cell Biol 2005 Feb;25(4):1569-75

Pfizer Inc., PRGD, MS220-3145, Eastern Point Rd., Groton, CT 06340, USA.

Resistin is an adipocyte hormone that modulates glucose homeostasis. Here we show that in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, resistin attenuates multiple effects of insulin, including insulin receptor (IR) phosphorylation, IR substrate 1 (IRS-1) phosphorylation, phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) activation, phosphatidylinositol triphosphate production, and activation of protein kinase B/Akt. Remarkably, resistin treatment markedly induces the gene expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS-3), a known inhibitor of insulin signaling. The 50% effective dose for resistin induction of SOCS-3 is approximately 20 ng/ml, close to levels of resistin in serum. Association of SOCS-3 protein with the IR is also increased by resistin. Inhibition of SOCS function prevented resistin from antagonizing insulin action in adipocytes. SOCS-3 induction is the first cellular effect of resistin that is independent of insulin and is a likely mediator of resistin's inhibitory effect on insulin signaling in adipocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MCB.25.4.1569-1575.2005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC548000PMC
February 2005

The current biology of resistin.

J Intern Med 2004 Apr;255(4):439-47

Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Departments of Medicine and Genetics, and The Penn Diabetes Center, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Obesity and noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus are globally epidemic. Insulin resistance is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of type II diabetes and plays a role in numerous other metabolic disorders including hypertension, dyslipidaemia and atherosclerosis. Obesity, in particular visceral adiposity, is positively correlated with insulin resistance. Although this correlation between adiposity and insulin resistance is well established in human beings as well as in rodent models, the mechanisms involved in obesity-related insulin resistance are not fully defined. One mechanism is that factors secreted from adipocytes can affect peripheral insulin resistance. One candidate for such a factor is resistin, an adipocyte-secreted hormone that impairs glucose homeostasis and insulin action in the mouse. This review will summarize our current understanding of resistin and will attempt to provide a framework for future study of its role in rodent and human physiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2796.2004.01306.xDOI Listing
April 2004

Regulation of fasted blood glucose by resistin.

Science 2004 Feb;303(5661):1195-8

Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Department of Medicine, and The Penn Diabetes Center, 611 CRB, 415 Curie Boulevard, Universityof Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.

The association between obesity and diabetes supports an endocrine role for the adipocyte in maintaining glucose homeostasis. Here we report that mice lacking the adipocyte hormone resistin exhibit low blood glucose levels after fasting, due to reduced hepatic glucose production. This is partly mediated by activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and decreased expression of gluconeogenic enzymes in the liver. The data thus support a physiological function for resistin in the maintenance of blood glucose during fasting. Remarkably, lack of resistin diminishes the increase in post-fast blood glucose normally associated with increased weight, suggesting a role for resistin in mediating hyperglycemia associated with obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1092341DOI Listing
February 2004

Bacterial colonization leads to the colonic secretion of RELMbeta/FIZZ2, a novel goblet cell-specific protein.

Gastroenterology 2003 Nov;125(5):1388-97

Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Biology, University of Pennsylvania, 415 Curie Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Background & Aims: Goblet cells are highly polarized exocrine cells found throughout the small and large intestine that have a characteristic morphology due to the accumulation of apical secretory granules. These granules contain proteins that play important physiologic roles in cellular protection, barrier function, and proliferation. A limited number of intestinal goblet cell-specific proteins have been identified. In this study, we investigate the expression and regulation of RELMbeta, a novel colon-specific gene.

Methods: The regulation of RELMbeta messenger RNA expression was determined in LS174T, Caco-2, and HT-29 cell lines in response to stimulation with interleukin 13 and lipopolysaccharide. Quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction, immunoblots, and immunohistochemistry were used to examine the expression of RELMbeta in BALB/c and C.B17.SCID mice housed in conventional, germ-free, and gnotobiotic environments.

