Publications by authors named "Claire Fieschi"

107 Publications

Characteristics of thrombocytopenia, anasarca, fever, reticulin fibrosis and organomegaly syndrome: a retrospective study from a large Western cohort.

Br J Haematol 2021 Sep 28. Epub 2021 Sep 28.

Clinical Immunology Department, Hôpital Saint Louis, Université de Paris, Paris, France.

Idiopathic multicentric Castleman disease (iMCD) is a non-clonal inflammatory lymphoproliferative disorder of unknown origin. Recently, TAFRO syndrome (thrombocytopenia, anasarca, fever, reticulin fibrosis and organomegaly) emerged as a singular variant of iMCD in Asia and was associated with a severe course and a poor outcome. The present study describes the first large Western cohort of TAFRO syndrome patients (n = 25) meeting the All Japan TAFRO Syndrome Research Group diagnostic criteria. Characteristics of TAFRO patients were compared to iMCD-not otherwise specified (iMCD-NOS) patients used as a control group (n = 43). Our results show that despite baseline characteristics in accordance with previously reported series, Western TAFRO syndrome patients do not appear to present with a worse outcome than iMCD-NOS patients. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding treatment choice, response to rituximab (71% vs. 67%) or tocilizumab (69% vs. 91%) in TAFRO and iMCD-NOS, respectively. The two-year overall survival was above 95% in both groups. Limits of inclusion and exclusion criteria for TAFRO definition are also discussed. Our findings raise the question of the singularity of the TAFRO entity in Western countries. The data should promote further research using unsupervised models to identify markers of disease severity in Western cohorts of iMCD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17868DOI Listing
September 2021

Biochemically deleterious human NFKB1 variants underlie an autosomal dominant form of common variable immunodeficiency.

J Exp Med 2021 Nov 2;218(11). Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Laboratory of Clinical Immunology and Microbiology, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.

Autosomal dominant (AD) NFKB1 deficiency is thought to be the most common genetic etiology of common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). However, the causal link between NFKB1 variants and CVID has not been demonstrated experimentally and genetically, and there has been insufficient biochemical characterization and enrichment analysis. We show that the cotransfection of NFKB1-deficient HEK293T cells (lacking both p105 and its cleaved form p50) with a κB reporter, NFKB1/p105, and a homodimerization-defective RELA/p65 mutant results in p50:p65 heterodimer-dependent and p65:p65 homodimer-independent transcriptional activation. We found that 59 of the 90 variants in patients with CVID or related conditions were loss of function or hypomorphic. By contrast, 258 of 260 variants in the general population or patients with unrelated conditions were neutral. None of the deleterious variants displayed negative dominance. The enrichment in deleterious NFKB1 variants of patients with CVID was selective and highly significant (P = 2.78 × 10-15). NFKB1 variants disrupting NFKB1/p50 transcriptional activity thus underlie AD CVID by haploinsufficiency, whereas neutral variants in this assay should not be considered causal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20210566DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8421261PMC
November 2021

Coagulation disorders in patients with severe hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis.

PLoS One 2021 3;16(8):e0251216. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

AP-HP, Medical ICU, Hôpital Saint-Louis, Paris, France.

Background: Coagulation disorders are common in patients with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), associated with an increased risk of bleeding and death. We aim to investigate coagulation disorders and their outcome implications in critically ill patients with HLH.

Methods: We prospectively evaluated 47 critically ill patients with HLH (median age of 54 years [42-67]) between April 2015 and December 2018. Coagulation assessments were performed at day 1. Abnormal standard coagulation was defined as prothrombin time (PT) <50% and/or fibrinogen <2g/L. HLH aetiology was mostly ascribed to haematological malignancies (74% of patients).

Results: Coagulation disorders and severe bleeding events were frequent, occurring in 30 (64%) and 11 (23%) patients respectively. At day 1, median fibrinogen level was 2∙65g/L [1.61-5.66]. Fibrinolytic activity was high as suggested by increased median levels of D-dimers, fibrin monomers, PAI-1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor) and tPA (tissue plasminogen activator). Forty-one (91%) patients had a decreased ADAMTS13 activity (A Disintegrin-like And Metalloproteinase with ThromboSpondin type 1 repeats, member 13). By multivariable analysis, the occurrence of a severe bleeding (OR 3.215 [1.194-8.653], p = 0∙021) and SOFA score (Sepsis-Related Organ Failure Assessment) at day 1 (OR 1.305 per point [1.146-1.485], p<0∙001) were independently associated with hospital mortality. No early biological marker was associated with severe bleeding.

