Publications by authors named "Chunyao Tao"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Methyl viologen-templated zinc gallophosphate zeolitic material with dual photo-/thermochromism and tuneable photovoltaic activity.

Chem Sci 2015 May 5;6(5):2922-2927. Epub 2015 Mar 5.

State Key Laboratory of Inorganic Synthesis and Preparative Chemistry , College of Chemistry , Jilin University , Changchun 130012 , P. R. China . Email: ; Email: ; ; Tel: +86 431 8516 8608.

A novel zinc gallophosphate zeolitic material |(CHN)F|[GaZn(PO)] (denoted as JU101) has been prepared by using generated methyl viologen (MV) as the template. The framework of JU101 features two building units including an unprecedented fused d6r and a novel [4·6·8·10] cavity. The connection of these two building units forms a 3D intersecting pore system containing 8-rings along the [010] direction, and 10-rings along the [001] and [100] directions. The MV-templated JU101 zeolitic material offers a new type of electron transfer system, which endows the material with interesting photochromism, thermochromism, and tuneable photovoltaic activity in response to light and heating. Importantly, JU101 shows an extended photochromism range from UV to visible light, high thermal stability, as well as a long-lived charge-separated state for potential application in solar energy conversion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c5sc00291eDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5490056PMC
May 2015

Selenium speciation using capillary electrophoresis coupled with modified electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry after selective extraction with 5-sulfosalicylic acid functionalized magnetic nanoparticles.

J Chromatogr A 2015 May 30;1395:173-9. Epub 2015 Mar 30.

Key Laboratory for the Chemistry and Molecular Engineering of Medicinal Resources (Ministry of Education of China), School of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004, China.

A new method for selenium speciation in fermented bean curd wastewater and juice was described. This method involved sample extraction with 5-sulfosalicylic acid (SSA)-functionalized silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles (SMNPs), capillary electrophoresis (CE) separation, and online detection with a modified electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) system. The modified interface for ETAAS allowed for the introduction of CE effluent directly through the end of the graphite tube. Elimination of the upper injection hole of the graphite tube reduced the loss of the anlayte and enhanced the detection sensitivity. The SSA-SMNPs were synthesized and used to extract trace amounts of selenite [Se(IV)], selenite [Se(VI)], selenomethionine (SeMet), and selenocystine (SeCys2) from dilute samples. The concentration enrichment factors for Se(VI), Se(IV), SeMet, and SeCys2 were 21, 29, 18, and 12, respectively, using the SSA-SMNPs extraction. The limits of detection for Se(VI), Se(IV), SeMet, and SeCys2 were 0.18, 0.17, 0.54, 0.49ngmL(-1), respectively. The RSD values (n=6) of method for intraday were observed between 0.7% and 2.9%. The RSD values of method for interday were less than 3.5%. The linear range of Se(VI) and Se(IV) were in the range of 0.5-200ngmL(-1), and the linear ranges of SeMet and SeCys2 were 2-500 and 2-1000ngmL(-1), respectively. The detection limits of this method were improved by 10 times due to the enrichment by the SSA-SMNP extraction. The contents of Se(VI) and Se(IV) in fermented bean curd wastewater were measured as 3.83 and 2.62ngmL(-1), respectively. The contents of Se(VI), Se(IV), SeMet, and SeCys2 in fermented bean curd juice were determined as 6.39, 4.08, 2.77, and 4.00ngmL(-1), respectively. The recoveries were in the range of 99.14-104.5% and the RSDs (n=6) of recoveries between 0.82% and 3.5%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2015.03.061DOI Listing
May 2015

Differential regulation of the Hippo pathway by adherens junctions and apical-basal cell polarity modules.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2015 Feb 26;112(6):1785-90. Epub 2015 Jan 26.

