Publications by authors named "Cindy Canivet"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Randomised clinical trial for the cost-utility evaluation of two strategies of perineal reconstruction after abdominoperineal resection in the context of anorectal carcinoma: biological mesh repair versus primary perineal wound closure, study protocol for the GRECCAR 9 Study.

BMJ Open 2021 Apr 1;11(4):e043333. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Department of Medical Information, University Hospital Centre Toulouse, Toulouse, France.

Introduction: Abdominoperineal resections performed for anorectal tumours leave a large pelvic and perineal defect causing a high rate of morbidity of the perineal wound (40%-60%). Biological meshes offer possibilities for new standards of perineal wound reconstruction. Perineal fillings with biological mesh are expected to increase quality of life by reducing perineal morbidity.

Methods And Analysis: This is a multicentre, randomised and single-blinded study with a blinded endpoint evaluation, the experimental arm of which uses a biological mesh and the control arm of which is defined by the primary closure after abdominoperineal resection for cancer. Patients eligible for inclusion are patients with a proven history of rectal adenocarcinoma and anal canal epidermoid carcinoma for whom abdominoperineal resection was indicated after a multidisciplinary team discussion. All patients must have social security insurance or equivalent social protection. The main objective is to assess the incremental cost-utility ratio (ICUR) of two strategies of perineal closure after an abdominoperineal resection performed for anorectal cancer treatment: perineal filling with biological mesh versus primary perineal closure (70 patient in each arm). The secondary objectives focus on quality of life and morbidity data during a 1-year follow-up. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses will be performed in order to estimate the uncertainty surrounding the ICUR. CIs will be constructed using the non-parametric bootstrap approach. A cost-effectiveness acceptability curve will be built so as to estimate the probability of efficiency of the biological meshes given a collective willingness-to-pay threshold.

Ethics And Dissemination: The study was approved by the Regional Ethical Review Board of 'Nord Ouest 1' (protocol reference number: 20.05.14.60714; national number: 2020-A01169-30).The results will be disseminated through conventional scientific channels.

Trial Registration Number: ClinicalTrials.gov Registry (NCT02841293).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-043333DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8021762PMC
April 2021

Perineal Wound Closure Following Abdominoperineal Resection and Pelvic Exenteration for Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 Feb 10;13(4). Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Toulouse University Hospital, 31100 Toulouse, France.

Background: Abdominoperineal resection (APR) and pelvic exenteration (PE) for the treatment of cancer require extensive pelvic resection with a high rate of postoperative complications. The objective of this work was to systematically review and meta-analyze the effects of vertical rectus abdominis myocutaneous flap (VRAMf) and mesh closure on perineal morbidity following APR and PE (mainly for anal and rectal cancers).

Methods: We searched PubMed, Cochrane, and EMBASE for eligible studies as of the year 2000. After data extraction, a meta-analysis was performed to compare perineal wound morbidity. The studies were distributed as follows: Group A comparing primary closure (PC) and VRAMf, Group B comparing PC and mesh closure, and Group C comparing PC and VRAMf in PE.

Results: Our systematic review yielded 18 eligible studies involving 2180 patients (1206 primary closures, 647 flap closures, 327 mesh closures). The meta-analysis of Groups A and B showed PC to be associated with an increase in the rate of total (Group A: OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.43-0.71; < 0.01/Group B: OR 0.54, CI 0.17-1.68; = 0.18) and major perineal wound complications (Group A: OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.35-0.68; < 0.001/Group B: OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.12-1.17; < 0.01). PC was associated with a decrease in total (OR 2.46, 95% CI 1.39-4.35; < 0.01) and major (OR 1.67, 95% CI 0.90-3.08; = 0.1) perineal complications in Group C.