Conclusions: Hyperfibrinolysis may be the primary mechanism responsible for hypofibrinogenemia and may also participate in ADAMTS13 degradation. Targeting the plasmin system appears as a promising approach in severe HLH-related coagulation disorders.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0251216PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8330932PMC
August 2021

Recurrent bacterial infections, but not fungal infections, characterise patients with ELANE-related neutropenia: a French Severe Chronic Neutropenia Registry study.

Br J Haematol 2021 Sep 2;194(5):908-920. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Registre des Neutropénies Chroniques, Centre de Référence des Neutropénies Chroniques, Hôpital Trousseau, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (APHP), Paris, France.

Among 143 patients with elastase, neutrophil-expressed (ELANE)-related neutropenia enrolled in the French Severe Chronic Neutropenia Registry, 94 were classified as having severe chronic neutropenia (SCN) and 49 with cyclic neutropenia (CyN). Their infectious episodes were classified as severe, mild or oral, and analysed according to their natural occurrence without granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), on G-CSF, after myelodysplasia/acute leukaemia or after haematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. During the disease's natural history period (without G-CSF; 1913 person-years), 302, 957 and 754 severe, mild and oral infectious events, respectively, occurred. Among severe infections, cellulitis (48%) and pneumonia (38%) were the most common. Only 38% of episodes were microbiologically documented. The most frequent pathogens were Staphylococcus aureus (37·4%), Escherichia coli (20%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (16%), while fungal infections accounted for 1%. Profound neutropenia (<200/mm ), high lymphocyte count (>3000/mm ) and neutropenia subtype were associated with high risk of infection. Only the p.Gly214Arg variant (5% of the patients) was associated with infections but not the overall genotype. The first year of life was associated with the highest infection risk throughout life. G-CSF therapy achieved lower ratios of serious or oral infectious event numbers per period but was less protective for patients requiring >10 µg/kg/day. Infections had permanent consequences in 33% of patients, most frequently edentulism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.17695DOI Listing
September 2021

Inherited GATA2 Deficiency Is Dominant by Haploinsufficiency and Displays Incomplete Clinical Penetrance.

J Clin Immunol 2021 04 8;41(3):639-657. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Allergy and Clinical Immunology Service at the XXI Century National Medical Center, Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS), Mexico City, Mexico.

Purpose: Germline heterozygous mutations of GATA2 underlie a variety of hematological and clinical phenotypes. The genetic, immunological, and clinical features of GATA2-deficient patients with mycobacterial diseases in the familial context remain largely unknown.

Methods: We enrolled 15 GATA2 index cases referred for mycobacterial disease. We describe their genetic and clinical features including their relatives.

Results: We identified 12 heterozygous GATA2 mutations, two of which had not been reported. Eight of these mutations were loss-of-function, and four were hypomorphic. None was dominant-negative in vitro, and the GATA2 locus was found to be subject to purifying selection, strongly suggesting a mechanism of haploinsufficiency. Three relatives of index cases had mycobacterial disease and were also heterozygous, resulting in 18 patients in total. Mycobacterial infection was the first clinical manifestation in 11 patients, at a mean age of 22.5 years (range: 12 to 42 years). Most patients also suffered from other infections, monocytopenia, or myelodysplasia. Strikingly, the clinical penetrance was incomplete (32.9% by age 40 years), as 16 heterozygous relatives aged between 6 and 78 years, including 4 older than 60 years, were completely asymptomatic.

Conclusion: Clinical penetrance for mycobacterial disease was found to be similar to other GATA2 deficiency-related manifestations. These observations suggest that other mechanisms contribute to the phenotypic expression of GATA2 deficiency. A diagnosis of autosomal dominant GATA2 deficiency should be considered in patients with mycobacterial infections and/or other GATA2 deficiency-related phenotypes at any age in life. Moreover, all direct relatives should be genotyped at the GATA2 locus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10875-020-00930-3DOI Listing
April 2021

Coronavirus disease 2019 in patients with inborn errors of immunity: An international study.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2021 Feb 24;147(2):520-531. Epub 2020 Sep 24.

Istituto Molecolare "A Nocivelli," Department of Experimental and Clinical Sciences, University of Brescia & Asst Spedali civili, Brescia, Italy.

Background: There is uncertainty about the impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in individuals with rare inborn errors of immunity (IEI), a population at risk of developing severe coronavirus disease 2019. This is relevant not only for these patients but also for the general population, because studies of IEIs can unveil key requirements for host defense.

Objective: We sought to describe the presentation, manifestations, and outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection in IEI to inform physicians and enhance understanding of host defense against SARS-CoV-2.

Methods: An invitation to participate in a retrospective study was distributed globally to scientific, medical, and patient societies involved in the care and advocacy for patients with IEI.