Departments of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Program in Genes and Development, The University of Texas Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Houston, TX 77030; Vlaams Instituut voor Biotechnologie Center for the Biology of Disease and Katholieke Universiteit Leuven Center for Human Genetics, University of Leuven, 3000 Leuven, Belgium; and

Adherens junctions (AJs) and cell polarity complexes are key players in the establishment and maintenance of apical-basal cell polarity. Loss of AJs or basolateral polarity components promotes tumor formation and metastasis. Recent studies in vertebrate models show that loss of AJs or loss of the basolateral component Scribble (Scrib) cause deregulation of the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway and hyperactivation of its downstream effectors Yes-associated protein (YAP) and Transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ). However, whether AJs and Scrib act through the same or independent mechanisms to regulate Hippo pathway activity is not known. Here, we dissect how disruption of AJs or loss of basolateral components affect the activity of the Drosophila YAP homolog Yorkie (Yki) during imaginal disc development. Surprisingly, disruption of AJs and loss of basolateral proteins produced very different effects on Yki activity. Yki activity was cell-autonomously decreased but non-cell-autonomously elevated in tissues where the AJ components E-cadherin (E-cad) or α-catenin (α-cat) were knocked down. In contrast, scrib knockdown caused a predominantly cell-autonomous activation of Yki. Moreover, disruption of AJs or basolateral proteins had different effects on cell polarity and tissue size. Simultaneous knockdown of α-cat and scrib induced both cell-autonomous and non-cell-autonomous Yki activity. In mammalian cells, knockdown of E-cad or α-cat caused nuclear accumulation and activation of YAP without overt effects on Scrib localization and vice versa. Therefore, our results indicate the existence of multiple, genetically separable inputs from AJs and cell polarity complexes into Yki/YAP regulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1420850112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4330745PMC
February 2015

Ultrasonic microdialysis coupled with capillary electrophoresis electrochemiluminescence study the interaction between trimetazidine dihydrochloride and human serum albumin.

Anal Chim Acta 2014 Dec 13;851:37-42. Epub 2014 Aug 13.

Key Laboratory for the Chemistry and Molecular Engineering of Medicinal Resources (Ministry of Education of China), School of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004, China. Electronic address:

The paper describes a homemade ultrasonic microdialysis device coupled with capillary electrophoresis electrochemiluminescence (CE-ECL) for studying the interaction between human serum albumin (HSA) and trimetazidine dihydrochloride (TMZ). The time required for equilibrium by ultrasonic microdialysis was 45min, which was far less than that by traditional dialysis (240min). It took 80min to achieve the required combination equilibrium by normal incubation and only 20min by ultrasonic. Compared with traditional dialysis, the use of ultrasonic microdialysis simplified experimental procedures, shortened experimental time and saved consumption of sample. A simple, sensitive and selective determination of TMZ was developed using CE-ECL and the parameters that affected ECL intensity were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the linear range of TMZ was from 0.075 to 80μmol/L (r(2)=0.9974). The detection limit was 26nmol/L with RSD of 2.8%. The number of binding sites and binding constant were 1.54 and 15.17L/mol, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2014.08.012DOI Listing
December 2014

Mask is required for the activity of the Hippo pathway effector Yki/YAP.

Curr Biol 2013 Feb 17;23(3):229-35. Epub 2013 Jan 17.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

The Drosophila Yorkie (Yki) protein and its mammalian homolog Yes-associated protein (YAP) are potent growth promoters, and YAP overexpression is associated with multiple types of cancer. Yki and YAP are transcriptional coactivators and function as downstream effectors of the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway. The regulation of Yki and YAP by the Hippo signaling pathway has been extensively investigated; however, how they regulate gene expression is poorly understood. To identify additional regulators of Yki activity, we performed a genome-wide RNAi screen in Drosophila S2 cells. In this screen, we identified the conserved protein Mask (Multiple ankyrin repeats single KH domain) as a novel promoter of Yki activity in vitro and validated this function in vivo in Drosophila. We found that Mask is required downstream of the Hippo pathway for Yki to induce target-gene expression and that Mask forms complexes with Yki. The human Mask homolog MASK1 complexes with YAP and is required for the full activity of YAP. Additionally, elevated MASK1 expression is associated with worsened outcomes for breast cancer patients. We conclude that Mask is a novel cofactor for Yki/YAP required for optimal Yki/YAP activity during development and oncogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2012.12.033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4089957PMC
February 2013

