Publications by authors named "Claire Giannesini"

8 Publications

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Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes in Patients With Coronavirus Disease 2019 and Multiple Sclerosis.

JAMA Neurol 2020 09;77(9):1079-1088

Service de Neurologie, Clinical Investigation Center Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale 1434, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

Importance: Risk factors associated with the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) are unknown. Disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) may modify the risk of developing a severe COVID-19 infection, beside identified risk factors such as age and comorbidities.

Objective: To describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes in patients with MS and COVID-19 and identify factors associated with COVID-19 severity.

Design, Setting, And Participants: The Covisep registry is a multicenter, retrospective, observational cohort study conducted in MS expert centers and general hospitals and with neurologists collaborating with MS expert centers and members of the Société Francophone de la Sclérose en Plaques. The study included patients with MS presenting with a confirmed or highly suspected diagnosis of COVID-19 between March 1, 2020, and May 21, 2020.

Exposures: COVID-19 diagnosed with a polymerase chain reaction test on a nasopharyngeal swab, thoracic computed tomography, or typical symptoms.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The main outcome was COVID-19 severity assessed on a 7-point ordinal scale (ranging from 1 [not hospitalized with no limitations on activities] to 7 [death]) with a cutoff at 3 (hospitalized and not requiring supplemental oxygen). We collected demographics, neurological history, Expanded Disability Severity Scale score (EDSS; ranging from 0 to 10, with cutoffs at 3 and 6), comorbidities, COVID-19 characteristics, and outcomes. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to estimate the association of collected variables with COVID-19 outcomes.

Results: A total of 347 patients (mean [SD] age, 44.6 [12.8] years, 249 women; mean [SD] disease duration, 13.5 [10.0] years) were analyzed. Seventy-three patients (21.0%) had a COVID-19 severity score of 3 or more, and 12 patients (3.5%) died of COVID-19. The median EDSS was 2.0 (range, 0-9.5), and 284 patients (81.8%) were receiving DMT. There was a higher proportion of patients with a COVID-19 severity score of 3 or more among patients with no DMT relative to patients receiving DMTs (46.0% vs 15.5%; P < .001). Multivariate logistic regression models determined that age (odds ratio per 10 years: 1.9 [95% CI, 1.4-2.5]), EDSS (OR for EDSS ≥6, 6.3 [95% CI. 2.8-14.4]), and obesity (OR, 3.0 [95% CI, 1.0-8.7]) were independent risk factors for a COVID-19 severity score of 3 or more (indicating hospitalization or higher severity). The EDSS was associated with the highest variability of COVID-19 severe outcome (R2, 0.2), followed by age (R2, 0.06) and obesity (R2, 0.01).

Conclusions And Relevance: In this registry-based cohort study of patients with MS, age, EDSS, and obesity were independent risk factors for severe COVID-19; there was no association found between DMTs exposure and COVID-19 severity. The identification of these risk factors should provide the rationale for an individual strategy regarding clinical management of patients with MS during the COVID-19 pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaneurol.2020.2581DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7320356PMC
September 2020

Evaluation of emotional disorders before and during treatment with interferon beta in patients with multiple sclerosis.

J Neurol Sci 2020 06 19;413:116739. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Faculty of Economics, Louvain University, Belgium; Faculty of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Australia.

Background: Domains encompassing emotional disorders in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients are still unclear.

Methods: We performed a 24-month, multicenter, single-arm, prospective study. RRMS patients started IFN-β treatment at baseline. The primary endpoint was lack of emotional control, measured using the "Echelle d'HumeurDépressive" (EHD) scale three times at baseline and at 10 post-treatment visits. Secondary endpoints were emotional blunting, irritability, fatigue, depression and anxiety. A linear mixed covariance model assessed change from baseline on an intention-to-treat basis, under the assumption of no mood disorder effect (one-sided 97.5% level), in which autoregressive type of autocorrelation was tested.

Results: Out of 79 recruited patients, 70 were analyzed: 80% female; mean (SD) age, 37.0 (11.5) years. Mean (SD) lack of emotional control score at baseline and Month 24 was 12.7 (4.4) and 12.6 (5.5), respectively, versus 10.1 (3.2) in a healthy control population matched for age and sex. Stepwise analysis identified younger age, male sex and antidepressant use as significant predictors of higher lack of emotional control values.

Conclusions: Based on 24 months of prospective follow-up, the results of this study highlights a broad spectrum of emotional disorders in the MS population at the time of disease modifying drugs initiation but no major IFN-β-related emotional disorders (mood dyscontrol, anxiety, depression) were observed. However, sporadic occurrences of severe mood disorders and suicidality cannot be excluded.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2020.116739DOI Listing
June 2020

Glatiramer acetate reduces infarct volume in diabetic mice with cerebral ischemia and prevents long-term memory loss.

