Publications by authors named "Clément Delmas"

92 Publications

Endovascular therapies for pulmonary embolism.

Heliyon 2021 Apr 1;7(4):e06574. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Service d'imagerie CHU Toulouse, Rangueil, France.

Purpose: The aim of this article is to define the place of new endovascular methods for the management of pulmonary embolisms (PE), on the basis of a multidisciplinary consensus.

Method And Results: Briefly, from the recent literature, for high-risk PE presenting with shock or cardiac arrest, systemic thrombolysis or embolectomy is recommended, while for lowrisk PE, anticoagulation alone is proposed. Normo-tense patients with PE but with biological or imaging signs of right heart dysfunction constitute a group known as "at intermediate risk" for which the therapeutic strategy remains controversial. In fact, some patients may require more aggressive treatment in addition to the anticoagulant treatment, because approximately 10% will decompensate hemodynamically with a high risk of mortality. Systemic thrombolysis may be an option, but with hemorrhagic risks, particularly intra cranial. Various hybrid pharmacomechanical approaches are proposed to maintain the benefits of thrombolysis while reducing its risks, but the overall clinical experience of these different techniques remains limited. Patients with high intermediate and high risk pulmonary embolism should be managed by a multidisciplinary team combining the skills of cardiologists, resuscitators, pneumologists, interventional radiologists and cardiac surgeons. Such a team can determine which intervention - thrombolysis alone or assisted, percutaneous mechanical fragmentation of the thrombus or surgical embolectomy - is best suited to a particular patient.

Conclusions: This consensus document define the place of endovascular thrombectomy based on an appropriate risk stratification of PE.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e06574DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8047492PMC
April 2021

Relationships between left ventricular mass and QRS duration in diverse types of left ventricular hypertrophy.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 Apr 11. Epub 2021 Apr 11.

Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Rangueil, 1 avenue Pr. Jean Poulhès 31400 Toulouse, France.

Aims: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) may be associated with very narrow QRS, while left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) may increase QRS duration. We investigated the relationships between QRS duration and LV mass (LVM) in subtypes of abnormal LV wall thickness.

Methods And Results: Automated measurement of LVM on MRI was correlated to automated measurement of QRS duration on ECG in HCM, left ventricular non compaction (LVNC), left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), and controls with healthy hearts. Uni and multivariate analyses were performed between groups including explanatory variables expected to influence LVM and QRS duration. The relationships between QRS duration and LVM were further studied within each group. Two hundred and twenty-one HCM, 28 LVNC, 16 LVH, and 40 controls were retrospectively included. Mean QRS duration was 92 ms for HCM, 104 for LVNC, 110 for LVH, and 92 for controls (P < 0.01). Mean LVM was 100, 90, 108, and 68 g/m2 (P < 0.01). QRS duration, LVM, hypertension, maximal wall thickness, and late gadolinium enhancement were significantly linked to HCM in multivariate analysis (w/wo bundle branch block). An independent negative correlation was found between LVM and QRS duration in the HCM group, while the relationship was reverse in LVNC, LVH, and controls.

Conclusion: QRS duration increases with LVM in LVNC, LVH, or in healthy hearts, while reverse relationship is present in HCM. These relationships were independent from other parameters. These results warrant additional investigations for refining diagnosis criteria for HCM in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjci/jeab063DOI Listing
April 2021

Weaning from Impella and mobilization of Impella patients.

Eur Heart J Suppl 2021 Mar 27;23(Suppl A):A41-A45. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, IRCCS ISMETT, UPMC Italy, Via Ernesto Tricomi 5, 90127 Palermo, Italy.

Weaning of patients from Impella is complex and includes evaluation of the underlying disease, which is essential for estimating the potential for heart recovery. Monitoring during the weaning phase with echocardiography and pulmonary artery catheters will be discussed, as well as the use of intravenous and oral heart failure drugs. Patients who are candidates for weaning must be stable, without inotropes, and must have recovered from acute end-organ damage. Coronary artery disease and valvular heart diseases should be appropriately addressed before weaning to take the maximum advantage of haemodynamic stability provided by the support and to maximize the possibility of weaning. Tips and tricks for the mobilization of Impella patients will also be discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/suab008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8005888PMC
March 2021

Escalation and de-escalation of mechanical circulatory support in cardiogenic shock.

Eur Heart J Suppl 2021 Mar 27;23(Suppl A):A35-A40. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, IRCCS ISMETT, UPMC Italy, Via Ernesto Tricomi 5, 90127 Palermo, Italy.

Cardiogenic shock (CS) is a clinical entity that includes a wide spectrum of different scenarios. Mechanical circulatory support (MCS) plays a fundamental role in the contemporary treatment of CS, and is a key element in determining optimal treatment in this complex population. Cardiac support with mechanical devices should allow reduction and complete weaning from inotropes. Persistence of elevated left ventricular (LV) filling pressures, pulmonary congestion, metabolic decompensation, and end-organ damage during current MCS are criteria for MCS escalation. Precise diagnosis of the underlying cause of right ventricular () is fundamental for undertaking the correct escalation strategy. In the setting of both MCS escalation and de-escalation, it is important to select a strategy in relation to long-term perspectives (bridge-to-recovery, bridge-to-LV assist device, or bridge-to-heart transplantation). Small retrospective studies have demonstrated that the BiPella approach is feasible, reduces cardiac filling pressures and improves cardiac output across a range of causes of CS. Simultaneous LV and RV device implantation and lower RV afterload may be associated with better outcomes in biventricular CS, but prospective studies are still required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/suab007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8005884PMC
March 2021

Pump flow setting and assessment of unloading in clinical practice.

Eur Heart J Suppl 2021 Mar 27;23(Suppl A):A23-A26. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, IRCCS ISMETT, UPMC Italy, Via Ernesto Tricomi, 5, 90127 Palermo, Italy.

