Publications by authors named "Cláudia Quintino da Rocha"

36 Publications

Acaricide activity of extract and an isolated compound of Lithraea brasiliensis on Rhipicephalus microplus and selectivity actions against a non-target organism.

Vet Parasitol 2021 Oct 14;300:109597. Epub 2021 Oct 14.

Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Maranhão, Maranhão, Av. dos Portugueses, 1966, Bacanga, MA, Brazil. Electronic address:

Rhipicephalus microplus, known as the cattle tick, is a cause of great economic losses for dairy cattle farming because of its high frequency of occurrence and the difficulty in controlling it. This research characterized the chemical profile and evaluated the in vitro toxicity of crude Lithraea brasiliensis extract and its isolated compound against acaricide-resistant and acaricide-susceptible R. microplus strains. Acaricidal activity was evaluated using a larval immersion test and the selectivity against non-target organisms was assessed on Artemia salina assay. The chemical investigation by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (i.e., HPLC-MS) analysis showed the presence of hydrolysable tannins as well as urushiol derivatives. Column chromatography (CC) was carried out on the extract to obtain fractions and an isolated compound. The extract exhibited significant activity against acaricide-resistant (LC 0.64 mg/mL) and acaricide-susceptible (LC 0.76 mg/mL) strains of R. microplus larvae. The isolated compound from the extract (urushiol II), exhibited LC of 1.11 mg/mL for acaricide-resistant larvae. For acute toxicity in A. salina, the extract showed LC>100 μg/mL. Thus, our findings represent the first effort to demonstrate the potential of L. brasiliensis extract and urushiol II as potential natural acaricides to replace or to be integrated into the conventional control of R. microplus larvae.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2021.109597DOI Listing
October 2021

Arrabidaea chica Verlot fractions reduce MIA-induced osteoarthritis progression in rat knees.

Inflammopharmacology 2021 Jun 21;29(3):735-752. Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Biological and Health Sciences Center, Federal University of Maranhão, Av. dos Portugueses 1966, São Luís, MA, 65085-580, Brazil.

This study aims to investigate the activity of n-hexane, ethyl acetate and butanol fractions obtained from Arrabidaea chica Verlot against MIA-induced osteoarthritis (OA). The antinociceptive potentials of each fraction were evaluated through a cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 and 2 inhibition test and an in vivo OA-model. In addition, toxicity assessments in the liver, spleen and kidney, as well as radiographic and histopathological knee analyses, were performed. The chemical composition of the n-hexane fraction was elucidated, and a molecular docking protocol was carried out to identify which compounds are associated with the detected bioactivity. The n-hexane A. chica fraction preferentially inhibits COX-2, with 90% inhibition observed at 10 µg/mL. The fractions also produced significant improvements in OA incapacity, motor activity and hyperalgesia parameters and in radiological knee conditions. However, concerning the histopathological evaluations, these improvements were only significant in the hexane and ethyl acetate fraction treatments, which resulted in better average scores, suggesting that these fractions slow OA-promoted joint injury progression. Histopathological organ analyses indicate that the fractions are not toxic to animals. Twenty compounds were identified in the n-hexane fraction, comprising fatty acids, terpenes and phytosterols. In silico analyses indicate the presence of favourable interactions between some of the identified compounds and the COX-2 enzyme, mainly concerning alpha-tocopherol (Vitamin E), squalene and beta-sitosterol. The findings indicate that A. chica fractions display analgesic, anti-inflammatory properties, are non-toxic and are able to slow OA progression, and may, therefore, be prioritized as natural products in OA human clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10787-021-00803-0DOI Listing
June 2021

Myorelaxation, respiratory depression and electrocardiographic changes caused by the administration of extract of açai ( Mart.) stone in rats.

Toxicol Rep 2021 31;8:829-838. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

UFPA & Centre for Valorization of Amazonian Bioactive Compounds (CVACBA), Belém, Pará, Brazil.

The biological and pharmacological properties of natural polyphenols of the extract of stone (EEOS) are associated with the central nervous system (CNS). To investigate the sedative and myorelaxant activity of EEOS , this study aimed to present the myorelaxant and sedative effects of EEOS in Wistar rats using spontaneous locomotor activity and motor electrophysiology. A total of 108 animals were used in the following experiments: a) behavioral tests (n = 27); b) electromyographic recordings of skeletal muscle (n = 27); c) respiratory muscle activity recordings (n = 27); d) cardiac muscle activity recordings (n = 27). The behavioral characteristics were measured according to the latency time of onset, the transient loss of posture reflex and maximum muscle relaxation. Electrodes were implanted in the gastrocnemius muscle and in the tenth intercostal space for electromyographic (EMG) signal capture to record muscle contraction, and in the D2 lead for electrocardiogram acquisition. After using the 300 mg/kg dose of EEOS intraperitoneally, a myorelaxant activity exhibited a lower frequency of contractility with an amplitude pattern of low and short duration at gastrocnemius muscle and intercostal muscle, which clearly describes a myorelaxant activity and changes in cardiac activity. The present report is so far the first study to demonstrate the myorelaxant activity of this extract, indicating an alternative route for açai stone valorization and its application in pharmaceutical fields.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxrep.2021.03.024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8044785PMC
March 2021

Protective effect of flavonoids from Passiflora edulis Sims on diabetic complications in rats.

J Pharm Pharmacol 2021 Sep;73(10):1361-1368

Department of Clinical and Toxicological Analysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Federal University of Alfenas, Alfenas, Brazil.

Objectives: This study was carried out to evaluate the effects of flavonoids present in leaves of Passiflora edulis fruit on complications induced by diabetes in rats.