Conclusion: Our results confirm the contribution of the VRAMf in reducing major complications in APR. Similarly, biological prostheses offer an interesting alternative in pelvic reconstruction. For PE, an adapted reconstruction must be proposed with specialized expertise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13040721DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7916499PMC
February 2021

Primary Thromboprophylaxis in Ambulatory Pancreatic Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Jul 24;12(8). Epub 2020 Jul 24.

Internal Medicine, Autoimmune and Vascular Disease Unit, Saint-Louis Hospital, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, F-75010 Paris, France.

Patients with pancreatic cancer (PC) carry the highest risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) amongst all cancer patients. Appropriate use of primary thromboprophylaxis might significantly and safely reduce its burden. We performed a systematic review of published studies and meeting abstracts using MEDLINE and EMBASE through July 2020 to evaluate the efficacy and safety of primary thromboprophylaxis in ambulatory PC patients receiving chemotherapy. The Mantel-Haenszel random effect model was used to estimate the pooled event-based risk ratio (RR) and the pooled absolute risk difference (RD) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Five randomized controlled studies with 1003 PC patients were included in this meta-analysis. Compared to placebo, thromboprophylaxis significantly decreased the risk of VTE (pooled RR 0.31, 95% CI 0.19-0.51, < 0.00001, I = 8%; absolute RD -0.08, 95% CI -0.12--0.05, < 0.00001, I = 0%), with an estimated number needed to treat of 11.9 patients to prevent one VTE event. Similar reductions of VTE were observed in studies with parenteral (RR 0.30, 95% CI 0.17-0.53) versus oral anticoagulants (RR 0.37, 95% CI 0.14-0.99) and in studies using prophylactic doses of anticoagulants (RR 0.34, 95% CI 0.17-0.70) versus supra-prophylactic doses of anticoagulants (RR 0.27, 95% CI 0.08-0.90). The pooled RR for major bleeding was 1.08 (95% CI 0.47-2.52, = 0.85, I = 0%) and the absolute RD was 0.00 (95% CI -0.02-0.03, = 0.85, I = 0%). Evidence supports a net clinical benefit of thromboprophylaxis in ambulatory PC patients receiving chemotherapy. Adequately powered randomized phase III studies assessing the most effective anticoagulant and the optimal dose, schedule and duration of thromboprophylaxis to be used are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12082028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7464699PMC
July 2020

Establishment of a pancreatic adenocarcinoma molecular gradient (PAMG) that predicts the clinical outcome of pancreatic cancer.

EBioMedicine 2020 Jul 3;57:102858. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Marseille, CRCM, Inserm, CNRS, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille, France.

Background: A significant gap in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patient's care is the lack of molecular parameters characterizing tumours and allowing a personalized treatment.

Methods: Patient-derived xenografts (PDX) were obtained from 76 consecutive PDAC and classified according to their histology into five groups. A PDAC molecular gradient (PAMG) was constructed from PDX transcriptomes recapitulating the five histological groups along a continuous gradient. The prognostic and predictive value for PMAG was evaluated in: i/ two independent series (n = 598) of resected tumours; ii/ 60 advanced tumours obtained by diagnostic EUS-guided biopsy needle flushing and iii/ on 28 biopsies from mFOLFIRINOX treated metastatic tumours.

Findings: A unique transcriptomic signature (PAGM) was generated with significant and independent prognostic value. PAMG significantly improves the characterization of PDAC heterogeneity compared to non-overlapping classifications as validated in 4 independent series of tumours (e.g. 308 consecutive resected PDAC, uHR=0.321 95% CI [0.207-0.5] and 60 locally-advanced or metastatic PDAC, uHR=0.308 95% CI [0.113-0.836]). The PAMG signature is also associated with progression under mFOLFIRINOX treatment (Pearson correlation to tumour response: -0.67, p-value < 0.001).

Interpretation: PAMG unify all PDAC pre-existing classifications inducing a shift in the actual paradigm of binary classifications towards a better characterization in a gradient.