The rationale for mechanical circulatory support (MCS) in cardiogenic shock is to restore cardiac output in selected patients when critically low or in case of refractory cardiac arrest. Furthermore, an MCS device that moves blood from either the left atrium or the left ventricle to the systemic circulation will potentially unload the ventricle. These devices are used alone or in combination with venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO). If a left-sided Impella device is used, it should be run at the highest possible performance level during treatment while avoiding suction events. When combined with VA-ECMO, the Impella device should be run at a lower performance level, ensuring sufficient left ventricular emptying but avoiding suction. Continuous monitoring is pivotal and patients managed outside the catheterization laboratory should be monitored with an arterial line, a central venous catheter, frequent use of pulmonary artery catheters and regular imaging by transthoracic echocardiogram.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/suab004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8005883PMC
March 2021

Cardioprotective shock management: monitoring and supportive therapies.

Eur Heart J Suppl 2021 Mar 27;23(Suppl A):A3-A9. Epub 2021 Mar 27.

Intensive Care Unit, University Hospital Basel, University of Basel, Petersgraben 5, 4031 Basel, Switzerland.

Cardiogenic shock is a highly lethal syndrome, leading to rapid death or secondary multiorgan damage, but current shock therapies, including mechanical support devices, also have a significant side effect profile. The overarching goal of shock therapy is ensuring long-term survival with good quality of life. This implies averting death, modifying the disease course by promoting heart recovery and avoiding additional cardiac damage, protecting other organs, and circumventing complications. Monitoring and supportive therapies are subordinate to these goals. Rather than merely following preconceived notions, the rapid evolution in mechanical support technology requires iterative and critical review of the benefits of current procedures, protocols and drugs in view of their overall contribution to the therapeutic goals. This article discusses various monitoring and supportive pharmaceutical modalities typically used in patients with cardiogenic shock requiring mechanical support.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/suab001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8005889PMC
March 2021

Prognostic impact of acute pulmonary triggers in patients with takotsubo syndrome: new insights from the International Takotsubo Registry.

ESC Heart Fail 2021 Mar 13. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Department of Cardiology, Charité, Campus Rudolf Virchow, Berlin, Germany.

Aims: Acute pulmonary disorders are known physical triggers of takotsubo syndrome (TTS). This study aimed to investigate prevalence of acute pulmonary triggers in patients with TTS and their impact on outcomes.

Methods And Results: Patients with TTS were enrolled from the International Takotsubo Registry and screened for triggering factors and comorbidities. Patients were categorized into three groups (acute pulmonary trigger, chronic lung disease, and no lung disease) to compare clinical characteristics and outcomes. Of the 1670 included patients with TTS, 123 (7%) were identified with an acute pulmonary trigger, and 194 (12%) had a known history of chronic lung disease. The incidence of cardiogenic shock was highest in patients with an acute pulmonary trigger compared with those with chronic lung disease or without lung disease (17% vs. 10% vs. 9%, P = 0.017). In-hospital mortality was also higher in patients with an acute pulmonary trigger than in the other two groups, although not significantly (5.7% vs. 1.5% vs. 4.2%, P = 0.13). Survival analysis demonstrated that patients with an acute pulmonary trigger had the worst long-term outcome (P = 0.002). The presence of an acute pulmonary trigger was independently associated with worse long-term mortality (hazard ratio 2.12, 95% confidence interval 1.33-3.38; P = 0.002).

Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that TTS is related to acute pulmonary triggers in 7% of all TTS patients, which accounts for 21% of patients with physical triggers. The presence of acute pulmonary trigger is associated with a severe in-hospital course and a worse long-term outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.13165DOI Listing
March 2021

IMPELLA or Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation for Left Ventricular Dominant Refractory Cardiogenic Shock.

J Clin Med 2021 Feb 14;10(4). Epub 2021 Feb 14.

Cardiac Intensive Care Unit, Heart and Lung Institute, CHU Lille, 59000 Lille, France.

Mechanical circulatory support (MCS) devices are effective tools in managing refractory cardiogenic shock (CS). Data comparing veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) and IMPELLA are however scarce. We aimed to assess outcomes of patients implanted with these two devices and eligible to both systems. From 2004 to 2020, we retrospectively analyzed 128 patients who underwent VA-ECMO or IMPELLA in our institution for refractory left ventricle (LV) dominant CS. All patients were eligible to both systems: 97 patients were first implanted with VA-ECMO and 31 with IMPELLA. The primary endpoint was 30-day all-cause death. VA-ECMO patients were younger (52 vs. 59.4, = 0.006) and had a higher lactate level at baseline than those in the IMPELLA group (6.84 vs. 3.03 mmol/L, < 0.001). Duration of MCS was similar between groups (9.4 days vs. 6 days in the VA-ECMO and IMPELLA groups respectively, = 0.077). In unadjusted analysis, no significant difference was observed between groups in 30-day mortality: 43.3% vs. 58.1% in the VA-ECMO and IMPELLA groups, respectively ( = 0.152). After adjustment, VA-ECMO was associated with a significant reduction in 30-day mortality (HR = 0.25, = 0.004). A higher rate of MCS escalation was observed in the IMPELLA group: 32.3% vs. 10.3% ( = 0.003). In patients eligible to either VA-ECMO or IMPELLA for LV dominant refractory CS, VA-ECMO was associated with improved survival rate and a lower need for escalation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm10040759DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7918655PMC
February 2021

Comparison of Outcomes and Mortality in Patients Having Left Ventricular Assist Device Implanted Early -vs- Late After Diagnosis of Cardiomyopathy.

Am J Cardiol 2021 05 4;146:82-88. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Department of Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery, AP-HP CHU Henri Mondor, Créteil, France.