Methods: The extract of P. edulis leaf was obtained by 70% ethanol maceration. From the dry extract, the fractions were obtained by consecutive liquid-liquid partition with hexane, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The content of isoorientin of ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions was determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray and triple quadrupole ionization (TQD) analysis in tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Tq-MS). Only Fr-BuOH was used to treat diabetic or not Wistar rats. Biochemical parameters, platelet aggregation and production of reactive species were evaluated.

Key Findings: The UPLC-ESI-Tq-MS analysis revealed the presence of several flavonoids, among which we identified five possible flavonoids c-heterosides (luteolin-7-O-pyranosyl-3-O-glucoside, apigenin-6-8-di-C-glycoside, apigenin-6-C-arabinoside-8-C-glycoside, isoorientin, isovitexin). The diabetic rats (treated intraperitoneally with alloxan, 150 mg/kg) treated with Fr-BuOH (20 mg/kg/day for 90 days) presented improvement in blood glucose, serum levels of fructosamine, lipid profile and urea. Furthermore, the Fr-BuOH reduced both platelet aggregation and the production of oxidant species in diabetic animals.

Conclusions: These results suggested that flavonoid C-glycosides present in the Fr-BuOH may be beneficial for the diabetic state, preventing complications induced by diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jpp/rgab046DOI Listing
September 2021

Exposure of Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato Latreille, 1806 (Acari: Ixodidae) to hexane extract of Acmella oleracea (Jambu): semi-engorged and engorged ticks.

Ticks Tick Borne Dis 2021 07 10;12(4):101705. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Chemistry Post Graduate Program, Federal University of Pará (UFPA), Belém, PA, Brazil.

The present study analyzed the efficacy of hexane extract of Acmella oleracea against Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato. After exposure of R. sanguineus s. l. female ticks to 14 different concentrations of the hexane extract of A. oleracea, the LC was established as 18.135 mg/mL (limits: 16.251-22.675). The effects of the extract were more significant in the ovary of the semi-engorged females, that presented damages in most oocytes. Since such changes would not be repaired, the oocytes could not advance to further stages of development (I-V), thereby causing the inhibition of ovary development, interruption of vitellogenesis, oocyte death and, consequently, infertility. The semi-engorged females also presented extensive damages in the midgut cells, which would prevent (totally or partially) these cells from functioning properly (blood intake and release of nutrients), impairing the ectoparasite nutrition and the viability of the individual. Thus, the hexane extract of A. oleracea can be considered as a promising alternative to chemical control of pests of medical and veterinary importance, due to its efficient acaricidal activity and lesser environmental impact, when used against female ticks in the middle feeding stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ttbdis.2021.101705DOI Listing
July 2021

In Vitro Anti-Inflammatory Activity in Arthritic Synoviocytes of Root Extracts and Its Unusual Dimeric Flavonoids.

Molecules 2020 Nov 9;25(21). Epub 2020 Nov 9.

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Geneva, 1211 Geneva-4, Switzerland.

is a plant commonly used for the treatment of kidney stones, arthritis and pain in traditional Brazilian medicine. Different in vitro and in vivo activities, ranging from antinociceptive to anti-, have been reported for the dichloromethane root extract of (DCMAB) and isolated compounds. This work aimed to assess the in vitro anti-inflammatory activity in arthritic synoviocytes of the DCMAB, the hydroethanolic extract (HEAB) and three dimeric flavonoids isolated from the DCMAB. These compounds, brachydin A (), B () and C (), were isolated both by medium pressure liquid and high-speed counter current chromatography. Their quantification was performed by mass spectrometry on both DCMAB and HEAB. IL-1β activated human fibroblast-like synoviocytes were incubated with both extracts and isolated compounds to determine the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). DCMAB inhibited 30% of IL-6 release at 25 µg/mL, when compared with controls while HEAB was inactive. IC values determined for and were 3-fold higher than . The DCMAB activity seems to be linked to higher proportions of compounds and in this extract. These observations could thus explain the traditional use of roots in the treatment of osteoarthritis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25215219DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7665123PMC
November 2020

Cytotoxicity and Pro-Apoptotic, Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Geopropolis Produced by the Stingless Bee Smith.

Biology (Basel) 2020 Sep 15;9(9). Epub 2020 Sep 15.

Laboratório de Farmacognosia, Departamento de Farmácia, Campus Bacanga, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, Av. dos Portugueses, 1966, São Luís 65080-805, Maranhão, Brazil.

Geopropolis is produced by some stingless bee species, such as Smith, a native species from Brazil. This study aims to investigate the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities and cytotoxicity effects of geopropolis hydroethanolic extracts against lung (H460 and A549) and ovarian (A2780 and ES2) cancer cell lines and non-tumor (HUVEC) cell lines using chemical identification by LC/MS/MS analysis and in silico assays to determine which compounds are associated with bioactivity. The antioxidant activity of extracts and inhibitory activity against COX enzymes were assessed by in vitro assays; cytotoxicity effect was evaluated by the MTT assay; cell cycle was assessed by flow cytometry and apoptosis by Western blotting. The geopropolis extracts showed great radical scavenging potential, preferential inhibition of COX-2, decreased cancer cell viability, non-cytotoxic effects against the non-tumoral cell line, besides modulating the cell cycle and inducing cancer cell apoptosis through the activation of caspase-3 and PARP protein cleavage. The in silico study suggests that corilagin, typhaneoside, taraxerone and marsformosanone, identified by LC/MS/MS, can be associated with anti-inflammatory activity and cytotoxic effects. Thus, the current study suggests the potential of geopropolis concerning the research field of new pharmacological alternatives regarding cancer therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biology9090292DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7566010PMC
September 2020

Characterization of the cytotoxic effects of brachydins isolated from in a prostate cancer cell line.

