Publications by authors named "Chunbo Li"

220 Publications

Application of the multi-domain relevant outcome measure for Alzheimer's Disease in Chinese population.

Authors:
Chunbo Li

Int Psychogeriatr 2021 Jul 19:1-4. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Professor, PI, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic Disorders, Vice President, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Institute of Mental Health, Professor of Psychiatry, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Email:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1041610221001034DOI Listing
July 2021

Neurocognitive assessments are more important among adolescents than adults for predicting psychosis in clinical high risk.

Biol Psychiatry Cogn Neurosci Neuroimaging 2021 Jul 15. Epub 2021 Jul 15.

Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic Disorders, Shanghai 200030, PR China; CAS Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology (CEBSIT), Chinese Academy of Science, PR China; Brain Science and Technology Research Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.

Background: Few studies have examined the effects of age on neurocognition to predict conversion to psychosis in individuals with clinical high-risk(CHRs). This study aimed to compare the extent and predictive performance of cognitive deficits between adolescents and adults with CHR.

Methods: A comprehensive neuropsychological battery was performed on 325 CHRs and 365 healthy controls(HCs). The subjects were first divided into 189 CHR adolescents(age 12-17 years), 136 CHR adults(age 18-45 years), 88 HC adolescents, and 277 HC adults. CHR subjects were then divided into converters(CHR-Cs: adolescents[n=43]; adults[n=34]) and non-converters(CHR-NCs: adolescents [n=146], adults [n=102]) based on their 2-year follow-up clinical status.

Results: The adolescent and adult CHRs performed significantly worse than their control groups on all the neurocognitive tests, except for performance on the continuous performance test in adolescents. In the comparison between adolescents and adults, patterns of neurocognitive deficits seemed to vary in HCs, rather than in CHRs. In the comparison between CHRs and HCs, the rank order of effect sizes across the neurocognitive tests was similar for the top two tests of symbol coding and verbal learning. Comparison between CHR-Cs and CHR-NCs revealed that adolescent CHR-Cs performed significantly worse than CHR-NCs on seven of eight neurocognitive tests; however, adult CHR-Cs performed significantly worse than CHR-NCs only in the visuospatial memory test.

Conclusions: The role of neurocognitive dysfunction may have different patterns and weights during the onset of psychosis in adolescent and adult CHRs, implicating the development of specific strategies that could monitor and improve cognitive function in adolescents with CHR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpsc.2021.06.015DOI Listing
July 2021

Prevalence and dynamic features of psychological issues among Chinese healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic: a systematic review and cumulative meta-analysis.

Gen Psychiatr 2021 6;34(3):e100344. Epub 2021 May 6.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic Disorders, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has placed tremendous pressure on healthcare workers who are at the frontline in the battle against it, causing various forms of psychological distress.

Aims: To outline the prevalence and dynamic changing features of medical workers' psychological issues and to review the related national policies during the COVID-19 pandemic in China.

Methods: We systematically searched for studies on the psychological states of Chinese medical staff from 1 January 2020 to 8 May 2020. The aggregate prevalence of each psychological issue was calculated and plotted to observe the changes over time. Policies on psychological support for medical staff during the pandemic were reviewed to explore their link to the prevalence of psychological problems.

Results: In total, 26 studies were included in this study. A total of 22 062 medical workers were surveyed from 31 January to 27 February 2020. Medical staff exhibited a substantial prevalence of anxiety symptoms, depression symptoms, stress-related symptoms and sleep problems during the survey period, with aggregate prevalence rates of 27.0%, 26.2%, 42.1% and 34.5%, respectively. Cumulative meta-analyses revealed that the prevalence of psychological distress peaked at the beginning of the pandemic and subsequently exhibited a slow downward trend.

Conclusion: Chinese medical staff displayed significant psychological disturbance during the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, which was especially severe at the early stage. Implementing supportive policies may help alleviate ongoing psychological problems in healthcare workers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gpsych-2020-100344DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8103554PMC
May 2021

A potential objective marker in first-episode schizophrenia based on abnormal niacin response.

Schizophr Res 2021 Jun 26. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic Disorders, Shanghai 200030, PR China. Electronic address:

The lack of objective diagnostic markers has long been a challenge in the clinical management of schizophrenia (SZ). The current bivariate cut-offs method is an objective quantification of niacin skin flush abnormality (NFA) for identifying the SZ subgroup. However, the sensitivity of approximately 30% limits the application of NFA as a marker for detecting SZ. A laser Doppler flowmeter was employed to test the niacin skin-flushing response in 123 patients with first-episode psychosis including first-episode SZ (FES, n = 82) and psychotic bipolar disorders (PBP, n = 41), and non-psychiatric comparisons (NPC, n = 80). We modified the bivariate cut-offs using a combination of the niacin concentration corresponding to the half-maximal blood flow response (EC) and a new quantitative indicator called the overall trend area (OTA). The NFA used this study method predicted FES in the NPC group with 57% sensitivity, 89% specificity, and 73% accuracy compared to the 28% sensitivity, 91% specificity, and 59% accuracy of the existing method. This novel method could discern FES from the PBP group with an accuracy of 62%, compared with the 45% of the old method. In addition, we also discuss whether the bivariate cut-offs were occasional by adjusting the cut-offs threshold. The experimental results showed that the sensitivity and specificity were most stable when using the study method. The study indicates that NFA using modified bivariate cut-offs may be a potential objective marker in FES, and the niacin skin test could be feasible for early diagnosis and treatment of SZ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2021.06.028DOI Listing
June 2021

Femtosecond laser patterned superhydrophobic/hydrophobic SERS sensors for rapid positioning ultratrace detection.