Results: We gathered information on 94 patients with IEI with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Their median age was 25 to 34 years. Fifty-three patients (56%) suffered from primary antibody deficiency, 9 (9.6%) had immune dysregulation syndrome, 6 (6.4%) a phagocyte defect, 7 (7.4%) an autoinflammatory disorder, 14 (15%) a combined immunodeficiency, 3 (3%) an innate immune defect, and 2 (2%) bone marrow failure. Ten were asymptomatic, 25 were treated as outpatients, 28 required admission without intensive care or ventilation, 13 required noninvasive ventilation or oxygen administration, 18 were admitted to intensive care units, 12 required invasive ventilation, and 3 required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Nine patients (7 adults and 2 children) died.

Conclusions: This study demonstrates that (1) more than 30% of patients with IEI had mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and (2) risk factors predisposing to severe disease/mortality in the general population also seemed to affect patients with IEI, including more younger patients. Further studies will identify pathways that are associated with increased risk of severe disease and are nonredundant or redundant for protection against SARS-CoV-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2020.09.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7832563PMC
February 2021

Identification of Umbre Orthobunyavirus as a Novel Zoonotic Virus Responsible for Lethal Encephalitis in 2 French Patients with Hypogammaglobulinemia.

Clin Infect Dis 2021 05;72(10):1701-1708

Pathogen Discovery Laboratory, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.

Background: Human encephalitis represents a medical challenge from a diagnostic and therapeutic point of view. We investigated the cause of 2 fatal cases of encephalitis of unknown origin in immunocompromised patients.

Methods: Untargeted metatranscriptomics was applied on the brain tissue of 2 patients to search for pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, or protozoans) without a prior hypothesis.

Results: Umbre arbovirus, an orthobunyavirus never previously identified in humans, was found in 2 patients. In situ hybridization and reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) showed that Umbre virus infected neurons and replicated at high titers. The virus was not detected in cerebrospinal fluid by RT-qPCR. Viral sequences related to Koongol virus, another orthobunyavirus close to Umbre virus, were found in Culex pipiens mosquitoes captured in the south of France where the patients had spent some time before the onset of symptoms, demonstrating the presence of the same clade of arboviruses in Europe and their potential public health impact. A serological survey conducted in the same area did not identify individuals positive for Umbre virus. The absence of seropositivity in the population may not reflect the actual risk of disease transmission in immunocompromised individuals.

Conclusions: Umbre arbovirus can cause encephalitis in immunocompromised humans and is present in Europe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa308DOI Listing
May 2021

Dominant-negative mutations in human IL6ST underlie hyper-IgE syndrome.

J Exp Med 2020 06;217(6)

Department of Molecular and Human Genetics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX.

Autosomal dominant hyper-IgE syndrome (AD-HIES) is typically caused by dominant-negative (DN) STAT3 mutations. Patients suffer from cold staphylococcal lesions and mucocutaneous candidiasis, severe allergy, and skeletal abnormalities. We report 12 patients from 8 unrelated kindreds with AD-HIES due to DN IL6ST mutations. We identified seven different truncating mutations, one of which was recurrent. The mutant alleles encode GP130 receptors bearing the transmembrane domain but lacking both the recycling motif and all four STAT3-recruiting tyrosine residues. Upon overexpression, the mutant proteins accumulate at the cell surface and are loss of function and DN for cellular responses to IL-6, IL-11, LIF, and OSM. Moreover, the patients' heterozygous leukocytes and fibroblasts respond poorly to IL-6 and IL-11. Consistently, patients with STAT3 and IL6ST mutations display infectious and allergic manifestations of IL-6R deficiency, and some of the skeletal abnormalities of IL-11R deficiency. DN STAT3 and IL6ST mutations thus appear to underlie clinical phenocopies through impairment of the IL-6 and IL-11 response pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20191804DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7971136PMC
June 2020

Human IgA binds a diverse array of commensal bacteria.

J Exp Med 2020 03;217(3)

Sorbonne Université, Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicale, Centre d'Immunologie et des Maladies Infectieuses, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Hôpital Pitié-Salpêtrière, Paris, France.