Tumor suppression by cell competition through regulation of the Hippo pathway.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2012 Jan 21;109(2):484-9. Epub 2011 Dec 21.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and Program in Genes and Development, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Homeostatic mechanisms can eliminate abnormal cells to prevent diseases such as cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms of this surveillance are poorly understood. Here we investigated how clones of cells mutant for the neoplastic tumor suppressor gene scribble (scrib) are eliminated from Drosophila imaginal discs. When all cells in imaginal discs are mutant for scrib, they hyperactivate the Hippo pathway effector Yorkie (Yki), which drives growth of the discs into large neoplastic masses. Strikingly, when discs also contain normal cells, the scrib(-) cells do not overproliferate and eventually undergo apoptosis through JNK-dependent mechanisms. However, induction of apoptosis does not explain how scrib(-) cells are prevented from overproliferating. We report that cell competition between scrib(-) and wild-type cells prevents hyperproliferation by suppressing Yki activity in scrib(-) cells. Suppressing Yki activation is critical for scrib(-) clone elimination by cell competition, and experimental elevation of Yki activity in scrib(-) cells is sufficient to fuel their neoplastic growth. Thus, cell competition acts as a tumor-suppressing mechanism by regulating the Hippo pathway in scrib(-) cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1113882109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3258595PMC
January 2012

Modulating F-actin organization induces organ growth by affecting the Hippo pathway.

EMBO J 2011 May 10;30(12):2325-35. Epub 2011 May 10.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.

The Hippo tumour suppressor pathway is a conserved signalling pathway that controls organ size. The core of the Hpo pathway is a kinase cascade, which in Drosophila involves the Hpo and Warts kinases that negatively regulate the activity of the transcriptional coactivator Yorkie. Although several additional components of the Hippo pathway have been discovered, the inputs that regulate Hippo signalling are not fully understood. Here, we report that induction of extra F-actin formation, by loss of Capping proteins A or B, or caused by overexpression of an activated version of the formin Diaphanous, induced strong overgrowth in Drosophila imaginal discs through modulating the activity of the Hippo pathway. Importantly, loss of Capping proteins and Diaphanous overexpression did not significantly affect cell polarity and other signalling pathways, including Hedgehog and Decapentaplegic signalling. The interaction between F-actin and Hpo signalling is evolutionarily conserved, as the activity of the mammalian Yorkie-orthologue Yap is modulated by changes in F-actin. Thus, regulators of F-actin, and in particular Capping proteins, are essential for proper growth control by affecting Hippo signalling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/emboj.2011.157DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3116287PMC
May 2011

The apical-basal cell polarity determinant Crumbs regulates Hippo signaling in Drosophila.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2010 Sep 23;107(36):15810-5. Epub 2010 Aug 23.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, 77030, USA.

Defects in apical-basal cell polarity and abnormal expression of cell polarity determinants are often associated with cancer in vertebrates. In Drosophila, abnormal expression of apical-basal determinants can cause neoplastic phenotypes, including loss of cell polarity and overproliferation. However, the pathways through which apical-basal polarity determinants affect growth are poorly understood. Here, we investigated the mechanism by which the apical determinant Crumbs (Crb) affects growth in Drosophila imaginal discs. Overexpression of Crb causes severe overproliferation, and we found that loss of Crb similarly results in overgrowth of imaginal discs. Crb gain and loss of function caused defects in Hippo signaling, a key signaling pathway that controls tissue growth in Drosophila and mammals. Manipulation of Crb levels caused the up-regulation of Hippo target genes, genetically interacted with known Hippo pathway components, and required Yorkie, a transcriptional coactivator that acts downstream in the Hippo pathway, for target gene induction and overgrowth. Interestingly, Crb regulates growth and cell polarity through different motifs in its intracellular domain. A juxtamembrane FERM domain-binding motif is responsible for growth regulation and induction of Hippo target gene expression, whereas Crb uses a PDZ-binding motif to form a complex with other polarity factors. The Hippo pathway component Expanded, an apically localized adaptor protein, is mislocalized in both crb mutant cells and Crb overexpressing tissues, whereas the other Hippo pathway components, Fat and Merlin, are unaffected. Taken together, our data show that Crb regulates growth through Hippo signaling, and thus identify Crb as a previously undescribed upstream input into the Hippo pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1004060107DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2936591PMC
September 2010