J Toxicol Environ Health A 2020 08 26;83(15-16):547-558. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Departamento de Biologia Geral, Centro de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Estadual de Londrina , Londrina, Paraná, Brasil.

Brachydins (Br) A, B, and C are flavonoids extracted from (Cham.) L.G. Lohmann roots (synonym ), whose extract previously exhibited cytotoxic and antitumor activity. cell culture of human prostate tumor cell line (PC-3) was used to determine cell viability as evidenced by MTT, neutral red, and LDH release using nine concentrations (0.24 to 30.72 µM) of each brachydin. A triple-fluorescent staining assay assessed the mechanism resulting in cell death. Genomic instability and protein expression were evaluated using comet assay and western blot analysis, respectively. The pro-oxidant status was analyzed using the5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (CM-HDCFDA) probe. The IC values for brachydins BrA, BrB, and BrC were 23.41, 4.28, and 4.44 µM, respectively, and all compounds induced apoptosis and necrosis. BrB and BrC increased p21 levels indicating a possible G1 cell cycle arrest. BrA (6 µM) and BrB (3.84 µM) decreased phospho-AKT (AKT serine/threonine kinase) expression, which also influenced cell cycle and proliferation. BrA, BrB, and BrC elevated cleaved PARP (poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase), a protein related to DNA repair and induction of apoptotic processes. Therefore, this study determined the IC values of brachydins in the PC-3 cell line as well as the influence on cell proliferation and cell death processes, such as apoptosis and necrosis, indicating the proteins involved in these processes.

Abbreviations: ANOVA: Analysis of Variance; BrA: Brachydin A; BrB: Brachydin B; BrC: Brachydin C; CGEN: Genetic Heritage Management Council; CID: Compound identification number; CM-HDCFDA, 5-(and-6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, acetyl ester; CO: Carbon dioxide; DMSO: Dimethyl sulfoxide; DNA: Deoxyribonucleic acid; DTT: Dithiothreitol; DXR: Doxorubicin; ECL: Chemiluminescence; EDTA: Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid; FBS: Fetal bovine serum; HO: Hydrogen peroxide; HRMS: High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry; IC50: Half maximal inhibitory concentration; LDH: Lactate dehydrogenase; MTT, 3-[4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide; Na3VO4: Sodium Orthovanadate; NaOH: Sodium hydroxide; NCBI: National Center for Biotechnology Information; NMR: Nuclear Magnetic Resonance; PBS: Phosphate buffer saline; PCR: Polymerase chain reaction; PSMF: Phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride; RPMI: Roswell Park Memorial Institute Medium; SDS-PAGE: Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; STR: Short tandem repeat; TBS-T: Tris-buffered saline and Polysorbate 20; UPHLC: Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15287394.2020.1784339DOI Listing
August 2020

Chalcones Isolated from Flowers as Inhibitors of NorA and MepA Multidrug Efflux Pumps of .

Antibiotics (Basel) 2020 Jun 20;9(6). Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Laboratory of Research in Microbiology, Federal University of Piaui, Teresina, Piaui 64049-550, Brazil.

Bacterial resistance to antibiotics has become a public health issue around the world. The present study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activity of chalcones isolated from flowers of , and their potential as efflux pump inhibitors of efflux pumps. Microdilution assays were performed with natural products from Chalcones , , and did not show intrinsic antimicrobial activity against all strains tested, but they were able to potentiate the Norfloxacin action against the SA1199-B () strain, with a better modulating action for the trimethoxylated chalcone. All chalcones were also able to potentiate the action of EtBr against SA1199-B strain, suggesting a potential NorA inhibition. Moreover, chalcone was able to interfere in the activity of MepA, and interfered weakly in the activity. Molecular docking analyzes showed that tested chalcones are capable of binding in the hydrophobic cavity of NorA and MepA, in the same Norfloxacin binding site, indicating that chalcone compete with the antibiotic for the same NorA and MepA binding sites. Association of chalcone with Norfloxacin could be an alternative against multidrug resistant over-productive of NorA or MepA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics9060351DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7345224PMC
June 2020

Influence of the Phenological State of in the Antioxidant Potential and Chemical Composition of . Effects on the P-Glycoprotein Function.

Molecules 2020 May 2;25(9). Epub 2020 May 2.

Department of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 84084 Fisciano (SA), Italy.

(Kunth) R. M. King & H. Robinson is a species of flowering shrub in the family Asteraceae, native to the Caribbean and Texas. The aim of this work was to compare the quantitative chemical composition of extracts obtained from in its flowering and vegetative stages with the antioxidant potential and to determine the effects on P-glycoprotein (P-gp) function. The quantitative chemical composition of the extracts was determined quantifying their major flavonoids by UPLC-ESI-MS/MS and by PCA analysis. The effects of the extracts on P-gp activity was evaluated by Rhodamine 123 assay; antioxidant properties were determined by DPPH, FRAP and inhibition of lipid peroxidation methods. The obtained results show that major flavonoids were present in higher concentrations in vegetative stage than flowering stage. In particular, the extracts obtained in the flowering season showed a significantly higher ability to sequester free radicals compared to those of the vegetative season, meanwhile, the extracts obtained during the vegetative stage showed a significant inhibitory effect against brain lipid peroxidation and a strong reductive capacity. This study also showed the inhibitory effects of all ethanolic extracts on P-gp function in 4T1 cell line; these effects were unrelated to the phenological stage. This work shows, therefore, the first evidence on: the inhibition of P-gp function, the antioxidant effects and the content of major flavonoids of . According to the obtained results, the species (Kunth) R. M. King & H. Robinson could be a source of new potential inhibitors of drug efflux mediated by P-gp. A special focus on all these aspects must be taking into account for future studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules25092134DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7248889PMC
May 2020

Antifungal and Antivirulence Activities of Hydroalcoholic Extract and Fractions of Leaves against Vaginal Isolates of Species.