In humans, several grams of IgA are secreted every day in the intestinal lumen. While only one IgA isotype exists in mice, humans secrete IgA1 and IgA2, whose respective relations with the microbiota remain elusive. We compared the binding patterns of both polyclonal IgA subclasses to commensals and glycan arrays and determined the reactivity profile of native human monoclonal IgA antibodies. While most commensals are dually targeted by IgA1 and IgA2 in the small intestine, IgA1+IgA2+ and IgA1-IgA2+ bacteria coexist in the colon lumen, where Bacteroidetes is preferentially targeted by IgA2. We also observed that galactose-α terminated glycans are almost exclusively recognized by IgA2. Although bearing signs of affinity maturation, gut-derived IgA monoclonal antibodies are cross-reactive in the sense that they bind to multiple bacterial targets. Private anticarbohydrate-binding patterns, observed at clonal level as well, could explain these apparently opposing features of IgA, being at the same time cross-reactive and selective in its interactions with the microbiota.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1084/jem.20181635DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7062531PMC
March 2020

Clinical and Genetic Spectrum of a Large Cohort With Total and Sub-total Complement Deficiencies.

Front Immunol 2019 8;10:1936. Epub 2019 Aug 8.

Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Laboratoire d'Immunologie, Hôpital Européen Georges-Pompidou, Paris, France.

The complement system is crucial for defense against pathogens and the removal of dying cells or immune complexes. Thus, clinical indications for possible complete complement deficiencies include, among others, recurrent mild or serious bacterial infections as well as autoimmune diseases (AID). The diagnostic approach includes functional activity measurements of the classical (CH50) and alternative pathway (AP50) and the determination of the C3 and C4 levels, followed by the quantitative analysis of individual components or regulators. When biochemical analysis reveals the causal abnormality of the complement deficiency (CD), molecular mechanisms remains frequently undetermined. Here, using direct sequencing analysis of the coding region we report the pathogenic variants spectrum that underlie the total or subtotal complement deficiency in 212 patients. We identified 107 different hemizygous, homozygous, or compound heterozygous pathogenic variants in 14 complement genes [β ( = 1), ( = 3), ( = 2), ( = 12), ( = 5), C5 ( = 12), ( = 9), ( = 17), β ( = 7), ( = 3), ( = 7), ( = 18), ( = 10), ( = 2)]. Molecular analysis identified 17 recurrent pathogenic variants in 6 genes (, and ). More than half of the pathogenic variants identified in unrelated patients were also found in healthy controls from the same geographic area. Our study confirms the strong association of meningococcal infections with terminal pathway deficiency and highlights the risk of pneumococcal and auto-immune diseases in the classical and alternative pathways. Results from this large genetic investigation provide evidence of a restricted number of molecular mechanisms leading to complement deficiency and describe the clinical potential adverse events of anti-complement therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.01936DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6694794PMC
September 2020

A 1-Year Prospective French Nationwide Study of Emergency Hospital Admissions in Children and Adults with Primary Immunodeficiency.

J Clin Immunol 2019 10 10;39(7):702-712. Epub 2019 Aug 10.

Service de Maladies Infectieuses et Tropicales, Centre d'Infectiologie Necker Pasteur, Hôpital Universitaire Necker-Enfants Malades, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Université de Paris, Paris, France.

Purpose: Patients with primary immunodeficiency (PID) are at risk of serious complications. However, data on the incidence and causes of emergency hospital admissions are scarce. The primary objective of the present study was to describe emergency hospital admissions among patients with PID, with a view to identifying "at-risk" patient profiles.

Methods: We performed a prospective observational 12-month multicenter study in France via the CEREDIH network of regional PID reference centers from November 2010 to October 2011. All patients with PIDs requiring emergency hospital admission were included.

Results: A total of 200 admissions concerned 137 patients (73 adults and 64 children, 53% of whom had antibody deficiencies). Thirty admissions were reported for 16 hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients. When considering the 170 admissions of non-transplant patients, 149 (85%) were related to acute infections (respiratory tract infections and gastrointestinal tract infections in 72 (36%) and 34 (17%) of cases, respectively). Seventy-seven percent of the admissions occurred during winter or spring (December to May). The in-hospital mortality rate was 8.8% (12 patients); death was related to a severe infection in 11 cases (8%) and Epstein-Barr virus-induced lymphoma in 1 case. Patients with a central venous catheter (n = 19, 13.9%) were significantly more hospitalized for an infection (94.7%) than for a non-infectious reason (5.3%) (p = 0.04).

Conclusion: Our data showed that the annual incidence of emergency hospital admission among patients with PID is 3.4%. The leading cause of emergency hospital admission was an acute infection, and having a central venous catheter was associated with a significantly greater risk of admission for an infectious episode.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10875-019-00658-9DOI Listing
October 2019

Bortezomib and dexamethasone, an original approach for treating multi-refractory warm autoimmune haemolytic anaemia.

Br J Haematol 2019 10 2;187(1):124-128. Epub 2019 Jun 2.