The Hippo tumor-suppressor pathway regulates apical-domain size in parallel to tissue growth.

J Cell Sci 2009 Jul 16;122(Pt 14):2351-9. Epub 2009 Jun 16.

Program in Developmental Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

The Hippo tumor-suppressor pathway controls tissue growth in Drosophila and mammals by regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis. The Hippo pathway includes the Fat cadherin, a transmembrane protein, which acts upstream of several other components that form a kinase cascade that culminates in the regulation of gene expression through the transcriptional coactivator Yorkie (Yki). Our previous work in Drosophila indicated that Merlin (Mer) and Expanded (Ex) are members of the Hippo pathway and act upstream of the Hippo kinase. In contrast to this model, it was suggested that Mer and Ex primarily regulate membrane dynamics and receptor trafficking, thereby affecting Hippo pathway activity only indirectly. Here, we examined the effects of Mer, Ex and the Hippo pathway on the size of the apical membrane and on apical-basal polarity complexes. We found that mer;ex double mutant imaginal disc cells have significantly increased levels of apical membrane determinants, such as Crb, aPKC and Patj. These phenotypes were shared with mutations in other Hippo pathway components and required Yki, indicating that Mer and Ex signal through the Hippo pathway. Interestingly, however, whereas Crb was required for the accumulation of other apical proteins and for the expansion of the apical domain observed in Hippo pathway mutants, its elimination did not significantly reverse the overgrowth phenotype of warts mutant cells. Therefore, Hippo signaling regulates cell polarity complexes in addition to and independently of its growth control function in imaginal disc cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jcs.046482DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2704875PMC
July 2009

Boundaries of Dachsous Cadherin activity modulate the Hippo signaling pathway to induce cell proliferation.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2008 Sep 22;105(39):14897-902. Epub 2008 Sep 22.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

The conserved Hippo tumor suppressor pathway is a key signaling pathway that controls organ size in Drosophila. To date a signal transduction cascade from the Cadherin Fat at the plasma membrane into the nucleus has been discovered. However, how the Hippo pathway is regulated by extracellular signals is poorly understood. Fat not only regulates growth but also planar cell polarity, for which it interacts with the Dachsous (Ds) Cadherin, and Four-jointed (Fj), a transmembrane kinase that modulates the interaction between Ds and Fat. Ds and Fj are expressed in gradients and manipulation of their expression causes abnormal growth. However, how Ds and Fj regulate growth and whether they act through the Hippo pathway is not known. Here, we report that Ds and Fj regulate Hippo signaling to control growth. Interestingly, we found that Ds/Fj regulate the Hippo pathway through a remarkable logic. Induction of Hippo target genes is not proportional to the amount of Ds or Fj presented to a cell, as would be expected if Ds and Fj acted as traditional ligands. Rather, Hippo target genes are up-regulated when neighboring cells express different amounts of Ds or Fj. Consistent with a model that differences in Ds/Fj levels between cells regulate the Hippo pathway, we found that artificial Ds/Fj boundaries induce extra cell proliferation, whereas flattening the endogenous Ds and Fj gradients results in growth defects. The Ds/Fj signaling system thus defines a cell-to-cell signaling mechanism that regulates the Hippo pathway, thereby contributing to the control of organ size.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0805201105DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2567464PMC
September 2008

Lethal giant discs, a novel C2-domain protein, restricts notch activation during endocytosis.