LVAD implantation in patients with a recently diagnosed cardiomyopathy has been poorly investigated. This work aims at describing the characteristics and outcomes of patients receiving a LVAD within 30 days following the diagnosis of cardiomyopathy. Patients from the ASSIST-ICD study was divided into recently and remotely diagnosed cardiomyopathy based on the time from initial diagnosis of cardiomyopathy to LVAD implantation using the cut point of 30 days. The primary end point of the study was all-cause mortality at 30-day and during follow-up. A total of 652 patients were included and followed during a median time of 9.1 (2.5 to 22.1) months. In this population, 117 (17.9%) had a recently diagnosed cardiomyopathy and had LVAD implantation after a median time of 15.0 (9.0 to 24.0) days following the diagnosis. This group of patients was significantly younger, with more ischemic cardiomyopathy, more sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) events at the time of the diagnosis and were more likely to receive temporary mechanical support before LVAD compared with the remotely diagnosed group. Postoperative in-hospital survival was similar in groups, but recently diagnosed patients had a better long-term survival after hospital discharge. SCA before LVAD and any cardiac surgery combined with LVAD implantation were identified as 2 independent predictors of postoperative mortality in recently diagnosed patients. In conclusion, rescue LVAD implantation for recently diagnosed severe cardiomyopathy is common in clinical practice. Such patients experience a relatively low postoperative mortality and have a better long-term survival compared with remotely diagnosed patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2021.01.027DOI Listing
May 2021

Budget Impact Associated with the Introduction of the Impella 5.0 Mechanical Circulatory Support Device for Cardiogenic Shock in France.

Clinicoecon Outcomes Res 2021 19;13:53-63. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Cardiac Surgery Department, Pitié-Salpétrière Hospital, Sorbonne University, Paris, France.

Aim: Cardiogenic shock (CS), if not diagnosed and treated rapidly, can lead to irreversible multiorgan damage and death. An economic analysis was conducted to determine the budget impact of the introduction of Impella 5.0, a mechanical circulatory support (MCS) device that directly unloads the left ventricle, into clinical practice in patients with left ventricular CS in France.

Methods: A budget impact model was developed to compare the cost of Impella 5.0 with veno-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) from the perspective of the French national healthcare insurer. Costs associated with Impella 5.0, plus complication-related costs for VA-ECMO or Impella 5.0 from 2019 were included and clinical input data relating to complication rates and time spent on device were sourced from published literature. Extensive scenario and one-way deterministic sensitivity analyses were performed to explore the influence of uncertainty around key input parameters.

Results: Over a time horizon of 5 years, the introduction of Impella 5.0 was associated with cumulative savings of EUR 4.3 million. The results were driven by the lower risk of device-related complications associated with Impella 5.0. Savings were apparent from Year 1 onwards, with savings in excess of EUR 375,000 projected in Year 1 alone. On a per-patient level, in Year 1, estimated savings with the introduction of Impella 5.0 totaled EUR 616 per patient. Sensitivity analyses showed that the findings of the analysis were robust.

Conclusion: The Impella 5.0 device was associated with cumulative cost savings in excess of EUR 4 million over a 5-year period compared with current practice. Projected savings were driven by a lower rate of device-related complications with Impella 5.0 compared with VA-ECMO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CEOR.S278269DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7826059PMC
January 2021

Early Evaluation of Patients on Axial Flow Pump Support for Refractory Cardiogenic Shock is Associated with Left Ventricular Recovery.

J Clin Med 2020 Dec 21;9(12). Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Intensive Cardiac Care Unit, Department of Cardiology, Rangueil University Hospital, 31059 Toulouse, France.

We investigated prognostic factors associated with refractory left ventricle (LV) failure leading to LV assist device (LVAD), heart transplant or death in patients on an axial flow pump support for cardiogenic shock (CS). Sixty-two CS patients with an Impella CP or 5.0 implant were retrospectively enrolled, and clinical, biological, echocardiographic, coronarographic and management data were collected. They were compared according to the 30-day outcome. Patients were mainly male ( = 55, 89%), 58 ± 11 years old and most had no history of heart failure or coronary artery disease (70%). The main etiology of CS was acute coronary syndrome ( = 57, 92%). They presented with severe LV failure (LV ejection fraction (LVEF) 22 ± 9%), organ malperfusion (lactate 3.1 ± 2.1 mmol/L), and frequent use of inotropes, vasopressors, and mechanical ventilation (59, 66 and 30%, respectively). At 24 h, non-recovery was associated with higher total bilirubin (odds ratios (OR) 1.07 (1.00-1.14); = 0.039), lower LVEF (OR 0.89 (0.81-0.96); = 0.006) and the number of administrated amines (OR 4.31 (1.30-14.30); = 0.016). Early evaluation in patients with CS with an axial flow pump implant may enable the identification of factors associated with an unlikely recovery and would call for early screening for LVAD or heart transplant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9124130DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7767477PMC
December 2020

Acute Coronary Syndrome in the Era of SARS-CoV-2 Infection: A Registry of the French Group of Acute Cardiac Care.

CJC Open 2021 Mar 11;3(3):311-317. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Univ Paris Est Créteil, INSERM, IMRB, Créteil, France.

Background: In this study, we aimed to report clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with and without SARS-CoV-2 infection who were referred for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) during the peak of the pandemic in France.

Methods: We included all consecutive patients referred for ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) or non-STEMI (NSTEMI) during the first 3 weeks of April 2020 in 5 university hospitals (Paris, south, and north of France), all performing primary percutaneous coronary intervention.