Pathogens 2020 Jan 28;9(2). Epub 2020 Jan 28.

Laboratório de Microbiologia Aplicada, Programa de Biologia Microbiana, Universidade Ceuma, 65075-120 São Luís, Ma, Brazil.

Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a common fungal infection in women. In this study, hydroalcoholic extract (PiHE) and its fractions were evaluated for antifungal and antivirulence activities against vaginal species. Dichloromethane (DCMF) and ethyl acetate fractions (EAF) obtained from PiHE effectively inhibited the pathogen. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry was used for identifying the main compounds in extracts. Minimal inhibitory and fungicidal concentrations (MIC and MFC, respectively) were determined by a broth microdilution assay. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of the extract and fractions on the virulence properties of , and their cytotoxicity effect was determined on RAW 264.7 cells. Compounds found in extracts were flavonoid glycosides, mainly derivatives of quercetin and myricetin. Extracts showed antifungal potential, with the lowest MIC value for EAF (1.3 mg/mL) and inhibited adherence and biofilm formation. EAF disrupted 48 h biofilms with an inhibition rate of more than 90%. The extract and its fractions exhibited no cytotoxicity. The antifungal effects were attributed to the ability of these extracts to alter the mitochondrial membrane potential for the release of pro-apoptotic factors in the cytosol. In conclusion, our data suggest that PiHE and EAF could act as novel candidates for the development of new therapeutic treatments against fungal infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9020084DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7168675PMC
January 2020

Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Activity of Pollen Extract Collected by : in silico, in vitro, and in vivo Studies.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2020 Jan 24;9(2). Epub 2020 Jan 24.

Experimental Study of Pain Laboratory, Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Maranhão, 65080-805, São Luís, Brazil.

Bees are of great importance for plant diversity for being an important pollinating agents. Stingless bees such as , is cultivated largely due to the products offered by it. Pollen is one of these products, which has been highlighted for exhibit various therapeutic properties. Considering the bioactivity of this natural product, this study investigated the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive activities, and elucidated the chemical composition of pollen collected extract by . Using in vitro assays, the antioxidant potential and inhibitory activity against the COX enzyme from pollen extract was evaluated. Additionally, tests were performed to measure the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities in animal models. In our results, we found that pollen extract showed antioxidant effects and inhibitory activity against the COX enzyme. The in vivo assays showed that the extract acts on the nervous system in local and systemic levels and that the anti-inflammatory activity is due the prostanoids reducing. Chemical analyses recognize 10 molecules in the extract belonging to the polyphenol and flavonoids classes and the computational study suggests that is responsible for the observed results. Thus, it is reported for the first time the biological potential of pollen extract and we conclude that this bee product can be considered as one source of potential new drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox9020103DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7070678PMC
January 2020

Antimicrobial activity and inhibition of the NorA efflux pump of Staphylococcus aureus by extract and isolated compounds from Arrabidaea brachypoda.

Microb Pathog 2020 Mar 17;140:103935. Epub 2019 Dec 17.

Laboratory of Research in Microbiology, Federal University of Piaui, Teresina, Piaui, Brazil. Electronic address:

Arrabidaea brachypoda is a native shrub of the Brazilian Cerrado widely used in the folk medicine for treatment of renal diseases and articular pains. This study aimed to, first, evaluate the antimicrobial activity of both extracts and isolated molecules Brachydins BR-A and BR-B obtained from the flowers of A. brachypoda against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherchia coli and Candida albicans species. A second objective was to investigate if these natural products were able to potentiate the Norfloxacin activity against the strain Staphylococcus aureus SA1199-B that overexpress the norA gene encoding the NorA efflux pump. Extracts and isolated compounds were analyzed by HPLC-PDA and LC-ESI-MS respectively. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of Norfloxacin or Ethidium Bromide (EtBr) were determined in the presence or absence of ethanolic extract, dichloromethane fraction, as well as BR-A or BR-B by microdilution method. Only BR-B showed activity against Candida albicans. Addition of ethanolic extract, dichloromethane fraction or BR-B to the growth media at sub-inhibitory concentrations enhanced the activity of both Norfloxacin and EtBr against S. aureus SA1199-B, indicating that these natural products and its isolated compound BR-B were able to modulate the fluoroquinolone-resistance possibly by inhibition of NorA. Moreover, BR-B inhibited the EtBr efflux in the SA1199-B strain confirming that it is a NorA inhibitor. Isolated BR-B was able to inhibit an important mechanism of multidrug-resistance very prevalent in S. aureus strains, thus its use in combination with Norfloxacin could be considered as an alternative for the treatment of infections caused by S. aureus strains overexpressing norA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2019.103935DOI Listing
March 2020

Passiflora edulis Leaf Extract: Evidence of Antidiabetic and Antiplatelet Effects in Rats.

Biol Pharm Bull 2020 Jan 22;43(1):169-174. Epub 2019 Oct 22.

Department of Clinical Analysis and Toxicology, College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Federal University of Alfenas.