Funding: Project funding was provided by INCa (Grants number 2018-078 and 2018-079, BACAP BCB INCa_6294), Canceropole PACA, DGOS (labellisation SIRIC), Amidex Foundation, Fondation de France, INSERM and Ligue Contre le Cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ebiom.2020.102858DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7334821PMC
July 2020

A New Score to Predict the Resectability of Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma: The BACAP Score.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Mar 25;12(4). Epub 2020 Mar 25.

The Digestive Surgery and Liver Transplantation Department, Toulouse University Hospital, 31400 Toulouse, France.

Surgery remains the only curative treatment for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Therefore, a predictive score for resectability on diagnosis is needed. A total of 814 patients were included between 2014 and 2017 from 15 centers included in the BACAP (the national Anatomo-Clinical Database on Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma) prospective cohort. Three groups were defined: resectable (Res), locally advanced (LA), and metastatic (Met). Variables were analyzed and a predictive score was devised. Of the 814 patients included, 703 could be evaluated: 164 Res, 266 LA, and 273 Met. The median ages of the patients were 69, 71, and 69, respectively. The median survival times were 21, 15, and nine months, respectively. Six criteria were significantly associated with a lower probability of resectability in multivariate analysis: venous/arterial thrombosis ( = 0.017), performance status 1 ( = 0.032) or ≥ 2 ( = 0.010), pain ( = 0.003), weight loss ≥ 8% ( = 0.019), topography of the tumor (body/tail) ( = 0.005), and maximal tumor size 20-33 mm ( < 0.013) or >33 mm ( < 0.001). The BACAP score was devised using these criteria (http://jdlp.fr/resectability/) with an accuracy of 81.17% and an area under the receive operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.82 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.78; 0.86). The presence of pejorative criteria or a BACAP score < 50% indicates that further investigations and even neoadjuvant treatment might be warranted. Trial registration: NCT02818829.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12040783DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7226323PMC
March 2020

Incidence of Venous Thromboembolism in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Pancreatic Cancer and Factors Associated With Outcomes.

Gastroenterology 2020 04 14;158(5):1346-1358.e4. Epub 2019 Dec 14.

Université de Paris, Institut Universitaire d'Hématologie, Paris, France; Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris, Saint-Louis Hospital, Internal Medicine, Autoimmune and Vascular Disease Unit, Paris, France; Department of Medicine, McGill University, Montreal, Québec, Canada. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is associated with the highest incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE) of any cancer type. However, little is known about risk factors for VTE or its outcomes in patients with PDAC.

Methods: We collected data from a prospective, observational study performed at multiple centers in France from May 2014 through November 2018 (the Base Clinico-Biologique de l'Adénocarcinome Pancréatique [BACAP] study) linked to a database of patients with a new diagnosis of PDAC of any stage. Data were collected from 731 patients at baseline and during clinical follow-up or in the event of symptoms. The primary endpoint was the onset of VTE during follow-up. The secondary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) times.

Results: During a median follow-up of 19.3 months, 152 patients (20.79%) developed a VTE. The median time from PDAC diagnosis to the onset of VTE was 4.49 months. Cumulative incidence values of VTE were 8.07% (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.31-10.29) at 3 months and 19.21% (95% CI, 16.27-22.62) at 12 months. In multivariate analysis, PDAC primary tumor location (isthmus vs head: hazard ratio [HR], 2.06; 95% CI, 1.09-3.91; P = .027) and stage (locally advanced vs resectable or borderline: HR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.10-2.51, P = .016; metastatic vs resectable or borderline: HR, 2.50; 95% CI, 1.64-3.79; P < .001) were independent risk factors for the onset of VTE. Patients who developed VTE during follow-up had shorter times of PFS (HR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.19-2.54; P = .004) and OS (HR, 2.02; 95% CI, 1.57-2.60; P < .001).