Results: The study included 237 patients (67 ± 14 years old; 69% male), 116 (49%) with STEMI and 121 (51%) with NSTEMI. The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2-associated ACS was 11% (n = 26) and 11 patients had severe hypoxemia on presentation (mechanical ventilation or nasal oxygen > 6 L/min). Patients were comparable regarding medical history and risk factors, except a higher prevalence of diabetes mellitus in SARS-CoV-2 patients (53.8% vs 25.6%;  = 0.003). In SARS-CoV-2 patients, cardiac arrest on admission was more frequent (26.9% vs 6.6%; < 0.001). The presence of significant coronary artery disease and culprit artery occlusion in SARS-CoV-2 patients respectively, was 92% and 69.4% for those with STEMI, and 50% and 15.5% for those with NSTEMI. Percutaneous coronary intervention was performed in the same percentage of STEMI (84.6%) and NSTEMI (84.8%) patients, regardless of SARS-CoV-2 infection, but no-reflow (19.2% vs 3.3%; < 0.001) was greater in SARS-CoV-2 patients. In-hospital death occurred in 7 SARS-CoV-2 patients (5 from cardiac cause) and was higher compared with noninfected patients (26.9% vs 6.2%; < 0.001).

Conclusions: In this registry, ACS in SARS-CoV-2 patients presented with high a percentage of cardiac arrest on admission, high incidence of no-reflow, and high in-hospital mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cjco.2020.11.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7657607PMC
March 2021

Diagnostic performances of lung ultrasound associated with inferior vena cava assessment for the diagnosis of acute heart failure in elderly emergency patients: a diagnostic study.

Eur J Emerg Med 2021 Apr;28(2):119-124

Emergency Department, Toulouse University Hospital.

Background And Importance: Few studies are looking at the usefulness of lung ultrasound combined with inferior vena cava (ultrasound strategy) in the particularly challenging diagnosis of acute heart failure (AHF) in elderly dyspneic patients attending the emergency department (ED).

Objective, Design, Settings, And Participants: This was a prospective diagnostic study conducted in two French EDs from December 2015 to March 2019, aimed to determine the accuracy of an ultrasound strategy for the diagnosis of AHF in the elderly. Patients aged 65 and older referred to the ED for dyspnea were screened for inclusion.

Intervention: An emergency physician, blinded to the first findings, performed chest ultrasound, and assessment of inferior vena cava (ultrasound strategy).

Outcome Measure And Analysis: The primary endpoint was a final diagnosis of AHF, adjudicated by two independent experts after reviewing the entire medical record. The sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound and standard strategies were calculated.

Main Results: A total of 116 patients were included, mean age 84 years (SD 9). Among them, there were 76 (66%) cases of AHF and 51 (44%) cases of pneumonia. The ultrasound work up had a sensitivity of 82% [95% confidence interval (CI), 71-90] and a specificity of 68% (95% CI, 51-90] for AHF. The standard strategy had a sensitivity of 92% (95% CI, 84-97) and a specificity of 53% (95% CI, (36-68).

Conclusions: In this prospective study, there was no statistically significant difference between point-of-care ultrasound and a combination of clinical, radiographic, and biological findings for the diagnosis of acute heart failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MEJ.0000000000000759DOI Listing
April 2021

Hemodynamic Profiles of Cardiogenic Shock Depending on Their Etiology.

J Clin Med 2020 Oct 22;9(11). Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Cardiology Department, APHM, Mediterranean Association for Research and Studies in Cardiology (MARS Cardio), Centre for CardioVascular and Nutrition Research (C2VN), Aix-Marseille Univ, INSERM 1263, INRA 1260, Hopital Nord, 13015 Marseille, France.

The pathophysiology of cardiogenic shock (CS) varies depending on its etiology, which may lead to different hemodynamic profiles (HP) and may help tailor therapy. We aimed to assess the HP of CS patients according to their etiologies of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and acute decompensated chronic heart failure (ADCHF). We included patients admitted for CS secondary to ADCHF and AMI. HP were measured before the administration of any inotrope or vasopressor. Systemic Vascular Resistances index (SVRi), Cardiac Index (CI), and Cardiac Power Index (CPI) were measured by trans-thoracic Doppler echocardiography on admission. Among 37 CS patients, 28 had CS secondary to ADCHF or AMI and were prospectively included. The two groups were similar in terms of demographic data and shock severity criteria. AMI CS was associated with lower SVRi compared to CS related to ADCHF: 2010 (interquartile range (IQR): 1895-2277) vs. 2622 (2264-2993) dynes-s·cm·m ( = 0.002). A trend toward a higher CI was observed: respectively 2.13 (1.88-2.18) vs. 1.78 (1.65-1.96) L·min·m ( = 0.067) in AMICS compared to ADCHF. CS patients had different HP according to their etiologies. AMICS had lower SVR and tended to have a higher CI compared to ADHF CS. These differences should be taken into account for patient selection in future research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9113384DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7690259PMC
October 2020

Reperfusion therapies in pulmonary embolism-state of the art and expert opinion: A position paper from the "Unité de Soins Intensifs de Cardiologie" group of the French Society of Cardiology.

Arch Cardiovasc Dis 2020 Nov 22;113(11):749-759. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Intensive Care Unit, Department of Cardiology, Hôpital Nord, AP-HM, Aix-Marseille Université, 13015 Marseille; Mediterranean Association for Research and Studies in Cardiology (MARS Cardio), 13000 Marseille, France; INSERM 1263, 1260, Centre for Cardiovascular and Nutrition Research (C2VN), INRA, 13385 Marseille, France. Electronic address:

Acute pulmonary embolism is a frequent cardiovascular emergency with an increasing incidence. The prognosis of patients with high-risk and intermediate-high-risk pulmonary embolism has not improved over the last decade. The current treatment strategies are mainly based on anticoagulation to prevent recurrence and reduce pulmonary vasculature obstruction. However, the slow rate of thrombus lysis under anticoagulation is unable to acutely decrease right ventricle overload and pulmonary vasculature resistance in patients with severe obstruction and right ventricle dysfunction. Therefore, patients with high-risk and intermediate-high-risk pulmonary embolism remain a therapeutic challenge. Reperfusion therapies may be discussed for these patients, and include systemic thrombolysis, catheter-directed therapies and surgical thrombectomy. High-risk patients require systemic thrombolysis, but may have contraindications as a result of the high risk of bleeding. In addition, intermediate-high-risk patients should not receive systemic thrombolysis, despite its high efficacy, because of prohibitive bleeding complications. Recently, percutaneous reperfusion techniques have been developed to acutely decrease pulmonary vascular obstruction with lower-dose or no thrombolytic agents and, thus, potentially higher safety than systemic thrombolysis. Some of these techniques improve key haemodynamic variables. Cardiac surgical techniques and venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as temporary circulatory support may be useful in selected cases. The development of pulmonary embolism centres with multidisciplinary pulmonary embolism teams is mandatory to enable adequate use of reperfusion and improve outcomes. We aim to present the state of the art regarding reperfusion therapies in pulmonary embolism, but also to provide guidance on their indications and patient selection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acvd.2020.06.002DOI Listing
November 2020

Septuagenarian population has similar survival and outcomes to younger patients after left ventricular assist device implantation.

Arch Cardiovasc Dis 2020 Nov 17;113(11):701-709. Epub 2020 Sep 17.

Department of Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery, CHU de Dijon, 21000 Dijon, France.

Background: Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation may be an attractive alternative therapeutic option for elderly patients with heart failure who are ineligible for heart transplantation.

Aim: We aimed to describe the characteristics and outcomes of elderly patients (i.e. aged≥70 years) receiving an LVAD.

Methods: This observational study was conducted in 19 centres between 2006 and 2016. Patients were divided into two groups-younger (aged<70 years) and elderly (aged≥70 years), based on age at time of LVAD implantation.

Results: A total of 652 patients were included in the final analysis, and 74 patients (11.3%) were aged≥70 years at the time of LVAD implantation (maximal age 77.6 years). The proportion of elderly patients receiving an LVAD each year was constant, with a median of 10.6% (interquartile range 8.0-15.4%) per year, and all were implanted as destination therapy. Elderly and younger patients had similar durations of hospitalization in intensive care units and total lengths of hospital stays. Both age groups experienced similar rates of LVAD-related complications (i.e. stroke, bleeding, driveline infection and LVAD exchange), and the occurrence of LVAD complications did not impact survival in the elderly group compared with the younger group. Lastly, when compared with younger patients implanted as destination therapy, the elderly group also exhibited similar mid-term survival.

Conclusion: This work strongly suggests that selected elderly adults can be scheduled for LVAD implantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acvd.2020.05.018DOI Listing
November 2020

Long-Lasting Ventricular Fibrillation in Humans ECG Characteristics and Effect of Radiofrequency Ablation.

Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol 2020 10 10;13(10):e008639. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

LIRYC Institute/INSERM 1045, Bordeaux University, France (J.D., M. Hocini, F.S., P.J., O.B., M. Haïssaguerre, R.D.).

Background: Studies of ventricular fibrillation (VF) in humans are limited because of the short available duration. We sought to study surface ECG waveforms and effect of ablation in long-lasting VF in patients with left assist devices.

Methods: Continuous 12-lead ECG of 5 episodes of long-lasting VF occurring in 3 patients with left ventricular assist device were analyzed. Spectral analysis (dominant frequency) and quantification of waveform amplitude, regularity (Unbiased Regularity Index), and complexity (Nondipolar Index) were performed over a median of 24 minutes of VF. Radiofrequency ablation was performed during VF in 2 patients.

Results: There was a significant increase in dominant frequency between VF onset and termination but none of the other parameters significantly changed. Some VF parameters varied from patient to patient and from lead to lead. Dominant frequency decreased after radiofrequency ablation in both cases and VF terminated spontaneously shortly after ablation in one case. The previously incessant VFs in these 2 patients did not recur afterward.

Conclusions: VF rate increases over time in patients with left ventricular assist devices and is lowered by ablation. Long-lasting VF may be modified or even terminated by ablation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCEP.120.008639DOI Listing
October 2020

Cardiac imaging phenotype in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): results of the cocarde study.

Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 Feb 9;37(2):449-457. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Medical School, Toulouse III Paul Sabatier University, Toulouse, France.

Biological cardiac injury related to the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 infection has been associated with excess mortality. However, its functional impact remains unknown. The aim of our study was to explore the impact of biological cardiac injury on myocardial functions in patients with COVID-19. 31 patients with confirmed COVID-19 (CoV+) and 16 controls (CoV-) were prospectively included in this observational study. Demographic data, laboratory findings, comorbidities, treatments and myocardial function assessed by transthoracic echocardiography were collected and analysed in CoV+ with (TnT+) and without (TnT-) elevation of troponin T levels and compared with CoV-. Among CoV+, 13 (42%) exhibited myocardial injury. CoV+/TnT + patients were older, had lower diastolic arterial pressure and were more likely to have hypertension and chronic renal failure compared with CoV+/TnT-. The control group was comparable except for an absence of biological inflammatory syndrome. Left ventricular ejection fraction and global longitudinal strain were not different among the three groups. There was a trend of decreased myocardial work and increased peak systolic tricuspid annular velocity between the CoV- and CoV + patients, which became significant when comparing CoV- and CoV+/TnT+ (2167 ± 359 vs. 1774 ± 521%/mmHg, P = 0.047 and 14 ± 3 vs. 16 ± 3 cm/s, P = 0.037, respectively). There was a decrease of global work efficiency from CoV- (96 ± 2%) to CoV+/TnT- (94 ± 4%) and then CoV+/TnT+ (93 ± 3%, P = 0.042). In conclusion, biological myocardial injury in COVID 19 has low functional impact on left ventricular systolic function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10554-020-02010-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7479389PMC
February 2021

Relation of Body Mass Index to Outcomes in Patients With Heart Failure Implanted With Left Ventricular Assist Devices.