Curr Biol 2006 Nov 9;16(22):2228-33. Epub 2006 Nov 9.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

The Notch signaling pathway plays a central role in animal growth and patterning, and its deregulation leads to many human diseases, including cancer. Mutations in the tumor suppressor lethal giant discs (lgd) induce strong Notch activation and hyperplastic overgrowth of Drosophila imaginal discs. However, the gene that encodes Lgd and its function in the Notch pathway have not yet been identified. Here, we report that Lgd is a novel, conserved C2-domain protein that regulates Notch receptor trafficking. Notch accumulates on early endosomes in lgd mutant cells and signals in a ligand-independent manner. This phenotype is similar to that seen when cells lose endosomal-pathway components such as Erupted and Vps25. Interestingly, Notch activation in lgd mutant cells requires the early endosomal component Hrs, indicating that Hrs is epistatic to Lgd. These data suggest that Lgd affects Notch trafficking between the actions of Hrs and the late endosomal component Vps25. Taken together, our data identify Lgd as a novel tumor-suppressor protein that regulates Notch signaling by targeting Notch for degradation or recycling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2006.09.031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2683616PMC
November 2006

The fat cadherin acts through the hippo tumor-suppressor pathway to regulate tissue size.

Curr Biol 2006 Nov 21;16(21):2090-100. Epub 2006 Sep 21.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

Background: The Hippo tumor-suppressor pathway has emerged as a key signaling pathway that controls tissue size in Drosophila. Merlin, the Drosophila homolog of the human Neurofibromatosis type-2 (NF2) tumor-suppressor gene, and the related protein Expanded are the most upstream components of the Hippo pathway identified so far. However, components acting upstream of Expanded and Merlin, such as transmembrane receptors, have not yet been identified.

Results: Here, we report that the protocadherin Fat acts as an upstream component in the Hippo pathway. Fat is a known tumor-suppressor gene in Drosophila, and fat mutants have severely overgrown imaginal discs. We found that the overgrowth phenotypes of fat mutants are similar to those of mutants in Hippo pathway components: fat mutant cells continued to proliferate after wild-type cells stopped proliferating, and fat mutant cells deregulated Hippo target genes such as cyclin E and diap1. Fat acts genetically and biochemically upstream of other Hippo pathway components such as Expanded, the Hippo and Warts kinases, and the transcriptional coactivator Yorkie. Fat is required for the stability of Expanded and its localization to the plasma membrane. In contrast, Fat is not required for Merlin localization, and Fat and Merlin act in parallel in growth regulation.

Conclusions: Taken together, our data identify a cell-surface molecule that may act as a receptor of the Hippo signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2006.09.005DOI Listing
November 2006

The bantam microRNA is a target of the hippo tumor-suppressor pathway.

Curr Biol 2006 Oct 31;16(19):1895-904. Epub 2006 Aug 31.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

Background: The Hippo tumor-suppressor pathway has emerged as a key signaling pathway that controls tissue size in Drosophila. Hippo signaling restricts tissue size by promoting apoptosis and cell-cycle arrest, and animals carrying clones of cells mutant for hippo develop severely overgrown adult structures. The Hippo pathway is thought to exert its effects by modulating gene expression through the phosphorylation of the transcriptional coactivator Yorkie. However, how Yorkie regulates growth, and thus the identities of downstream target genes that mediate the effects of Hippo signaling, are largely unknown.

Results: Here, we report that the bantam microRNA is a downstream target of the Hippo signaling pathway. In common with Hippo signaling, the bantam microRNA controls tissue size by regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis. We found that hippo mutant cells had elevated levels of bantam activity and that bantam was required for Yorkie-driven overgrowth. Additionally, overexpression of bantam was sufficient to rescue growth defects of yorkie mutant cells and to suppress the cell death induced by Hippo hyperactivation. Hippo regulates bantam independently of cyclin E and diap1, two other Hippo targets, and overexpression of bantam mimics overgrowth phenotypes of hippo mutant cells.