Brain Behav Immun 2019 08 3;80:315-327. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité & CART, INSERM U965, F-75475 Paris, France; Service de Physiologie Clinique, AP-HP, Hôpital Lariboisière, 75475 Paris, France. Electronic address:

Stroke is currently the second leading cause of death in industrialized countries and the second cause of dementia after Alzheimer's disease. Diabetes is an independent risk factor for stroke that exacerbates the severity of lesions, disability and cognitive decline. There is increasing evidence that sustained brain inflammation may account for this long-term prejudicial outcome in diabetic patients in particular. We sought to demonstrate that experimental permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAo) in the diabetic mouse aggravates stroke, induces cognitive decline, and is associated with exacerbated brain inflammation, and that these effects can be alleviated and/or prevented by the immunomodulator, glatiramer acetate (GA). Male diabetic C57Bl6 mice (streptozotocin IP) subjected to permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAo), were treated by the immunomodulator, GA (Copaxone®) (1 mg/kg daily, sc) until 3 or 7 days post stroke. Infarct volume, brain pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators, microglial/macrophage density, and neurogenesis were monitored during the first week post stroke. Neurological sensorimotor deficit, spatial memory and brain deposits of Aβ40 and Aβ42 were assessed until six weeks post stroke. In diabetic mice with pMCAo, proinflammatory mediators (IL-1β, MCP1, TNFα and CD68) were significantly higher than in non-diabetic mice. In GA-treated mice, the infarct volume was reduced by 30% at D3 and by 40% at D7 post stroke (P < 0.05), sensorimotor recovery was accelerated as early as D3, and long-term memory loss was prevented. Moreover, proinflammatory mediators significantly decreased between D3 (COX2) and D7 (CD32, TNFα, IL-1β), and neurogenesis was significantly increased at D7. Moreover, GA abrogates the accumulation of insoluble Aβ40. This work is the first one to evidence that the immunomodulatory drug GA reduces infarct volume and proinflammatory mediators, enhances early neurogenesis, accelerates sensorimotor recovery, and prevents long-term memory loss in diabetic mice with pMCAo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2019.04.009DOI Listing
August 2019

Efficacy of rituximab in refractory RRMS.

Mult Scler 2019 05 3;25(6):828-836. Epub 2018 May 3.

Pôle de Neurosciences Cliniques, Service de Neurologie, APHM, Hôpital de la Timone, Marseille, France/CRMBM UMR 7339, CNRS, Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille, France.

Objective: To investigate the efficacy of rituximab as rescue therapy in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and persistent disease activity confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) despite immunosuppressive disease-modifying therapy (DMT).

Methods: In this observational nationwide retrospective multicenter study, we first identified 351 off-label rituximab-treated patients through a cohort of 15,984 RRMS patients. In this group, we identified patients with disease activity prior to rituximab confirmed by MRI (one or more new T2 lesion and/or gadolinium-enhancing lesion) despite immunosuppressive DMT (fingolimod, natalizumab, or mitoxantrone) with a follow-up after rituximab initiation longer than 6 months. Outcome data were collected from the French Observatory of Multiple Sclerosis (OFSEP) register and medical charts.

Results: A total of 50 patients were identified. Median rituximab treatment duration was 1.1 (0.5-6.4) year. Mean annualized relapse rate significantly decreased from 0.8 during last immunosuppressive DMT to 0.18 after rituximab ( p < 0.0001). While 72% of patients showed gadolinium-enhancing lesions on the last MRI performed during last immunosuppressive DMT, 8% of them showed gadolinium-enhancing lesions on the first MRI performed 6.1 (range 1.4-18.4) months after rituximab ( p < 0.0001).

Conclusion: This study provides level IV evidence that rituximab reduces clinical and MRI disease activity in patients with active RRMS despite immunosuppressive DMT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1352458518772748DOI Listing
May 2019

Biotinidase deficiency mimicking neuromyelitis optica: Initially exhibiting symptoms in adulthood.

Mult Scler 2015 Oct 22;21(12):1604-7. Epub 2015 Jul 22.

Department of Neurology, Saint-Antoine University Hospital, Paris, France/Sorbonne Universités; UPMC Univ Paris 06; UMR S 1127; CNRS UMR 7225; ICM, F-75013, Paris, France

Background: Children with untreated biotinidase deficiency can experience variable symptoms depending on their age of presentation. Older children and adolescents can exhibit predominant neurological deficits including para- or tetraparesis and vision loss.

Methods: We report the first case of delayed-onset biotinidase deficiency in a young adult.

Results: A 22-year-old man presented with a disabling extensive myelopathy and bilateral optic neuropathy which mimicked the findings of a (seronegative) neuromyelitis optica. Imaging investigations were characterized by an MRI T2 hyper-intensity involving the spinal cord, the optic nerves, the fornix and the mammillar bodies, together with an increased (18)F-FDG uptake on positron emission tomography. He was ultimately shown to have profound biotinidase deficiency due to a novel missense mutation and was partly improved by oral biotin therapy.