Different Passiflora species have been appointed as a promising herbal medicine due to antioxidant properties; however, their effect on oxidative process induced by diabetes is still controversial. We aimed to evaluate effects of hydroethanolic extract 70% from P. edulis leaf on biochemical blood markers, collagen glycation, production of oxidant species and platelet aggregation in diabetic rats. The phytochemical analysis of the extract was performed by dereplication using LC coupled to the Photodiode Array Detector and Mass Spectrometer detector. Male Wistar rats were assigned to the control group and groups treated with alloxan (150 mg/kg) intraperitoneally, extract (200 mg/kg/d, for 90 d) and combination of alloxan and extract. The phytochemical analysis suggested the presence of flavonoids C-glycosides in the extract. The diabetic animals treated with the extract presented improvement in glycaemic control, reduced glycation collagen, levels of non-high density lipoprotein (non-HDL) cholesterol, total cholesterol and creatinine, production of oxidant species and aggregation in platelet in relation to diabetic animals non-treated. Our results showed that P. edulis leaf extract presents a health benefit to the diabetic state, preventing the appearance of its complications. Its effect can be associated with flavonoids, among which is the flavonoid C-glycoside isoorientin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1248/bpb.b18-00952DOI Listing
January 2020

Therapeutic Use of Reduces the Progression of Experimental Osteoarthritis.

Molecules 2019 Sep 25;24(19). Epub 2019 Sep 25.

Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, São Luís 65080-805, Brazil.

Pain is recognized as one of the main symptoms in knee osteoarthritis and is the main reason why patients seek medical attention. has been popularly used to relieve discomfort caused by various painful conditions. The objective of the study is to evaluate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effect of the crude extract of , in an experimental model of osteoarthritis. The experiment was performed with Wistar rats divided into 4 groups with 5 animals each: healthy, saline, crude extract, and meloxicam groups. Knee osteoarthritis was induced by intra-articular injection of sodium mono-iodoacetate. First, clinical parameters of pain were assessed at days 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 after induction. Second, the potential cyclooxygenase inhibition was evaluated, and the cytokines of the synovial fluid were quantified. An in silico test and Molecular Docking tests were performed. A histopathological evaluation was made on articular cartilage with safranin O staining. The results showed that a 15-day treatment with crude extract reduced edema, spontaneous pain, peripheral nociceptive activity, and proinflammatory cytokines in the synovial fluid. The highest inhibition of cyclooxygenase 2 in the crude extract occurred at 50 µg/mL. The crude extract of presents therapeutic potential for the treatment of osteoarthritis due to its anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive action.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24193474DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6803828PMC
September 2019

Effects of Extract of Verlot on an Experimental Model of Osteoarthritis.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Sep 23;20(19). Epub 2019 Sep 23.

Biological and Health Sciences Center, Federal University of Maranhão, Av. dos Portugueses 1966, São Luís, MA 65085-580, Brazil.

The aim of this study was to analyze the analgesic potential of extract (EHA) as an alternative to osteoarthritis (OA) treatment. Thus, the extract was initially evaluated by the cyclooxygenase inhibition test. The analgesic effect of the extract, in vivo, was also verified in a model of OA induced by sodium monoiodoacetate (2 mg). EHA was administered to rats at doses of 50, 150, and 450 mg/kg between 3 and 25 days after OA induction. The animals were clinically evaluated every 7 days, euthanized at 29 days, and the liver, spleen, kidney and knee collected for histopathological analysis. The chemical composition of EHA was identified by HPLC-MS and the identified compounds submitted to molecular docking study. The results showed that the extract promoted cyclooxygenase inhibition and produced significant improvements in disability, motor activity, hyperalgesia, and OA-induced allodynia parameters, in addition to improvements in the radiological condition of the knees (but not observed in the histopathological study). Chemically the extract is rich in flavonoids. Among them, we evidence that amentoflavone showed very favorable interactions with the enzyme COX-2 in the in silico analysis. Thus, it is concluded that has important analgesic properties for the treatment of OA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20194717DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6801924PMC
September 2019

Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Activity of Pollen Extract Collected by Stingless Bee .

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Sep 12;20(18). Epub 2019 Sep 12.

Laboratory of Pharmacognosy, Department of Pharmacy, Federal University of Maranhão, São Luís 65080-805, Brazil.

The stingless bee, Smith (Apidae, Meliponini), is a native species from Brazil. Their products have high biotechnological potential, however there are no studies about the biological activities of pollen collected by . In this context, the present study investigated the chemical composition, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic activities of hydroethanolic pollen extracts collected by in three cities in Maranhão State, Brazil. We verified the antioxidant activity of the extracts and inhibitory activity against the cyclooxygenase enzyme using in vitro assays and in allowed to select the extract with higher efficiency to be used on in vivo assays. In these trials, the selected extract showed high anti-inflammatory activity as well as nociceptive effects at central and peripheral level, suggesting that this extract acts on inhibition of histamine release and decreased synthesis of prostaglandins and the in-silico study suggested that polyphenols and acids fatty acids in the extract may be associated with these activities. The results of the present study report the high biological potential of pollen extract and we conclude that the pollen collected by can be considered as the object of research for new pharmacological alternatives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20184512DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6770349PMC
September 2019

GalloylHexahydroxydiphenoyl (HHDP)-Glucose Isolated From . Leaves Protects Against Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-Induced Acute Lung Injury in BALB/c Mice.

Front Immunol 2019 20;10:1978. Epub 2019 Aug 20.

Programa de Pós-Graduação, Universidade CEUMA, São Luís, Brazil.