Am J Cardiol 2020 10 6;133:81-88. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Department of Cardiology and cardiac surgery, University Hospital, Dijon, France.

We aimed at characterizing the impact of low and high body mass index (BMI) on outcomes after left-ventricular assist device (LVAD) surgery and define the predictors of mortality in patients with abnormal BMI (low/high). This study was conducted in 19 centers from 2006 to 2016. Patients were divided based on their baseline BMI into 3 groups of BMI: low (BMI ≤18.5 kg/m²); normal (BMI = 18.5 to 24.99 kg/m²) and high (BMI ≥25 kg/m²) (including overweight (BMI = 25 to 29.99 kg/m²), and obesity (BMI ≥30 Kg/m²)). Among 652 patients, 29 (4.4%), 279 (42.8%) and 344 (52.8%) had a low-, normal-, and high BMI, respectively. Patients with high BMI were significantly more likely men, with more co-morbidities and more history of ventricular/supra-ventricular arrhythmias before LVAD implantation. Patients with abnormal BMI had significantly lower survival than those with normal BMI. Notably, those with low BMI experienced the worst survival whereas overweight or obese patients had similar survival. Four predictors of mortality for LVAD candidates with abnormal BMI were defined: total bilirubin ≥16 µmol/L before LVAD, hypertension, destination therapy, and cardiac surgery with LVAD. Depending on the number of predictor per patients, those with abnormal BMI may be divided in 3 groups of 1-year mortality risk, i.e., low (0 to 1 predictor: 29% and 31%), intermediate (2 to 3 predictors, 51% and 52%, respectively), and high (4 predictors: 83%). In conclusion, LVAD recipients with abnormal BMI experience lower survival, especially underweight patients. Four predictors of mortality have been identified for LVAD population with abnormal BMI, differentiating those a low-, intermediate-, and high risks of death.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2020.07.045DOI Listing
October 2020

COVID-19 pandemic: no increase of takotsubo syndrome occurrence despite high-stress conditions.

ESC Heart Fail 2020 10 23;7(5):2143-2145. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Department of Cardiology, Rangueil University Hospital, Toulouse, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.12871DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7404584PMC
October 2020

Coexistence and outcome of coronary artery disease in Takotsubo syndrome.

Eur Heart J 2020 09;41(34):3255-3268

Department of Cardiology, Kantonsspital Lucerne, Lucerne, Switzerland.

Aims: Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is an acute heart failure syndrome, which shares many features with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Although TTS was initially described with angiographically normal coronary arteries, smaller studies recently indicated a potential coexistence of coronary artery disease (CAD) in TTS patients. This study aimed to determine the coexistence, features, and prognostic role of CAD in a large cohort of patients with TTS.

Methods And Results: Coronary anatomy and CAD were studied in patients diagnosed with TTS. Inclusion criteria were compliance with the International Takotsubo Diagnostic Criteria for TTS, and availability of original coronary angiographies with ventriculography performed during the acute phase. Exclusion criteria were missing views, poor quality of angiography loops, and angiography without ventriculography. A total of 1016 TTS patients were studied. Of those, 23.0% had obstructive CAD, 41.2% had non-obstructive CAD, and 35.7% had angiographically normal coronary arteries. A total of 47 patients (4.6%) underwent percutaneous coronary intervention, and 3 patients had acute and 8 had chronic coronary artery occlusion concomitant with TTS, respectively. The presence of CAD was associated with increased incidence of shock, ventilation, and death from any cause. After adjusting for confounders, the presence of obstructive CAD was associated with mortality at 30 days. Takotsubo syndrome patients with obstructive CAD were at comparable risk for shock and death and nearly at twice the risk for ventilation compared to an age- and sex-matched ACS cohort.

Conclusions: Coronary artery disease frequently coexists in TTS patients, presents with the whole spectrum of coronary pathology including acute coronary occlusion, and is associated with adverse outcome.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT01947621.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa210DOI Listing
September 2020

Influence of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation on the pharmacokinetics of ceftolozane/tazobactam: an ex vivo and in vivo study.

J Transl Med 2020 05 27;18(1):213. Epub 2020 May 27.

Pharmacokinetics and Toxicology Laboratory, Toulouse University Hospital, Toulouse, France.

Background: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is increasingly used in intensive care units and can modify drug pharmacokinetics and lead to under-exposure associated with treatment failure. Ceftolozane/tazobactam is an antibiotic combination used for complicated infections in critically ill patients. Launched in 2015, sparse data are available on the influence of ECMO on the pharmacokinetics of ceftolozane/tazobactam. The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of ECMO on the pharmacokinetics of ceftolozane-tazobactam.

Methods: An ex vivo model (closed-loop ECMO circuits primed with human whole blood) was used to study adsorption during 8-h inter-dose intervals over a 24-h period (for all three ceftolozane/tazobactam injections) with eight samples per inter-dose interval. Two different dosages of ceftolozane/tazobactam injection were studied and a control (whole blood spiked with ceftolozane/tazobactam in a glass tube) was performed. An in vivo porcine model was developed with a 1-h infusion of ceftolozane-tazobactam and concentration monitoring for 11 h. Pigs undergoing ECMO were compared with a control group. Pharmacokinetic analysis of in vivo data (non-compartmental analysis and non-linear mixed effects modelling) was performed to determine the influence of ECMO.

Results: With the ex vivo model, variations in concentration ranged from - 5.73 to 1.26% and from - 12.95 to - 2.89% respectively for ceftolozane (concentrations ranging from 20 to 180 mg/l) and tazobactam (concentrations ranging from 10 to 75 mg/l) after 8 h. In vivo pharmacokinetic exploration showed that ECMO induces a significant decrease of 37% for tazobactam clearance without significant modification in the pharmacokinetics of ceftolozane, probably due to a small cohort size.