Service de Médecine Interne, Centre national de référence des cytopénies auto-immunes de l'adulte, Hôpital Henri Mondor, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Université Paris Est Créteil, Créteil, France.

We report the off-label use of bortezomib combined with dexamethasone in eight adults with severe and multi-refractory warm auto-immune haemolytic anaemia (wAIHA). After six cycles of induction therapy, 6 of the 8 patients achieved response (3 complete response, 3 response). Response was obtained after a median of 2 (1-4) cycles. After a median follow-up of 14 (6-36) months, six patients maintained a response (bortezomib/dexamethasone maintenance, n = 4); five patients experienced at least one moderate adverse event, including peripheral neuropathy (n = 2). These results suggest that bortezomib/dexamethasone combination is a promising approach with acceptable toxicity for treating severe refractory wAIHA in adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.16009DOI Listing
October 2019

Romidepsin is an effective and well-tolerated therapy in CD3CD4 lymphocyte-variant hypereosinophilic syndrome: A case report.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2019 Nov - Dec;7(8):2885-2887.e1. Epub 2019 May 10.

Department of Clinical Immunology, Saint-Louis Hospital, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2019.04.039DOI Listing
October 2020

Treatment and outcome of Unicentric Castleman Disease: a retrospective analysis of 71 cases.

Br J Haematol 2019 07 23;186(2):269-273. Epub 2019 Apr 23.

Department of Clinical Immunology, Hôpital Saint-Louis, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris (APHP), Paris, France.

We retrospectively analysed 71 cases of Unicentric Castleman disease, a rare, usually asymptomatic, benign lymphoproliferative disorder presenting as a unique nodal mass. Although surgery is considered as the gold standard therapy, only 38 patients (54%) underwent initial surgical resection and 95% were cured. An additional 9 patients had surgery after an attempt at medical reduction. Reduction therapy was used in 21 patients with a 55% response rate, but without evidence for an optimal regimen. Radiotherapy was limited to 8 patients because of associated toxicity. Watch and wait was considered in 13 asymptomatic patients and 11 of these remained stable for up to 17 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.15921DOI Listing
July 2019

Clinical spectrum, evolution, and management of autoimmune cytopenias associated with angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma.

Eur J Haematol 2019 Jul 30;103(1):35-42. Epub 2019 May 30.

Service de médecine interne, Hôpital Henri-Mondor, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Université Paris-Est, Créteil, France.

Objective: Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) is frequently associated with autoimmune cytopenia (AIC). Whether such patients have a particular phenotype and require particular management is unclear.

Method: Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma patients from the multicentric database of the Lymphoma Study Association presenting with AIC during disease course were included and matched to AITL patients without AIC (1/5 ratio).

Results: At diagnosis, AIC patients (n = 28) had more spleen and bone marrow involvement (54% vs 19% and 71% vs 34%, P < 0.001), Epstein-Barr virus replication (89% vs 39%, P < 0.001), gamma globulin titers (median 23 vs 15 g/L, P = 0.002), and proliferating B cells and plasmablasts in biopsies, as compared to control patients (n = 136). The 28 AIC patients had 41 episodes of AIC, diagnosed concomitantly with AITL in 23 (82%) cases. After a median follow-up of 24 months (range 3-155), 10 patients relapsed, all associated with AITL relapse.

Conclusion: Our results provide new insight into AIC associated with AITL by highlighting the significant interplay between AITL and B-cell activation leading to subsequent autoimmunity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejh.13239DOI Listing
July 2019

Synergistic convergence of microbiota-specific systemic IgG and secretory IgA.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 04 13;143(4):1575-1585.e4. Epub 2018 Dec 13.

Sorbonne Université, INSERM, Centre d'Immunologie et des Maladies Infectieuses (CIMI-Paris), Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Groupement Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière, Département d'Immunologie, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Background: Commensals induce local IgA responses essential to the induction of tolerance to gut microbiota, but it remains unclear whether antimicrobiota responses remain confined to the gut.

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate systemic and intestinal responses against the whole microbiota under homeostatic conditions and in the absence of IgA.

Methods: We analyzed blood and feces from healthy donors, patients with selective IgA deficiency (SIgAd), and patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). Immunoglobulin-coated bacterial repertoires were analyzed by using combined bacterial fluorescence-activated cell sorting and 16S rRNA sequencing. Bacterial lysates were probed by using Western blot analysis with healthy donor sera.

Results: Although absent from the healthy gut, serum antimicrobiota IgG are present in healthy subjects and increased in patients with SIgAd. IgG converges with nonoverlapping secretory IgA specificities to target the same bacteria. Each individual subject targets a diverse microbiota repertoire with a proportion that correlates inversely with systemic inflammation. Finally, intravenous immunoglobulin preparations target CVID gut microbiota much less efficiently than healthy microbiota.