Opt Express 2021 May;29(11):16904-16913

Ultratrace molecular detections are vital for precancer diagnosis, forensic analysis, and food safety. Superhydrophobic (SH) surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensors are regarded as an ideal approach to improve detection performance by concentrating analyte molecules within a small volume. However, due to the low adhesion of SH surfaces, the analyte droplet is prone to rolling, making it hard to deposit molecules on a predetermined position. Furthermore, the sediment with a very small area on the SH-SERS surface is difficult to be captured even with a Raman microscope. In this study, femtosecond laser fabricated hybrid SH/hydrophobic (SH/HB) surfaces are successfully applied to realize a rapid and highly sensitive SERS detection. By modulating dual surface structures and wetting behaviors, the analyte molecules can be enriched at the edge of HB pattern. This improves the convenience and speed of Raman test. On a hybrid SH/HB SERS substrate with a circular HB pattern at 300-µm-diameter, a femtomolar level (10 M) of rhodamine 6G can be detected by using analyte volumes of just 5 µL. The SERS enhancement factor can reach 5.7×10 and a good uniformity with a relative standard deviation of 6.98% is achieved. Our results indicate that the laser fabrication of hybrid SERS sensor offers an efficient and cost-effective approach for ultratrace molecular detection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.423789DOI Listing
May 2021

Different Modulatory Effects of Cognitive Training and Aerobic Exercise on Resting State Functional Connectivity of Entorhinal Cortex in Community-Dwelling Older Adults.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 31;13:655245. Epub 2021 May 31.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic Disorders, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

The entorhinal cortex (EC) plays an essential role in age-related cognitive decline. However, the effect of functional connectivity (FC) changes between EC and other cerebral cortices on cognitive function remains unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the modulation of two interventions (cognitive training and aerobic exercise) on EC-FC in community-dwelling older adults. In total, 94 healthy older adults aged between 65 and 75 years were assigned to either the cognitive training or aerobic exercise group to receive 24 sessions over 12 weeks, or to a control group. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed at both baseline and 12-month follow-up. Compared to the cognitive training group, the aerobic exercise group showed greater EC-FC in the bilateral middle temporal gyrus, right supramarginal gyrus, left angular gyrus, and right postcentral gyrus. Compared to the control group, the cognitive training group had a decreased EC-FC in the right hippocampus, right middle temporal gyrus, left angular gyrus, and right postcentral gyrus and an increased EC-FC in the bilateral pallidum, while the aerobic exercise group showed increased EC-FC between the right medial prefrontal cortex(mPFC), bilateral pallidum, and right precuneus. Baseline EC-FC in the mPFC was positively correlated with the visuospatial/constructional index score of the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status. In the cognitive training group, EC-FC value changes in the right hippocampus were negatively correlated with changes in the RBANS delayed memory index score, while in the aerobic exercise group, EC-FC value changes in the left angular gyrus were positively correlated with changes in the RBANS attention index score. These findings support the hypothesis that both cognitive training and aerobic exercise can modulate EC-FC in aging populations but through different neural pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2021.655245DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8200543PMC
May 2021

Magnetic seizure therapy for treatment-resistant depression.

Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021 06 16;6:CD013528. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of EEG Source Imaging, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Background: Magnetic seizure therapy (MST) is a potential alternative to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Reports to date on use of MST for patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD) are limited.

Objectives: To evaluate the effects of MST in comparison with sham-MST, antidepressant, and other forms of electric or magnetic treatment for adults with TRD.

Search Methods: In March 2020, we searched a wide range of international electronic sources for published, unpublished, and ongoing studies. We handsearched the reference lists of all included studies and relevant systematic reviews and conference proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ACNP), the Annual Scientific Convention and Meeting, and the Annual Meeting of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ECNP) to identify additional studies.

Selection Criteria: All randomised clinical trials (RCTs) focused on MST for adults with TRD.

Data Collection And Analysis: Two review authors extracted data independently. For binary outcomes, we calculated risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). For continuous data, we estimated mean differences (MDs) between groups and 95% CIs. We employed a random-effects model for analyses. We assessed risk of bias for included studies and created a 'Summary of findings' table using the GRADE approach. Our main outcomes of interest were symptom severity, cognitive function, suicide, quality of life, social functioning, dropout for any reason, serious adverse events, and adverse events that led to discontinuation of treatment.