Conclusions: Considering that the influence of ECMO on the pharmacokinetics of ceftolozane/tazobactam is not clinically significant, normal ceftolozane and tazobactam dosing in critically ill patients should be effective for patients undergoing ECMO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-020-02381-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7251674PMC
May 2020

Impact of right ventricular systolic function after heart transplantation on exercise capacity.

Echocardiography 2020 05 4;37(5):706-714. Epub 2020 May 4.

Department of Cardiology, Rangueil University Hospital, Toulouse, France.

Background: Right ventricular (RV) systolic parameters are difficult to assess in heart transplant recipients (HTRs) compared to healthy people because of discordant data, and their impact on exercise capacity remains undefined. We sought to retrospectively assess the impact of RV systolic function on exercise capacity after heart transplantation.

Methods: We analyzed data from 61 HTRs who underwent transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR), and exercise capacity assessment by 6-minute walking test (6MWT) and cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) at 1- and 2-year follow-ups.

Results: Transthoracic echocardiography RV longitudinal systolic function including tricuspid annular plan systolic excursion (TAPSE), peak systolic S' wave tricuspid annular velocity (PSVtdi) and RV free wall longitudinal strain was decreased at 1 year (respectively, 15 ± 3 mm, 10 ± 3 cm/s, and -19 ± 5%) and at 2 years (respectively, 15 ± 3 mm, 10 ± 2 cm/s, and -20 ± 5%) with no significant difference between both evaluations; meanwhile, RV ejection fraction (RVEF) measured by CMR was preserved. Mean percentage of predicted peak oxygen consumption was altered, but improved between the first and second year (55 ± 18 vs 60 ± 18%, P = .038). PSVtdi was weakly correlated with 6MWT distance (r = .426, P = .017) and RVEF with the predicted distance at 6MWT (r = .410, P = .027) at the 1-year follow-up.

Conclusions: Despite decreasing values, RV longitudinal systolic function has a weak impact on exercise capacity of HTRs. PSVtdi and RVEF are the most pertinent parameters to assess the impact of RV systolic function on exercise capacity after heart transplantation. These results should lead to redefine normal RV systolic function thresholds for HTRs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/echo.14650DOI Listing
May 2020

Age-Related Variations in Takotsubo Syndrome.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2020 04;75(16):1869-1877

Krankenhaus "Maria Hilf" Medizinische Klinik, Stadtlohn, Germany.

Background: Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) occurs predominantly in post-menopausal women but is also found in younger patients.

Objectives: This study aimed to investigate age-related differences in TTS.

Methods: Patients diagnosed with TTS and enrolled in the International Takotsubo Registry between January 2011 and February 2017 were included in this analysis and were stratified by age (younger: ≤50 years, middle-age: 51 to 74 years, elderly: ≥75 years). Baseline characteristics, hospital course, as well as short- and long-term mortality were compared among groups.

Results: Of 2,098 TTS patients, 242 (11.5%) patients were ≤50 years of age, 1,194 (56.9%) were 51 to 74 years of age, and 662 (31.6%) were ≥75 years of age. Younger patients were more often men (12.4% vs. 10.9% vs. 6.3%; p = 0.002) and had an increased prevalence of acute neurological (16.3% vs. 8.4% vs. 8.8%; p = 0.001) or psychiatric disorders (14.1% vs. 10.3% vs. 5.6%; p < 0.001) compared with middle-aged and elderly TTS patients. Furthermore, younger patients had more often cardiogenic shock (15.3% vs. 9.1% vs. 8.1%; p = 0.004) and had a numerically higher in-hospital mortality (6.6% vs. 3.6% vs. 5.1%; p = 0.07). At multivariable analysis, younger (odds ratio: 1.60; 95% confidence interval: 0.86 to 3.01; p = 0.14) and older age (odds ratio: 1.09; 95% confidence interval: 0.66 to 1.80; p = 0.75) were not independently associated with in-hospital mortality using the middle-aged group as a reference. There were no differences in 60-day mortality rates among groups.

Conclusions: A substantial proportion of TTS patients are younger than 50 years of age. TTS is associated with severe complications requiring intensive care, particularly in younger patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2020.02.057DOI Listing
April 2020

The 50-year-old pulmonary artery catheter: the tale of a foretold death?

ESC Heart Fail 2020 06 20;7(3):783-785. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

PhyMedExp, Université de Montpellier, INSERM, CNRS, Cardiology Department, CHU de Montpellier, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.12702DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7261538PMC
June 2020

Intra-aortic balloon pump: is the technique really outdated?

ESC Heart Fail 2020 06 19;7(3):1025-1030. Epub 2020 Apr 19.

Department of Cardiology, Montpellier University Hospital, 34295, Montpellier, Cedex 5, France.

Aims: Intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) utilization was expected to be quickly abandoned following the IABP-shock trial and its class III, level B recommendation in the 2016 European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of IABP compared with other mechanical support devices in a nationwide approach.

Methods And Results: We conducted a retrospective study based on the French national hospital discharge database. All patients undergoing assist device implantation by IABP, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), or IMPELLA® from 2014 to 2018 (2 years before/2 years after the 2016 guidelines) were included. The primary endpoint was the incidence of IABP implantation over the years. Secondary endpoints were incidence of total assist device, ECMO, and IMPELLA® implantations. From 2014 to 2018, a total of 18 940 patients benefited from mechanical support by IABP (n = 6657, 35.2%), ECMO (n = 11 881, 62.7%), or IMPELLA® (n = 402, 2.1%) in France. The incidence of total mechanical support implantations (ECMO and IABP) was constant over the years. IABP implantations decreased progressively from 1725 implantations in 2014 to 996 in 2018 (-42%). By contrast, ECMO implantations increased progressively from 1919 implantations in 2014 to 2763 implantations in 2018 (+44%). IMPELLA® implantations remained stable over the years from 63 (1.7%) implantations in 2014 to 83 (2.1%) in 2018.