The hydroalcoholic extract and ethyl acetate fraction of leaves have been known to exhibit anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of galloyl-hexahydroxydiphenoyl (HHDP)-glucose isolated from pomegranate leaves on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. Male BALB/c mice were treated with different doses of galloyl-HHDP-glucose (5, 50, and 100 mg/Kg) or dexamethasone at 5 mg/Kg () 6 h after intra-tracheal instillation of LPS. Vehicle-treated mice were used as controls. Twenty-four hours after LPS challenge, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and lung samples were collected for analyses. They were evaluated by monitoring the expression of NF-κB, JNK, and cytokine genes and proteins, as well as cell migration and lung function. All doses of galloyl-HHDP-glucose inhibited LPS-induced JNK and NF-κB activation. Likewise, the galloyl-HHDP-glucose-treated animals presented reduced expression of the TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β genes in the lungs and reduced TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and IL-8 protein levels when compared with the vehicle-treated LPS-challenged mice. In addition, the ALI mice treated with galloyl-HHDP-glucose also presented reduced lung inflammatory cell accumulation, especially that of neutrophils, in their BALF and lungs. In addition, galloyl-HHDP-glucose treatment markedly ameliorated the LPS-induced pulmonary mechanism complications and attenuated weight loss. Overall, we showed for the first time that galloyl-HHDP-glucose protects against ALI, and may be useful for treating ALI and other inflammatory disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.01978DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6710369PMC
October 2020

Anti-Ehrlichia properties of the essential oil of Ageratum conyzoides L. and its interaction with doxycycline.

AMB Express 2019 Apr 29;9(1):58. Epub 2019 Apr 29.

Laboratory of Immunodiagnosis, State University of Maranhão, São Luís, MA, Brazil.

Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis (CME) is an infectious disease caused by the rickettsia organism Ehrlichia canis which is transmitted mainly the ixodid brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus. The prevalence of E. canis infection has been increasing in recent years. The World Health Organization has been warned about antibiotics resistance and one of the way to prevent this situation is found new compound with this property. Doxycycline is the treatment of choice for this tick-borne disease. Adverse effects are noted in dogs that are sensitive to this drug. Antibiotic resistance may also occur. The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-Ehrlichia properties of the essential oil of the aerial parts of Ageratum conyzoides L. in infected DH82 cells, as well as its anti-Ehrlichia activity associated with doxycycline using the checkerboard assay. A. conyzoides is a native plant from northeast Brazil with many reports of ethnopharmacological applications. The essential oil of A. conyzoides was extracted from the aerial parts of the plant using the hydrodistillation method. E. canis-infected DH82 cells were cultured in DMEM (Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium), maintained at 37 °C and 5% CO, and standardized at a 70% infection rate for the initiation of treatment protocols. The tests were first carried out with the aim of defining the IC. The combined effect of doxycycline and A. conyzoides essential oil was then determined using the checkerboard dilution technique (checkerboard method) in which the IC was 200 µg/mL. The doxycycline reduction index from the combined effect was 4.90 times resulting in a synergistic effect. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first alternative treatment (alternative therapy) based on bioactive molecules that have antibacterial activity against E. canis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13568-019-0780-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6488629PMC
April 2019

Chemical composition and cytotoxic screening of Musa cavendish green peels extract: Antiproliferative activity by activation of different cellular death types.

Toxicol In Vitro 2019 Sep 21;59:179-186. Epub 2019 Apr 21.

Emergency Medicine Department, Medical School, University of São Paulo, Av. Dr. Arnaldo, 455 - Cerqueira César, São Paulo, São Paulo CEP 01246-903, Brazil.

Musa cavendish, commonly known as banana, is a fruit with nutritional and therapeutic properties. We investigated the chemical composition and in vitro cytotoxic effect of M. cavendish green peel extract (MHE) on cancer cells for the first time. The compounds characterization was performed by HPLC-UV/Vis and FIA-ESI-IT-MS. We investigated in vitro cytotoxic effect of Musa cavendish green peels extract (MHE) in HepG2, A-375, MCF-7 and Caco-2 cancer cells. We evaluated the effect of MHE on proliferation of different cell lines through apoptosis, necrosis, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) content determination. We identified 12 compounds from different classes in the extract, including derivatives of phenolic acids, aglycone flavonoids, glycoside flavonoids and catecholamines. Our results indicate that MHE exerts, after 48 h treatment, an accentuated antiproliferative effect from the dose of 100 μg/mL in all cell lines tested. In HepG2 cells, these effects were related to the induction of cell death, both necrotic and apoptotic, and remarkable changes in cell morphology. Depolarization of MMP and high ROS content were also observed in the cells in a dose-dependent manner. Our results show that MHE may be used as a source of new drugs with anticancer activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2019.04.020DOI Listing
September 2019

Antileishmanial Activity of Dimeric Flavonoids Isolated from .

Molecules 2018 Dec 20;24(1). Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Laboratório de Engenharia Tecidual e Imunofarmacologia, Instituto Gonçalo Moniz, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz), Avenida Waldemar Falcão, 121, Candeal⁻Salvador-BA 40296-710, Brazil.

Leishmaniasis are diseases caused by parasites belonging to genus. The treatment with pentavalent antimonials present high toxicity. Secondary line drugs, such as amphotericin B and miltefosine also have a narrow therapeutic index. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop new drugs to treat leishmaniasis. Here, we present the in vitro anti-leishmanial activity of unusual dimeric flavonoids purified from . Three compounds were tested against sp. Compound 2 was the most active against promastigotes. Quantifying the in vitro infected macrophages revealed that compound 2 was also the most active against intracellular amastigotes of , without displaying host cell toxicity. Drug combinations presented an additive effect, suggesting the absence of interaction between amphotericin B and compound 2. Amastigotes treated with compound 2 demonstrated alterations in the Golgi and accumulation of vesicles inside the flagellar pocket. Compound 2-treated amastigotes presented a high accumulation of cytoplasmic vesicles and a myelin-like structure. When administered in -infected mice, neither the oral nor the topical treatments were effective against the parasite. Based on the high in vitro activity, dimeric flavonoids can be used as a lead structure for the development of new molecules that could be useful for structure-active studies against .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24010001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6337281PMC
December 2018

Correction to: Photoelectrochemical sensing of tannic acid based on the use of TiO sensitized with 5-methylphenazinium methosulfate and carboxy-functionalized CdTe quantum dots.

Mikrochim Acta 2018 11 29;185(12):567. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Maranhão, São Luís, MA, 65080-805, Brazil.