Conclusion: Secretory IgA and systemic IgG converge to target gut microbiota at the cellular level. SIgAd-associated inflammation is inversely correlated with systemic anticommensal IgG responses, which might serve as a second line of defense. We speculate that patients with SIgAd could benefit from oral IgA supplementation. Our data also suggest that intravenous immunoglobulin preparations can be supplemented with IgG from IgA-deficient patient pools to offer better protection against gut bacterial translocations in patients with CVID.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2018.09.036DOI Listing
April 2019

Immune/microbial interface perturbation in human IgA deficiency.

Gut Microbes 2019 18;10(3):429-433. Epub 2018 Nov 18.

a Sorbonne Université, INSERM, Centre d'Immunologie et des Maladies Infectieuses-Paris (CIMI-Paris), Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Groupement Hospitalier Pitié-Salpêtrière, , Département d'Immunologie , Paris , France.

In a recently published article we report the metagenomic analysis of human gut microbiomes evolved in the absence of immunoglobulin A (IgA). We show that human IgA deficiency is not associated with massive quantitative perturbations of gut microbial ecology. While our study underlines a rather expected pathobiont expansion, we at the same time highlight a less expected depletion in some typically beneficial symbionts. We also show that IgM partially supply IgA deficiency, explaining the relatively mild clinical phenotype associated with the early steps of this condition. Microbiome studies in patients should consider potential issues such as cohort size, human genetic polymorphism and treatments. In this commentary, we discuss how such issues were taken into account in our own study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19490976.2018.1546520DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6546332PMC
December 2019

Campylobacter infection in adult patients with primary antibody deficiency.

J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract 2019 03 6;7(3):1038-1041.e4. Epub 2018 Jul 6.

Département d'Immunologie Clinique, Hôpital Saint-Louis, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France; EA3518, Université Paris VII Denis Diderot, Paris, France. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2018.06.014DOI Listing
March 2019

Mutations in the gene cause severe congenital neutropenia as well as Shwachman-Diamond-like syndrome.

Blood 2018 09 18;132(12):1318-1331. Epub 2018 Jun 18.

Department of Clinical Immunology, Saint-Louis Hospital, AP-HP, Paris, France.

Congenital neutropenias (CNs) are rare heterogeneous genetic disorders, with about 25% of patients without known genetic defects. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified a heterozygous mutation in the gene, encoding the signal recognition particle (SRP) 54 GTPase protein, in 3 sporadic cases and 1 autosomal dominant family. We subsequently sequenced the gene in 66 probands from the French CN registry. In total, we identified 23 mutated cases (16 sporadic, 7 familial) with 7 distinct germ line mutations including a recurrent in-frame deletion (Thr117del) in 14 cases. In nearly all patients, neutropenia was chronic and profound with promyelocytic maturation arrest, occurring within the first months of life, and required long-term granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy with a poor response. Neutropenia was sometimes associated with a severe neurodevelopmental delay (n = 5) and/or an exocrine pancreatic insufficiency requiring enzyme supplementation (n = 3). The SRP54 protein is a key component of the ribonucleoprotein complex that mediates the co-translational targeting of secretory and membrane proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We showed that SRP54 was specifically upregulated during the in vitro granulocytic differentiation, and that mutations or knockdown led to a drastically reduced proliferation of granulocytic cells associated with an enhanced P53-dependent apoptosis. Bone marrow examination of -mutated patients revealed a major dysgranulopoiesis and features of cellular ER stress and autophagy that were confirmed using -mutated primary cells and knockdown cells. In conclusion, we characterized a pathological pathway, which represents the second most common cause of CN with maturation arrest in the French CN registry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2017-12-820308DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6536700PMC
September 2018

PROMIDISα: A T-cell receptor α signature associated with immunodeficiencies caused by V(D)J recombination defects.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2019 01 12;143(1):325-334.e2. Epub 2018 Jun 12.

Laboratory "Genome Dynamics in the Immune System", INSERM UMR1163, Paris, France; Université Paris Descartes Sorbonne Paris Cité, Institut Imagine, Paris, France. Electronic address:

Background: V(D)J recombination ensures the diversity of the adaptive immune system. Although its complete defect causes severe combined immunodeficiency (ie, TB severe combined immunodeficiency), its suboptimal activity is associated with a broad spectrum of immune manifestations, such as late-onset combined immunodeficiency and autoimmunity. The earliest molecular diagnosis of these patients is required to adopt the best therapy strategy, particularly when it involves a myeloablative conditioning regimen for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Objective: We aimed at developing biomarkers based on analysis of the T-cell receptor (TCR) α repertoire to assist in the diagnosis of patients with primary immunodeficiencies with V(D)J recombination and DNA repair deficiencies.