Conclusion: In an analysis of data from the BACAP study, we found that frequent and early onsets of VTE after diagnoses of PDAC are associated with significant decreases in times of PFS and OS. Studies are needed to determine whether primary prophylaxis of VTE in patients with PDAC will improve morbidity and mortality related to VTE. (ClinicalTrials.gov, Number: clinicaltrials.gov as number NCT02818829).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2019.12.009DOI Listing
April 2020

A prospective clinical and biological database for pancreatic adenocarcinoma: the BACAP cohort.

BMC Cancer 2018 Oct 16;18(1):986. Epub 2018 Oct 16.

The Department of Gastroenterology and Pancreatology, CHU - Rangueil and the University of Toulouse, 1 avenue Jean Poulhès, TSA 50032, 31059, Toulouse Cedex 9, France.

Background: The prognosis for pancreatic cancer remains poor despite diagnostic advances and treatments with new chemotherapeutic regimens. The five year survival rate remains below 3%. Consequently, there is an urgent need for new treatments to significantly improve the prognosis. In addition, there is a big gap in terms of the screening, early diagnosis and prevention of pancreatic cancer the incidence of which is increasing dramatically.

Methods: Design: the BACAP cohort is a prospective multicenter pancreatic cancer cohort (pancreatic ductal carcinoma) with clinical and multiple biological samples; Participating centers: 15 French academic and private hospitals; Study Population: any cytologically and/or histologically proven pancreatic carcinoma regardless of the stage (resectable, borderline, locally advanced or metastatic) or treatment (surgery, palliative chemotherapy, best supportive care). At least 1500 patients will be included. Clinical data collected include: disease presentation, epidemiological and social factors, baseline biology, radiology, endoscopic ultrasound, staging, pathology, treatments, follow-up (including biological and radiological), and survival. All these data are collected and stored through an e-observation system at a centralized data center. Biological samples and derived products (i.e. before any treatment): blood, saliva, endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration materials from the primary tumor, fine needle biopsy of metastases and surgically resected tissue. DNA and RNA are extracted from fine needle aspiration materials and are quantified and characterized for quality. Whole blood, plasma and serum are isolated from blood samples. Frozen tissues were specifically allocated to the cohort. All derived products and saliva are stored at - 80 °C. Main end-points: i) to centralize clinical data together with multiple biological samples that are harmonized in terms of sampling, the post sampling process and storage; ii) to identify new molecular markers for the diagnosis, prognosis and possibly the predictive response to pancreatic cancer surgery and or chemotherapy.

Discussion: The BACAP cohort is a unique prospective biological clinical database that provides the opportunity to identify correlations between the presence/expression of a broad panel of biomarkers (DNA, RNA, miRNA, proteins, etc.), epidemiological and social data, various clinical situations, various stages and the differentiation of the tumor, treatments and survival.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02818829 . Registration date: June 30, 2016.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-018-4906-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6191891PMC
October 2018

Clinical Impact and Cost-Effectiveness of an Education Program for PD Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

PLoS One 2016;11(9):e0162646. Epub 2016 Sep 29.

Department of Neurology, University Hospital, Toulouse, France.

Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by its impact on quality of life, constituting a substantial economic burden on society. Education programs implicating patients more in the management of their illness and complementing medical treatment may be a beneficial adjunct in PD. This study assessed the impact of an education program on quality of life and its cost-effectiveness in PD patients.

Methods: This single-center, prospective, randomized study assessed an education program consisting of individual and group sessions over a 12-month period. A total of 120 PD patients were assigned to either the Treated by Behavioral Intervention group (TTBI) or the no TTBI group. The primary outcome criterion was quality of life assessed using PDQ39. The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) and psychological status were collected. An economic evaluation was performed, including calculations of incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs).

Results: After 12 months of follow-up, changes recorded in the PDQ39 between the groups were not significantly different but better changes were observed in each dimension in the TTBI group compared to the no TTBI group. UPDRS I, II and total score were significantly improved in TTBI group compared to the no TTBI group. Mean annual costs did not differ significantly between the two groups.