The published version of this article, unfortunately, contains an error in that Fig. 2 shows the same study as Fig. 3. The correct Fig. 2 is shown below.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00604-018-3096-8DOI Listing
November 2018

LC-ESI-IT-MS/MS and MALDI-TOF Approach: Identification of Natural Polymers from Rhizophora mangle Barks and Determination of Their Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Properties.

Nat Prod Bioprospect 2019 Jan 14;9(1):23-34. Epub 2018 Nov 14.

Laboratory of Bioprospection of Natural Products (LBPN), UNESP - São Paulo State University/Coastal Campus of São Vicente, Pça Infante Dom Henrique S/N, São Vicente, São Paulo, CEP: 11330-900, Brazil.

We recognize the chemical composition of the acetonic extract of Rhizophora mangle barks (AERM) using mass spectrometry analysis [liquid chromatography (LC)-ESI-IT-MS/MS and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight-MS (MALDI-TOF)]. Analgesic activity was evaluated by formalin and tail-flick experimental assays. Anti-inflammatory activity was performed by paw edema test induced by carrageenan and 48/80 compounds. The first series of experiments involved [LC]-FIA-IT-MS/MS with 11 separated catechins derivatives until degree of polymerization 3 (DP3). The spectra obtained by MALDI-TOF analysis of the AERM presented two homologous series: one based on polymers of m/z 288 Da increments (up to DP12) and another series based on polymers of m/z [288 + 162] Da increments (up to DP11). In addition to these series of flavan-3-ol, each DP had a subset of masses with a variation of - 16 Da (homologous series of afzelechins-m/z 873-3465 Da) and + 16 Da (homologous series of gallocatechins-m/z 905-3497 Da). A similar pattern with homologous series of gallocatechins and afzelechins could also be observed for a fifth and a sixth monohexoside series: glucogallocatechins (m/z 779-3371) and glucoafzelechins (m/z 747-3339). The intraperitoneal administration of different doses of AERM (50, 150 and 300 µg mL) have a morphine-like effect and intense anti-inflammatory activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13659-018-0192-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6328426PMC
January 2019

Photoelectrochemical sensing of tannic acid based on the use of TiO sensitized with 5-methylphenazinium methosulfate and carboxy-functionalized CdTe quantum dots.

Mikrochim Acta 2018 10 27;185(11):521. Epub 2018 Oct 27.

Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Maranhão, São Luís, MA, 65080-805, Brazil.

The article describes a method for determination of tannic acid in extracts of medicinal plants. Tannic acid (TA) is an antioxidant and has anticancer and antimicrobial properties. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO) were co-sensitized with 5-methylphenazinium methosulfate (PMS) and carboxy-functionalized cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs), and immobilized on a fluorine-doped tin oxide electrode. The surface morphology and electrochemical properties of the modified electrode were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and amperometry, respectively. A composite consisting of TiO, PMS and CdTe QDs in a nafion film has a response to TA under LED light higher than that observed for each separate component. Under optimized experimental conditions and at an applied voltage of +0.4 V vs Ag/AgCl, the photoelectrochemical sensor has a linear response in the 0.2 to 200 μmol L TA concentration range and a detection limit of 60 nmol L. The sensor was successfully applied to the determination of TA in spiked extracts from three medicinal plants, with recovery values between 98.3 and 103.9 %. Graphical abstract Schematic diagram for photoelectrochemical detection of tannic acid based on a fluorine doped tin oxide electrode modified with titanium oxide, 5-methylphenazinium methosulfate and carboxy-functionalized cadmium telluride quantum dots.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00604-018-3047-4DOI Listing
October 2018

Modulatory Effect of Polyphenolic Compounds from the Mangrove Tree L. on Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Insulin Resistance in High-Fat Diet Obese Mice.

Molecules 2018 Aug 22;23(9). Epub 2018 Aug 22.

UNESP-São Paulo State University/Coastal Campus of São Vicente, Laboratory of Bioprospection of Natural Products (LBPN) Pça Infante Dom Henrique S/N, 11330-900 São Vicente, SP, Brazil.

No scientific report proves the action of the phytochemicals from the mangrove tree in the treatment of diabetes. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effects of the acetonic extract of barks (AERM) on type 2 diabetes. The main chemical constituents of the extract were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and flow injection analysis electrospray-iontrap mass spectrometry (FIA-ESI-IT-MS/MS). High-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice were used as model of type 2 diabetes associated with obesity. After 4 weeks of AERM 5 or 50 mg/kg/day orally, glucose homeostasis was evaluated by insulin tolerance test (kiTT). Hepatic steatosis, triglycerides and gene expression were also evaluated. AERM consists of catechin, quercetin and chlorogenic acids derivatives. These metabolites have nutritional importance, obese mice treated with AERM (50 mg/kg) presented improvements in insulin resistance resulting in hepatic steatosis reductions associated with a strong inhibition of hepatic mRNA levels of CD36. The beneficial effects of AERM in an obesity model could be associated with its inhibitory α-amylase activity detected in vitro. partially reverses insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis associated with obesity, supporting previous claims in traditional knowledge.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules23092114DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6225131PMC
August 2018

Involvement of Opioid System, TRPM8, and ASIC Receptors in Antinociceptive Effect of Arrabidaea brachypoda (DC) Bureau.

Int J Mol Sci 2017 Nov 2;18(11). Epub 2017 Nov 2.

São Paulo State University (UNESP), Biosciences Institute, Department of Physiology, Botucatu 18618-970, SP, Brazil.