Methods: We used flow cytometric (fluorescence-activated cell sorting) analysis to quantify TCR-Vα7.2-expressing T lymphocytes in peripheral blood and developed PROMIDISα, a multiplex RT-PCR/next-generation sequencing assay, to evaluate a subset of the TCRα repertoire in T lymphocytes.

Results: The combined fluorescence-activated cell sorting and PROMIDISα analyses revealed specific signatures in patients with V(D)J recombination-defective primary immunodeficiencies or ataxia telangiectasia/Nijmegen breakage syndromes.

Conclusion: Analysis of the TCRα repertoire is particularly appropriate in a prospective way to identify patients with partial immune defects caused by suboptimal V(D)J recombination activity, a DNA repair defect, or both. It also constitutes a valuable tool for the retrospective in vivo functional validation of variants identified through exome or panel sequencing. Its broader implementation might be of interest to assist early diagnosis of patients presenting with hypomorphic DNA repair defects inclined to experience acute toxicity during prehematopoietic stem cell transplantation conditioning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2018.05.028DOI Listing
January 2019

Natural history of GATA2 deficiency in a survey of 79 French and Belgian patients.

Haematologica 2018 08 3;103(8):1278-1287. Epub 2018 May 3.

Genetic Laboratory, AP-HP Robert Debré Hospital, Paris, France.

Heterozygous germline mutations strongly predispose to leukemia, immunodeficiency, and/or lymphoedema. We describe a series of 79 patients (53 families) diagnosed since 2011, made up of all patients in France and Belgium, with a follow up of 2249 patients/years. Median age at first clinical symptoms was 18.6 years (range, 0-61 years). Severe infectious diseases (mycobacteria, fungus, and human papilloma virus) and hematologic malignancies were the most common first manifestations. The probability of remaining symptom-free was 8% at 40 years old. Among the 53 probands, 24 had missense mutations including 4 recurrent alleles, 21 had nonsense or frameshift mutations, 4 had a whole-gene deletion, 2 had splice defects, and 2 patients had complex mutations. There were significantly more cases of leukemia in patients with missense mutations (n=14 of 34) than in patients with nonsense or frameshift mutations (n=2 of 28). We also identify new features of the disease: acute lymphoblastic leukemia, juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia, fatal progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy related to the JC virus, and immune/inflammatory diseases. A revised International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) score allowed a distinction to be made between a stable disease and hematologic transformation. Chemotherapy is of limited efficacy, and has a high toxicity with severe infectious complications. As the mortality rate is high in our cohort (up to 35% at the age of 40), hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) remains the best choice of treatment to avoid severe infectious and/or hematologic complications. The timing of HSCT remains difficult to determine, but the earlier it is performed, the better the outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2017.181909DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6068047PMC
August 2018

Microbial ecology perturbation in human IgA deficiency.

Sci Transl Med 2018 05;10(439)

Sorbonne Université, INSERM, Centre d'Immunologie et des Maladies Infectieuses-Paris (CIMI-Paris), 75013 Paris, France.

Paradoxically, loss of immunoglobulin A (IgA), one of the most abundant antibodies, does not irrevocably lead to severe infections in humans but rather is associated with relatively mild respiratory infections, atopy, and autoimmunity. IgA might therefore also play covert roles, not uniquely associated with control of pathogens. We show that human IgA deficiency is not associated with massive quantitative perturbations of gut microbial ecology. Metagenomic analysis highlights an expected pathobiont expansion but a less expected depletion in some typically beneficial symbionts. Gut colonization by species usually present in the oropharynx is also reminiscent of spatial microbiota disorganization. IgM only partially rescues IgA deficiency because not all typical IgA targets are efficiently bound by IgM in the intestinal lumen. Together, IgA appears to play a nonredundant role at the forefront of the immune/microbial interface, away from the intestinal barrier, ranging from pathobiont control and regulation of systemic inflammation to preservation of commensal diversity and community networks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.aan1217DOI Listing
May 2018

Genetic screening of male patients with primary hypogammaglobulinemia can guide diagnosis and clinical management.

Hum Immunol 2018 Jul 27;79(7):571-577. Epub 2018 Apr 27.

EA3963, Université Paris 7 Denis Diderot, Centre Hayem, Hôpital Saint-Louis, 1 Avenue Claude Vellefaux, 75010 Paris, France; Département d'Immunologie Clinique, Hôpital Saint-Louis, AP-HP, 1 Avenue Claude Vellefaux, 75010 Paris, France.