Conclusion: This study suggested that the education program positively impacts the perceived health of PD patients without increasing medical costs.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0162646PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5042480PMC
September 2016

Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus improves pain in Parkinson's disease.

Parkinsonism Relat Disord 2014 Jun 20;20(6):662-4. Epub 2014 Mar 20.

INSERM, UMR 825, Toulouse, France; Université de Toulouse, UPS, UMR 825, Toulouse, France; Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Toulouse, Service de Neurologie, Toulouse, France; Service de Pharmacologie Clinique, Faculté de Médecine, Toulouse, France.

Background: In Parkinson's disease (PD), chronic pain is a common symptom which markedly affects the quality of life. Some physiological arguments proposed that Deep Brain Stimulation of the Subthalamic Nucleus (STN-DBS) could improve pain in PD.

Methods: We investigated in 58 PD patients the effect of STN-DBS on pain using the short McGill Pain Questionnaire and other pain parameters such as the Bodily discomfort subscore of the Parkinson's disease Questionnaire 39 and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale section II (UPDRS II) item 17.

Results: All pain scores were significantly improved 12 months after STN-DBS. This improvement was not correlated with motor improvement, depression scores or L-Dopa reduction.

Conclusions: STN-DBS induced a substantial beneficial effect on pain in PD, independently of its motor effects and mood status of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parkreldis.2014.03.011DOI Listing
June 2014

A European approach to clinical investigator training.

Front Pharmacol 2013 Sep 9;4:112. Epub 2013 Sep 9.

Erasme Hospital, PHARMED, Université Libre de Bruxelles Brussels, Belgium.

A better education and training of clinical investigators and their teams is one of the factors that could foster the development of clinical research in Europe, a key objective of the Innovative Medicines Initiative (IMI). PharmaTrain (an IMI programme on training in medicines development), and European Clinical Research Infrastructures Network (ECRIN) have joined forces to address this issue. An advisory group composed of representatives of universities, pharmaceutical companies and other organisations met four times between June 2011 and July 2012. This resulted in a position paper proposing a strategy to improve and harmonize clinical investigator training in Europe, and including a detailed syllabus and list of learning outcomes. Major recommendations are the establishment of minimal and mutually recognized certification requirement for investigators throughout the EU and the creation of a European platform to provide a suitable course and examination infrastructure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2013.00112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3766792PMC
September 2013

Inhibition of T-cell activation and proliferation by mycophenolic acid in patients awaiting liver transplantation: PK/PD relationships.

Pharmacol Res 2011 May 15;63(5):432-8. Epub 2011 Jan 15.

INSERM, UMR-S850, Limoges, France.

Mycophenolic acid (MPA) plasma concentrations were reported to be associated with a decrease in T-cell proliferation, and in both IL-2 α-chain (CD25) and transferin receptor (CD71) expression. The aim of this study was to confirm, quantify and model these PK/PD relationships. Full profiles of MPA plasma concentrations, T-cell proliferation, intracytoplasmic IL-2 and TNF-α expression, and both CD71 and CD25 expression were collected over the 12h after dosing in 10 patients on the waiting list for liver transplantation. Data were analyzed using NONMEM(®). Both CD25 and CD71 expression and T cell proliferation clearly decreased (median of decrease from baseline 62%, 68% and 94%, respectively) with increasing MPA concentrations, in contrast to IL-2 and TNF-α expression. The CD25 and CD71 baseline expression (E(0)) and maximum effect (E(max)) were correlated with the E(0) and E(max) values of T-cell proliferation (r(2)=0.509 and r(2)=0.622, respectively). The CD25, CD71 expression and T-cell proliferation profiles were adequately fitted using a sigmoid inhibitory E(max) model. Low estimated values (≤2 mg/L) for 50% inhibitory MPA concentrations were obtained. This study confirmed a transient MPA concentration-dependent decrease in T-cells expressing CD25 and CD71 and a strong reduction of T-cell proliferation and showed that CD25 and CD71 expression was correlated with T-cell proliferation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2011.01.005DOI Listing
May 2011

Mycophenolic acid 12-hour area under the curve in de novo liver transplant patients given mycophenolate mofetil at fixed versus concentration-controlled doses.