(DC) Bureau is a medicinal plant found in Brazil. Known as "cipó-una", it is popularly used as a natural therapeutic agent against pain and inflammation. This study evaluated the chemical composition and antinociceptive activity of the dichloromethane fraction from the roots of (DEAB) and its mechanism of action. The chemical composition was characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography, and this fraction is composed only of dimeric flavonoids. The antinociceptive effect was evaluated in formalin and hot plate tests after oral administration (10-100 mg/kg) in male Swiss mice. We also investigated the involvement of TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid 1), TRPA1 (transient receptor potential ankyrin 1), TRPM8 (transient receptor potential melastatin 8), and ASIC (acid-sensing ion channel), as well as the opioidergic, glutamatergic, and supraspinal pathways. Moreover, the nociceptive response was reduced (30 mg/kg) in the early and late phase of the formalin test. DEAB activity appears to involve the opioid system, TRPM8, and ASIC receptors, clearly showing that the DEAB alleviates acute pain in mice and suggesting the involvement of the TRPM8 and ASIC receptors and the opioid system in acute pain relief.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms18112304DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5713273PMC
November 2017

In vitro toxicological assessment of Arrabidaea brachypoda (DC.) Bureau: Mutagenicity and estrogenicity studies.

Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 2017 Nov 18;90:29-35. Epub 2017 Aug 18.

UNESP-São Paulo State University, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences of Araraquara, Department of Biological Sciences, CEP 14801-902, Araraquara, São Paulo, Brazil.

Arrabidaea brachypoda (DC.) Bureau is a shrub native Cerrado, known as "cipó-una", "tintureiro" or "cervejinha do campo" and popularly used in Southeastern and Northeastern Brazil to treatment of kidney stones and painful joints (arthritis). Nevertheless, scientific information regarding this species is scarce, and there are no reports related to its possible estrogenic and mutagenic effects. Thus, the principal objective of this study was to assess the mutagenic and estrogenic activities of the hydroalcoholic extracts of the leaves, stalks, roots, their respective fractions and isolated compounds of A. brachypoda. The mutagenic activity was evaluated by the Ames test on Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA97a, TA100 and TA102, in the absence (-S9) and presence (+S9) of metabolic activation system. In the RYA was used Saccharomyces cerevisiae engineered strain BY4741 (MATaura3Δ0 leu2Δ0 his3Δ1 met15Δ0) which reproduce the natural pathway of genetic control by estrogens in vertebrate cells; it has the advantage of its simplicity and a high throughput. All extracts and aqueous fraction of leaves A. brachypoda were mutagenic. The crude extract is more active than the fraction, suggesting a synergic effect. Only hydroalcoholic extracts of leaves and roots of A. brachypoda showed significant estrogenic activity, with ERα-dependent transcriptional activation activity. The obtained results in this study showed the presence of compounds capable of interacting with the estrogen receptor and to induce damage in the genetic material. Thus, we demonstrated the risk which the population is subjected due to indiscriminate use of extracts without detailed study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.yrtph.2017.08.010DOI Listing
November 2017

Phenolic Isomers from Plantago catharinea Leaves: Isolation, ldentification, Quantification and in vitro Antioxidant Activity.

Nat Prod Commun 2017 Mar;12(3):409-412

In this study we isolated two polyphenolic acids of m/z 639, called catharinol A and catharinol B, from Plantago catharinea L. (Plantaginaceae) leaves. Although presenting very similar structures, catharinol A showed higher antioxidant activity when compared with gallic acid and quercetin standards. These compounds are position isomers and present in their chemical structure the rare sugar D-allose. Molecules with similar constitution are known to have imnportant biological activities such as antitumor and immunosuppressive. These compounds were isolated by high-performance liquid chromatography HPLC) and characterized by mass spectrometry (FIA-ESI-IT-MS/MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). This work is the first study on the chemical composition ofP. catharinea and encourages the production of Plantago species as a good source of bioactive molecules.
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March 2017

Ilex paraguariensis supplementation may be an effective nutritional approach to modulate oxidative stress during perimenopause.

Exp Gerontol 2017 04 14;90:14-18. Epub 2017 Jan 14.

Programa Multicêntrico de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, SBFis/UNESP, Univ Estadual Paulista, Araçatuba, São Paulo, Brazil; Laboratory of Biochemistry, Department of Basic Sciences, Araçatuba Dental School, UNESP - Univ Estadual Paulista, Araçatuba, São Paulo, Brazil. Electronic address:

Perimenopause is a period in a woman's life that precedes menopause and is characterized by hormonal changes that result in increased oxidative stress. Since oxidative stress is associated with age-related diseases and perimenopausal symptoms including somato-vegetative manifestations, nutritional antioxidant supplementation may be an effective approach to minimizing this stress. Mate tea (MT) (Ilex paraguariensis), a typical and inexpensive beverage consumed in the Brazilian south-east, Argentina and Uruguay, increases antioxidant defense. We hypothesized that MT could minimize oxidative stress during perimenopause by modulating enzymatic antioxidant defense. To test this, we analyzed the lipid oxidative damage and antioxidant defense in erythrocytes and liver of rats, after MT treatment. Female Wistar rats (aged 16months) in proven perimenopause period received 20mg/kgBW/day of mate tea, by gavage (PM+MT group) or water (PM group). Female rats aged 4months (AD group) received water. Erythrocytes and liver were used to determine lipid oxidative damage, determined by malondialdehyde (MDA); superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) activities. Total plasma antioxidant capacity was examined by ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP) and estrogen by radioimmunoassay. MT increased FRAP and did not change estrogen levels. Increased SOD and GPx, and reduced MDA were observed in both tissues studied. Increased CAT activity was observed only in the liver. We confirmed the hypothesis that MT was capable of minimizing oxidative stress in this period of life by modulating antioxidant defense.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.exger.2017.01.011DOI Listing
April 2017
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