The precise diagnosis of an immunodeficiency is sometimes difficult to assess, especially due to the large spectrum of phenotypic variation reported among patients. Common variable immunodeficiency disorders (CVID) do not have, for a large part, an identified genetic cause. The identification of a causal genetic mutation is important to confirm, or in some cases correct, the diagnosis. We screened >150 male patients with hypogammaglobulinemia for mutations in three genes involved in pediatric X-linked primary immunoglobulin deficiency: CD40LG, SH2D1A and BTK. The SH2D1A screening allowed to reclassify two individuals with an initial CVID presentation as XLP after mutations identification. All these mutations were associated with a lack of protein expression. In addition, 4 patients with a primary diagnosis of CVID and one with a primary IgG subclass deficiency were requalified as XLA after identifying BTK mutations. Interestingly, two out of these 5 patients carried a damaging coding BTK mutation associated with a lower, but detectable, BTK expression in monocytes, suggesting that a dysfunctional protein explains the disease phenotype in these patients. In conclusion, our results advocate to include SH2D1A and BTK in newly developed targeted NGS genetic testing, to contribute to providing the most appropriate medical treatment and genetic counselling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humimm.2018.04.014DOI Listing
July 2018

Value of the Overall Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Response in the Diagnosis of Primary Humoral Immunodeficiencies.

Front Immunol 2017 20;8:1862. Epub 2017 Dec 20.

CHU Lille, Institut d'Immunologie, Lille, France.

Background: An overall response assay [OVA, based on a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23)] is widely used to screen for anti-pneumococcal antibodies. Given the heterogeneity of response from one polysaccharide (PS) to another, a World Health Organization-standardized serotype-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (SSA) is considered to be the only reliable method for testing anti-PS antibody responses in individuals with suspected primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs).

Objective: To evaluate the OVA relative to the reference SSA.

Methods: Serum samples of adult patients referred for a suspected PID were collected before and then 4-8 weeks after immunization with PPV23. The anti-pneumococcal response was systematically assessed with an SSA (7-16 serotypes) and interpreted according to the American Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Immunology's current guidelines. We used receiver operating characteristic curves and agreement indices to assess the OVA's diagnostic value in a first cohort. In order to validate these findings, a second (validation) cohort was then prospectively included.

Results: Sixty-two adult patients were included, and 42 (67.7%) were defined as poor responders according to the SSA. Only the post-immunization titer in the OVA was able to correctly identify poor responders; a titer below 110 mg/L gave a positive predictive value of 100% [identifying 24 (57.1%) of the 42 poor responders], and similar levels of diagnostic performance were observed in the validation cohort. The pre-vaccination antibody titer, the post/pre-vaccination antibody titer ratio and a post-vaccination titer above 110 mg/L in the OVA were not predictive of the response in the SSA.

Conclusion: A post-vaccination antibody titer below 110 mg/L in the OVA was constantly associated with a poor PPV23 response using the SSA. In all other cases, SSA is the only reliable method for assessing diagnostic vaccination with PPV23.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2017.01862DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5742330PMC
December 2017

The full spectrum of Castleman disease: 273 patients studied over 20 years.

Br J Haematol 2018 01 16;180(2):206-216. Epub 2017 Nov 16.

Department of Clinical Immunology, Hôpital Saint-Louis, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris (APHP), Paris, France.

The spectrum of Castleman disease (CD) has considerably extended since its first description in 1956. Recently, an international collaborative working group has reached consensus on the diagnostic criteria and classification of CD. We herein report 273 patients with lymph node histopathology consistent with CD and investigate the newly established diagnostic criteria. Twenty of these patients with Castleman-like histopathology were removed from analyses, because they were diagnosed with an exclusionary disorder (18 with haematological malignancy). Among the 253 remaining patients, 57 were considered unicentric CD (UCD), 169 were multicentric CD associated with Human Herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8+MCD), including 140 patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and 29 patients without HIV infection, and 27 were HHV-8 negative/idiopathic multicentric CD (iMCD). 2-( F)fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography was useful in 62 patients for staging/classification of the disease and for excluding associated lymphoma. UCD was mainly associated with hyaline-vascular histopathological features, and most patients were asymptomatic. Of the 27 patients that we had originally diagnosed with iMCD, 26 met the newly established diagnostic criteria. Patients with iMCD and HHV-8+ MCD demonstrated similar characteristics, including fever, splenomegaly, cytopenia and inflammatory symptoms. However, the disease was more aggressive in HHV-8+ MCD, particularly in HIV-infected patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.15019DOI Listing
January 2018
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