Ther Drug Monit 2009 Aug;31(4):451-6

Department of Nephrology, Dialysis and Multi-Organ Transplantation, CHU Rangueil, Toulouse, France.

Therapeutic drug monitoring of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) was found to be beneficial in preventing acute rejection after kidney transplantation. The aim of this pilot prospective study was to evaluate the efficacy of MMF dose adjustment in de novo liver transplant patients receiving MMF at fixed versus concentration-controlled doses [ie, adapted to mycophenolic acid (MPA) AUC0-12h] and tacrolimus during the first 12 months posttransplant. Twenty-nine patients received steroids only up to day 10, induction therapy by lymphoglobulins followed by tacrolimus and MMF. In all patients, MPA AUC0-12h were measured on posttransplant days 7 and 14 and at months 1, 2, 3, 6, and 12. From March 2006 to March 2007, 15 patients received MMF at a fixed dose of 1 g twice a day for 12 months. From April 2007 to December 2007, MMF was given to 14 patients at a dose of 1 g twice a day until day 7 and was then adapted to reach an MPA AUC0-12h target of 30-60 mg x h/L. The proportion of MPA AUC0-12h values within the target range was similar in both groups. The proportion of patients with MPA AUC0-12h below 30 mg x h/L tended to be higher in the fixed dose group within the first month posttransplant. However, MMF dose did not differ significantly between the 2 groups at any period except month 1. MPA AUC0-12h tended to be higher in the concentration-controlled group at day 14 and month 2 and was significantly so at month 1. Tacrolimus trough concentrations tended to be lower in the concentration-controlled group at all study periods and was significantly so at month 3. At 12 months posttransplant, patient and graft survivals, acute rejection rate, and adverse events were similar in both groups. We concluded that adapting the dose of MMF resulted in a significant increase in MPA AUC0-12h at month 1. There was a trend toward a lower proportion of patients with MPA AUC0-12h below 30 mg x h/L in the concentration-controlled group. No difference in outcome was found between both groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/FTD.0b013e3181aa776eDOI Listing
August 2009

Polyoma BK virus-associated nephropathy in kidney-transplant patients: Effects of leflunomide on T-cell functions and disease outcome.

Int Immunopharmacol 2009 Aug 13;9(9):1131-6. Epub 2009 May 13.

INSERM U/MR, Toulouse, France.

Background: In kidney-transplant recipients, leflunomide has been shown to be efficient for treating polyomavirus BK virus-associated-nephropathy (PVAN). However, it is unknown whether the beneficial effect of leflunomide is related to it having a lower immunosuppressive effect than mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), or to its anti-viral activity. The aim of this study was to assess i) T-cell functions before and after conversion from MMF to leflunomide in kidney-transplant patients with PVAN, and ii) effects of leflunomide on PVAN outcome.

Patients And Methods: Twelve patients were enrolled in this study. At PVAN diagnosis, MMF was replaced by leflunomide. Other immunosuppressive drug doses and levels were maintained unchanged. T-cell functions, i.e., intralymphocyte cytokine expression (IL-2 and TNF-alpha), T-cell activation [i.e., transferrin receptor (CD71) and interleukin (IL)-2 alpha-chain (CD25) expression], and T-cell proliferation were measured using a flow-cytometry whole-blood assay before and at one month after conversion.

Results: Despite a slight decrease in tacrolimus trough levels, no significant change in T-cell-function biomarkers was observed after conversion. After a follow-up of 6 (4-30) months, five patients were cleared of the virus, and decreased viral load was observed in four patients. Only one patient suffered a graft loss. No difference in immunological parameters was observed between patients who were cleared or not of BKV.