Conclusions: In this nationwide real-life study, despite a significant decline in IABP implantations over the years since the ESC guidelines, this device remained used in clinical practice with around 1000 implantations in 2018. The size of centres was not strictly correlated with this use, suggesting differential uses depending on the local background.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.12721DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7261556PMC
June 2020

Current results of left ventricular assist device therapy in France: the ASSIST-ICD registry.

Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 2020 07;58(1):112-120

Department of Cardiac Surgery, Marie Lannelongue Hospital, Paris Sud University, Le Plessis Robinson, France.

Objectives: Our goal was to provide a picture of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) activity in France between 2007 and 2016 based on the multicentric ASSIST-ICD registry.

Methods: We retrospectively collected 136 variables including in-hospital data, follow-up survival rates and adverse events from 671 LVAD recipients at 20 out of 24 LVAD implant centres in France. The average follow-up time was 1.2 years (standard deviation: 1.4); the total follow-up time was 807.5 patient-years.

Results: The included devices were the HeartMate II®, HeartWare LVAS® or Jarvik 2000®. The overall likelihood of being alive while on LVAD support or having a transplant (primary end point) at 1, 2, 3 and 5 years postimplantation was 65.2%, 59.7%, 55.9% and 47.7%, respectively, given a cumulative incidence of 29.2% of receiving a transplant at year 5. At implantation, 21.5% of patients were on extracorporeal life support. The overall rate of cardiogenic shock at implantation was 53%. The major complications were driveline infection (26.1%), pump pocket or cannula infection (12.6%), LVAD thrombosis (12.2%), ischaemic (12.8%) or haemorrhagic stroke (5.4%; all strokes 18.2%), non-cerebral haemorrhage (9.1%) and LVAD exchange (5.2%). The primary end point (survival) was stratified by age at surgery and by the type of device used, with inference from baseline profiles. The primary end point combined with an absence of complications (secondary end point) was also stratified by device type.

Conclusions: The ASSIST-ICD registry provides a real-life picture of LVAD use in 20 of the 24 implant centres in France. Despite older average age and a higher proportion of patients chosen for destination therapy, survival rates improved compared to those in previous national registry results. This LVAD registry contrasts with other international registries because patients with implants have more severe disease, and the national policy for graft attribution is distinct. We recommend referring patients for LVAD earlier and suggest a discussion of the optimal timing of a transplant for bridged patients (more dismal results after the second year of support?).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ejcts/ezaa055DOI Listing
July 2020

Termination of sustained ventricular fibrillation by catheter ablation.

Eur Heart J 2020 08;41(30):2847

Cardiology, University Hospital Rangueil, 1 av Jean Poulhès, 31059 Toulouse, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa243DOI Listing
August 2020

Trials of mechanical circulatory support with percutaneous axial flow pumps in cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction: Mission impossible?

Arch Cardiovasc Dis 2020 Jun - Jul;113(6-7):448-460. Epub 2020 Apr 11.

PhyMedExp, CNRS, Cardiology Department, université de Montpellier, Inserm, CHU de Montpellier, 34295 Montpellier, France.

Cardiogenic shock is a complex clinical entity associated with very high mortality and intensive resource utilization. Despite the widespread use of timely reperfusion and appropriate pharmacotherapy, the survival rate remains at around 50%. Recently, percutaneous axial flow pumps have been integrated into the therapeutic spectrum of cardiogenic shock management. However, most of the literature supporting their use stems from observational studies. To date, attempts to perform randomized controlled trials with percutaneous axial flow pumps have failed. This underlines the challenge of performing a well-conducted randomized controlled trial that provides the highest level of evidence. Such a trial is warranted, because percutaneous axial flow pumps are costly, and are associated with serious complications. The major pitfalls of previous studies were lack of standardized cardiogenic shock definitions according to clinical severity, inappropriate patient and device selection, lack of standardized trial endpoints and high rates of crossovers; these issues must be carefully considered and evaluated. In light of recent trial failures, we aim to summarize the challenges associated with performing randomized controlled trials of percutaneous axial flow pumps in patients experiencing acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock, and to suggest potential means of overcoming them.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acvd.2020.02.001DOI Listing
September 2020

Trials of mechanical circulatory support with percutaneous axial flow pumps in cardiogenic shock complicating acute myocardial infarction: Mission impossible?

Arch Cardiovasc Dis 2020 Jun - Jul;113(6-7):448-460. Epub 2020 Apr 11.

PhyMedExp, CNRS, Cardiology Department, université de Montpellier, Inserm, CHU de Montpellier, 34295 Montpellier, France.

Cardiogenic shock is a complex clinical entity associated with very high mortality and intensive resource utilization. Despite the widespread use of timely reperfusion and appropriate pharmacotherapy, the survival rate remains at around 50%. Recently, percutaneous axial flow pumps have been integrated into the therapeutic spectrum of cardiogenic shock management. However, most of the literature supporting their use stems from observational studies. To date, attempts to perform randomized controlled trials with percutaneous axial flow pumps have failed. This underlines the challenge of performing a well-conducted randomized controlled trial that provides the highest level of evidence. Such a trial is warranted, because percutaneous axial flow pumps are costly, and are associated with serious complications. The major pitfalls of previous studies were lack of standardized cardiogenic shock definitions according to clinical severity, inappropriate patient and device selection, lack of standardized trial endpoints and high rates of crossovers; these issues must be carefully considered and evaluated. In light of recent trial failures, we aim to summarize the challenges associated with performing randomized controlled trials of percutaneous axial flow pumps in patients experiencing acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock, and to suggest potential means of overcoming them.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acvd.2020.02.001DOI Listing
September 2020