Conclusions: Our data indicate that bantam is an essential target of the Hippo signaling pathway to regulate cell proliferation, cell death, and thus tissue size.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2006.08.057DOI Listing
October 2006

The tumour-suppressor genes NF2/Merlin and Expanded act through Hippo signalling to regulate cell proliferation and apoptosis.

Nat Cell Biol 2006 Jan 11;8(1):27-36. Epub 2005 Dec 11.

Program in Developmental Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Merlin, the protein product of the Neurofibromatosis type-2 gene, acts as a tumour suppressor in mice and humans. Merlin is an adaptor protein with a FERM domain and it is thought to transduce a growth-regulatory signal. However, the pathway through which Merlin acts as a tumour suppressor is poorly understood. Merlin, and its function as a negative regulator of growth, is conserved in Drosophila, where it functions with Expanded, a related FERM domain protein. Here, we show that Drosophila Merlin and Expanded are components of the Hippo signalling pathway, an emerging tumour-suppressor pathway. We find that Merlin and Expanded, similar to other components of the Hippo pathway, are required for proliferation arrest and apoptosis in developing imaginal discs. Our genetic and biochemical data place Merlin and Expanded upstream of Hippo and identify a pathway through which they act as tumour-suppressor genes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncb1339DOI Listing
January 2006

Hippo promotes proliferation arrest and apoptosis in the Salvador/Warts pathway.

Nat Cell Biol 2003 Oct 21;5(10):914-20. Epub 2003 Sep 21.

Program in Developmental Biology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas 77030, USA.

Proliferation and apoptosis must be precisely regulated to form organs with appropriate cell numbers and to avoid tumour growth. Here we show that Hippo (Hpo), the Drosophila homologue of the mammalian Ste20-like kinases, MST1/2, promotes proper termination of cell proliferation and stimulates apoptosis during development. hpo mutant tissues are larger than normal because mutant cells continue to proliferate beyond normal tissue size and are resistant to apoptotic stimuli that usually eliminate extra cells. Hpo negatively regulates expression of Cyclin E to restrict cell proliferation, downregulates the Drosophila inhibitor of apoptosis protein DIAP1, and induces the proapoptotic gene head involution defective (hid) to promote apoptosis. The mutant phenotypes of hpo are similar to those of warts (wts), which encodes a serine/threonine kinase of the myotonic dystrophy protein kinase family, and salvador (sav), which encodes a WW domain protein that binds to Wts. We find that Sav binds to a regulatory domain of Hpo that is essential for its function, indicating that Hpo acts together with Sav and Wts in a signalling module that coordinately regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncb1050DOI Listing
October 2003

Shar-pei mediates cell proliferation arrest during imaginal disc growth in Drosophila.

Development 2002 Dec;129(24):5719-30

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, M. D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

During animal development, organ size is determined primarily by the amount of cell proliferation, which must be tightly regulated to ensure the generation of properly proportioned organs. However, little is known about the molecular pathways that direct cells to stop proliferating when an organ has attained its proper size. We have identified mutations in a novel gene, shar-pei, that is required for proper termination of cell proliferation during Drosophila imaginal disc development. Clones of shar-pei mutant cells in imaginal discs produce enlarged tissues containing more cells of normal size. We show that this phenotype is the result of both increased cell proliferation and reduced apoptosis. Hence, shar-pei restricts cell proliferation and promotes apoptosis. By contrast, shar-pei is not required for cell differentiation and pattern formation of adult tissue. Shar-pei is also not required for cell cycle exit during terminal differentiation, indicating that the mechanisms directing cell proliferation arrest during organ growth are distinct from those directing cell cycle exit during terminal differentiation. shar-pei encodes a WW-domain-containing protein that has homologs in worms, mice and humans, suggesting that mechanisms of organ growth control are evolutionarily conserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/dev.00168DOI Listing
December 2002