Conclusion: Results of this pilot study suggest that the potential benefits of leflunomide to treat PVAN in kidney-transplant patients is not related to reduced immunosuppression induced by replacing MMF by leflunomide. Virological studies are required to determine the anti-BKV effect of leflunomide.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2009.05.004DOI Listing
August 2009

Cytokines correlate with age in healthy volunteers, dialysis patients and kidney-transplant patients.

Cytokine 2009 Mar 14;45(3):169-73. Epub 2009 Jan 14.

INSERM U. 858 EQ 10, Institut Louis Bugnard, 1 Ave J Poulhès, CHU Rangueil, 3100 Toulouse, France.

T-cell functions are currently used as biomarkers for the pharmacodynamic monitoring of immunosuppressive drugs or as disease biomarkers of inflammation/sepsis and organ rejection. In order to evaluate co-factors potentially influencing the expression of the immunological biomarkers, we explored T-cell proliferation, T-cell activation (CD25 and CD71 expressions) and intra-lymphocyte cytokine production (interleukin (IL)-2 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha) in healthy volunteers, dialysis patients and stable kidney-transplant patients treated with standard immunosuppressive therapy, i.e. tacrolimus, mycophenolic acid with or without steroids. Age was positively correlated with TNF-alpha expression in all three patient populations, and with IL-2 expression in healthy volunteers and kidney-transplant patients. Further age was correlated with inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation in healthy volunteers and with the T-cell activation marker CD25 in kidney-transplant patients. In healthy volunteers lymphocyte proliferation was higher in woman as compared to men. Other biomarkers of T-cell function were independent of the gender. In the kidney-transplant patient group a significantly lower expression of all biomarkers of T-cell functions compared to healthy volunteers and dialysis patients. In dialysis patients we found significant increased IL-2 expression compared to healthy volunteers, while the other T-cell functions were not significantly different. Further time on dialysis had no effect on the level of biomarker expression. In conclusion we found decreased T-cell functions in kidney-transplant patients compared to healthy volunteers and dialysis patients, increased IL-2 expression in dialysis patients compared to healthy volunteers and in all three populations we found a correlation of age and intra-T-lymphocyte TNF-alpha expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cyto.2008.11.014DOI Listing
March 2009

In vitro mitogen-stimulated T-cell from hepatitis C virus-positive liver transplantation candidates, increases T-cell activation markers and T-cell proliferation.

Transpl Immunol 2008 May 3;19(2):112-9. Epub 2008 Apr 3.

INSERM U858/I2MR, Equipe 10, CHU Rangueil, Toulouse, France.

The incidence of acute rejection is significantly higher in hepatitis C virus (HCV) liver-transplant patients than in patients who have received a graft for other liver diseases, i.e., mainly alcoholic cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to assess T-cell function, i.e., intralymphocyte cytokine expression (IL-2 and TNF-alpha), T-cell activation [i.e., transferrin receptor (CD71) and interleukin (IL)-2 alpha-chain (CD25) expression], and T-cell proliferation using a flow-cytometry whole-blood assay in patients waiting for a liver transplantation (n=49). Our data suggest that, in mitogen-stimulated T-cells, (i) intra-lymphocyte cytokine expression is significantly higher in patients with liver disease than in healthy volunteers (n=25); (ii) the expression of T-cell activation markers is decreased in patients with liver cirrhosis compared to healthy volunteers, and (iii) the expression of T-cell activation markers and T-cell proliferation are increased in patients with HCV infection (n=15) compared to those without HCV infection (n=34), particularly compared to patients with alcoholic liver disease (n=19). Circulating CD19-positive cells count was also significantly higher in HCV-positive patients. In conclusion, in vitro, mitogen-stimulated T-cell seem to induce a higher immune response in the blood from patients waiting for a liver transplant for HCV-related liver disease than those without HCV infection, and particularly those with alcoholic liver disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trim.2008.03.001DOI Listing
May 2008

Pharmacodynamic monitoring of the conversion from mycophenolate mofetil to enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium in stable kidney-allograft recipients.