Results: Messenger RNA for RELMbeta is restricted to the undifferentiated, proliferating colonic epithelium. Immunohistochemistry shows that this protein is expressed in goblet cells located primarily in the distal half of the colon and cecum with lower levels detectable in the proximal colon. High levels of RELMbeta can be detected in the stool of mice and humans, where it exists as a homodimer under nonreducing conditions. Interestingly, the secretion of RELMbeta is dramatically reduced in germ-free mice. Furthermore, introduction of germ-free mice into a conventional environment results in enhanced expression and robust secretion of RELMbeta within 48 hours.

Conclusions: These studies define a new goblet cell-specific protein and provide the first evidence that colon-specific gene expression can be regulated by colonization with normal enteric bacteria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gastro.2003.07.009DOI Listing
November 2003

Variation in resistin gene promoter not associated with polycystic ovary syndrome.

Diabetes 2003 Jan;52(1):214-7

Department of Genetics, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104, USA.

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a leading cause of anovulatory infertility and affects approximately 4-7% of reproductive age women in the U.S. It is characterized by hyperandrogenemia and chronic anovulation and is associated with insulin resistance, obesity, and increased risk for type 2 diabetes. In a screen of candidate genes, a region on chromosome 19p13.3 was identified that shows significant evidence for both linkage and association with PCOS. A promising candidate gene for PCOS, resistin, maps to exactly this region. Resistin is a protein hormone thought to modulate glucose tolerance and insulin action. We tested for association between a single nucleotide polymorphism in the promoter region of the resistin gene and three phenotypes: PCOS, obesity, and insulin resistance. We did not find evidence for association with any of the phenotypes. It is therefore unlikely that variation in the resistin gene accounts for the strong association that we observe between chromosome 19p13.3 and PCOS. Instead, this association is most likely due to a gene or genetic element in this region that has not been identified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/diabetes.52.1.214DOI Listing
January 2003

A futile metabolic cycle activated in adipocytes by antidiabetic agents.

Nat Med 2002 Oct 23;8(10):1122-8. Epub 2002 Sep 23.

Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Department of Medicine and The Penn Diabetes Center, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are effective therapies for type 2 diabetes, which has reached epidemic proportions in industrialized societies. TZD treatment reduces circulating free fatty acids (FFAs), which oppose insulin actions in skeletal muscle and other insulin target tissues. Here we report that TZDs, acting as ligands for the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma, markedly induce adipocyte glycerol kinase (GyK) gene expression. This is surprising, as standard textbooks indicate that adipocytes lack GyK and thereby avoid futile cycles of triglyceride breakdown and resynthesis from glycerol and FFAs. By inducing GyK, TZDs markedly stimulate glycerol incorporation into triglyceride and reduce FFA secretion from adipocytes. The 'futile' fuel cycle resulting from expression of GyK in adipocytes is thus a novel mechanism contributing to reduced FFA levels and perhaps insulin sensitization by antidiabetic therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nm780DOI Listing
October 2002

Resistin and obesity-associated insulin resistance.

Trends Endocrinol Metab 2002 Jan-Feb;13(1):18-23

Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Depts of Medicine and Genetics and The Penn Diabetes Center, University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6149, USA.

Obesity is a major risk factor for insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Adipocytes secrete numerous substances that might contribute to peripheral insulin sensitivity. These include leptin, tumor necrosis factor alpha, Acrp30/adiponectin/adipoQ and interleukin 6, the potential roles of which are briefly reviewed here. Thiazolidinedione (TZD) antidiabetic drugs regulate gene transcription by binding to peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma, a nuclear hormone receptor found at its highest levels in adipocytes. A search for genes that are downregulated by TZDs in mouse adipocytes led to the discovery of an adipose-specific secreted protein called resistin. Resistin circulates in the mouse, with increased levels in obesity, and has effects on glucose homeostasis that oppose those of insulin. Thus, resistin is a potential link between TZDs, obesity and insulin resistance in the mouse. Future studies must address the mechanism of action and biological role of resistin and related family members in mice and humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s1043-2760(01)00522-7DOI Listing
April 2002