Conclusion: This individual exemplifies the need to include biotinidase deficiency in the differential diagnosis of patients with extensive myelopathy and/or bilateral optic neuropathy and argues for newborn screening for the disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1352458515596457DOI Listing
October 2015

Immunological hallmarks of JC virus replication in multiple sclerosis patients on long-term natalizumab therapy.

J Virol 2013 May 20;87(10):6055-9. Epub 2013 Mar 20.

Service d'Immunologie Biologique, Hôpitaux Universitaires Paris-Sud, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France.

Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is the main adverse effect of natalizumab. Detectable JC virus-specific effector memory T-cell (TEM) responses may indicate ongoing JCV replication. We detected JCV-specific TEM responses in blood of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) treated with natalizumab, including 2 patients with PML. The frequency of detection of these responses increased with the time on natalizumab. Thus, a subset of MS patients exhibit immunological hallmarks of JCV replication during prolonged natalizumab therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00131-13DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3648156PMC
May 2013

Glatiramer Acetate administration does not reduce damage after cerebral ischemia in mice.

J Neuroimmunol 2013 Jan 29;254(1-2):55-62. Epub 2012 Sep 29.

Université Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Angiogenesis and Translational Research Center, INSERM U965, F-75475 Paris, France.

Inflammation plays a key role in ischemic stroke pathophysiology: microglial/macrophage cells and type-1 helper cells (Th1) seem deleterious, while type-2 helper cells (Th2) and regulatory T cells (Treg) seem protective. CD4 Th0 differentiation is modulated by microglial cytokine secretion. Glatiramer Acetate (GA) is an immunomodulatory drug that has been approved for the treatment of human multiple sclerosis by means of a number of mechanisms: reduced microglial activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, Th0 differentiation shifting from Th2 to Th2 and Treg with anti-inflammatory cytokine production and increased neurogenesis. We induced permanent (pMCAo) or transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAo) and GA (2 mg) or vehicle was injected subcutaneously immediately after cerebral ischemia. Mice were sacrificed at D3 to measure neurological deficit, infarct volume, microglial cell density and qPCR of TNFα and IL-1β (pro-inflammatory microglial cytokines), IFNγ (Th2 cytokine), IL-4 (Th2 cytokine), TGFβ and IL-10 (Treg cytokines), and at D7 to evaluate neurological deficit, infarct volume and neurogenesis assessment. We showed that in GA-treated pMCAo mice, infarct volume, microglial cell density and cytokine secretion were not significantly modified at D3, while neurogenesis was enhanced at D7 without significant infarct volume reduction. In GA-treated tMCAo mice, microglial pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNFα were significantly decreased without modification of microglial/macrophage cell density, cytokine secretion, neurological deficit or infarct volume at D3, or modification of neurological deficit, neurogenesis or infarct volume at D7. In conclusion, Glatiramer Acetate administered after cerebral ischemia does not reduce infarct volume or improve neurological deficit in mice despite a significant increase in neurogenesis in pMCAo and a microglial pro-inflammatory cytokine reduction in tMCAo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneuroim.2012.09.009DOI Listing
January 2013

Molecular screening of deafness in Algeria: high genetic heterogeneity involving DFNB1 and the Usher loci, DFNB2/USH1B, DFNB12/USH1D and DFNB23/USH1F.

Eur J Med Genet 2009 Jul-Aug;52(4):174-9. Epub 2009 Apr 16.

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of USTHB, El Alia, Bab-Ezzouar, Algiers, Algeria.

A systematic approach, involving haplotyping and genotyping, to the molecular diagnosis of non-syndromic deafness within 50 families and 9 sporadic cases from Algeria is described. Mutations at the DFNB1 locus (encompassing the GJB2 and GJB6 genes) are responsible for more than half of autosomal recessive prelingual non-syndromic deafness in various populations. A c.35delG mutation can account for up to 85% of GJB2 mutations and two large deletions del(GJB6-D13S1830) and del(GJB6-D13S1854) have also been reported in several population groups. In view of the genetic heterogeneity a strategy was developed which involved direct analysis of DFNB1. In negative familial cases, haplotype analysis was carried out, where possible, to exclude DFNB1 mutations. Following this, haplotype analysis of five Usher syndrome loci, sometimes involved in autosomal non-syndromic hearing loss, was carried out to identify cases in which Usher gene sequencing was indicated. When homozygosity was observed at a locus in a consanguineous family, the corresponding gene was exhaustively sequenced. Pathogenic DFNB1 genotypes were identified in 40% of the cases. Of the 21 cases identified with 2 pathogenic mutations, c.35delG represented 76% of the mutated alleles. The additional mutations were one nonsense, two missense and one splicing mutation. Four additional patients were identified with a single DFNB1 mutation. None carried the large deletions. Three families with non-syndromic deafness carried novel unclassified variants (UVs) in MYO7A (1 family) and CDH23 (2 families) of unknown pathogenic effect. Additionally, molecular diagnosis was carried out on two Usher type I families and pathogenic mutations in MYO7A and PCDH15 were found.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmg.2009.03.018DOI Listing
November 2009