Int Immunopharmacol 2008 May 20;8(5):769-73. Epub 2008 Feb 20.

INSERM U858, Equipe 10, IFR 31, Institut Louis Bugnard, Bâtiment L3, CHU Rangueil, France.

Background: The formulations of mycophenolic acid, i.e., mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (EC-MPS), seem to have different pharmacokinetic profiles. The aim of this study was to compare the effects MMF and EC-MPS on T-cell proliferation, T-cell activation, T-cell function, and lymphocyte subsets. CLINICAL STUDY AND METHODS: Ten stable kidney-transplant patients on standard maintenance therapy of tacrolimus and MMF (1 g/d), with or without steroids, were converted from MMF to EC-MPS at equivalent dose (720 mg/d). Tacrolimus and steroid doses remained unchanged before, and at 1, 2, 3, and 6 months (M) after conversion. Intra T-lymphocyte cytokines IL-2 and TNF-alpha, lymphocyte-activation surface markers (CD25 and CD71), T-cell proliferation (PCNA+ PI(high)), total lymphocyte count, as well as lymphocytes subsets (CD2, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, NK cells) were measured by flow cytometry before conversion and at M1, M2, M3, and M6.

Results: We found no significant differences of MMF versus EC-MPS on lymphocyte function. T-cell proliferation and T-cell activation (CD25 and CD71 expression), but not cytokine expression (TNF-alpha and IL-2), showed a trend to increase after conversion from MMF to EC-MPS. Total lymphocyte, CD2, CD3, CD4, CD8, and NK cells counts were not significantly modified.

Conclusion: This study revealed a trend to a lower immunosuppression with EC-MPS as compared to MMF in stable renal transplant patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2008.01.023DOI Listing
May 2008

Reconstitution of immunodeficient SCID/beige mice with human cells: applications in preclinical studies.

Toxicology 2008 Apr 26;246(1):18-23. Epub 2007 Oct 26.

Institute of Molecular Medicine of Rangueil (I2MR), Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Rangueil, BP 84225, 31432 Toulouse Cedex 4, France.

Experimental studies of the in vivo behaviour of human cells and tissues have become possible with the development of immunodeficient mice strains. Such mice accept readily allogeneic or xenogeneic grafts, including grafts of human cells or tissues, without rejection. In this review we describe different immunodeficient mouse strains that have been used for reconstitution by human immune cells. We subsequently go through the experience that we and others have had with reconstitution, and mention the adverse effects, in particular xenogeneic graft versus host reactions. The use of haematopoietic stem cells avoids such reactions but the immunological reconstitution may take several months. We then report the use of immunodeficient mice for the study of chronic vascular rejection of human mesenteric arteries due to cellular or humoral alloreaction. We have shown that SCID/beige mice grafted with a human artery at the place of the aorta developed a thickening of the intima of the human artery after 5-6 weeks, when they were reconstituted with spleen cells from another human donor. The thickening is mainly due to a proliferation of smooth muscle cells. The same type of lesion developed if they received injection of antibodies towards HLA class I antigens. The arteries of the mouse did not develop any lesion. The arterial lesions closely resembled those seen after clinical organ transplantation. Mice that received spleen cells from the same human donor developed little or no lesions. An important aspect of this experimental transplantation model is the possibility to test drugs that may be used in clinical transplantation. In recent experiments we have shown that novel immunosuppressive drugs can inhibit the hyperproliferation of smooth muscle cells in vitro. Preclinical testing in reconstituted SCID/beige mice grafted with human arteries will permit the evaluation of the potential use of these drugs to prevent chronic vascular rejection. The model also allows pharmacodynamic studies that give information on the biological impact of different drugs that may be used in experimental or clinical transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tox.2007.10.017DOI Listing
April 2008