Main Results: We included three studies (65 participants) comparing MST with ECT. Two studies reported depressive symptoms with the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD). However, in one study, the data were skewed and there was an imbalance in baseline characteristics. Analysis of these two studies showed no clear differences in depressive symptoms between treatment groups (MD 0.71, 95% CI -2.23 to 3.65; 2 studies, 40 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Two studies investigated multiple domains of cognitive function. However most of the outcomes were not measured by validated neuropsychological tests, and many of the data suffered from unbalanced baseline and skewed distribution. Analysis of immediate memory performance measured by the Wechsler Memory Scale showed no clear differences between treatment groups (MD 0.40, 95% CI -4.16 to 4.96; 1 study, 20 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Analysis of delayed memory performance measured by the Wechsler Memory Scale also showed no clear differences between treatment groups (MD 2.57, 95% CI -2.39 to 7.53; 1 study, 20 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Only one study reported quality of life, but the data were skewed and baseline data were unbalanced across groups. Analysis of quality of life showed no clear differences between treatment groups (MD 14.86, 95% CI -42.26 to 71.98; 1 study, 20 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Only one study reported dropout and adverse events that led to discontinuation of treatment. Analysis of reported data showed no clear differences between treatment groups for this outcome (RR 1.38, 95% CI 0.28 to 6.91; 1 study, 25 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Adverse events occurred in only two participants who received ECT (worsening of preexisting coronary heart disease and a cognitive adverse effect). None of the included studies reported outcomes on suicide and social functioning. No RCTs comparing MST with other treatments were identified.

Authors' Conclusions: Evidence regarding effects of MST on patients with TRD is currently insufficient. Our analyses of available data did not reveal clearly different effects between MST and ECT. We are uncertain about these findings because of risk of bias and imprecision of estimates. Large, long, well-designed, and well-reported trials are needed to further examine the effects of MST.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD013528.pub2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8205924PMC
June 2021

Diagnostic Dilemma of Retroperitoneal Schwannomas Encountered in a Specialized Gynecology Hospital.

J Invest Surg 2021 Jun 1:1-6. Epub 2021 Jun 1.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, The Obstetrics & Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Background: This study analyzed the potential diagnosis and therapeutic challenges of retroperitoneal schwannoma (RSs) in a specialized gynecology hospital.

Methods And Materials: A retrospective review was performed in our hospital from 2000 to 2018. A literature search of RSs was conducted using PubMed database.

Results: 45 patients were identified (22 from our hospital and 23 from the literature review). The majority of patients presented asymptomatic (22/45). Among them, 25 cases were misdiagnosed as adnexal cysts, 13 uterine fibroids, 1 ovarian malignancy and 6 pelvic masses. Intraoperative exploration revealed that the masses were located in the retroperitoneal space. The median diameter was 6.2 cm (range 3.0-9.8 cm) in our hospital compared with 9.3 cm (6-15 cm) in literature review. Complete resection was performed in 37 patients and subtotal resection in 8 patients. The pathological results confirmed the diagnosis of benign schwannoma and no recurrence was found in the follow-up data.

Conclusion: The preoperative diagnosis of RSs is difficult to make because of its nonspecific characteristics. In a specialized gynecology hospital, it is more important to differentiate the benign and malignant of mass before surgery. Surgical complete resection of tumor is recommended and recurrence is unusual after complete resection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08941939.2021.1910757DOI Listing
June 2021

The Prevalence of Psychological Status During the COVID-19 Epidemic in China: A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Front Psychol 2021 4;12:614964. Epub 2021 May 4.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic Disorders, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

The COVID-19 is creating panic among people around the world and is causing a huge public mental health crisis. Large numbers of observational studies focused on the prevalence of psychological problems during the COVID-19 pandemic were published. It is essential to conduct a meta-analysis of the prevalence of different psychological statuses to insight the psychological reactions of general population during the COVID-19 epidemic in China. Sixty six observational studies about the psychological statuses of people during the COVID-19 were included, searching up to 1 December 2020. Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) was used to evaluate the quality of the included studies. OpenMeta[Analyst] was used for the data analysis. High prevalence of acute stress and fear symptoms were observed in the early period of the epidemic. Additionally, anxiety and depression symptoms continued at a high prevalence rate during the epidemic. It should alert the lasting mental health problems and the risk of post-traumatic stress disorder and other mental disorders. PROSPERO CRD 42020171485.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.614964DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8129549PMC
May 2021

Single-cell transcriptomics reveals the landscape of intra-tumoral heterogeneity and transcriptional activities of ECs in CC.

Mol Ther Nucleic Acids 2021 Jun 2;24:682-694. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai 200011, China.

Cervical cancer (CC) is the fourth leading cause of deaths in gynecological malignancies. Although the etiology of CC has been extensively investigated, the exact pathogenesis of CC remains incomplete. Recently, single-cell technologies demonstrated advantages in exploring intra-tumoral diversification among various tumor cells. However, single-cell transcriptome analysis (single-cell RNA sequencing [scRNA-seq]) of CC cells and microenvironment has not been conducted. In this study, a total of 20,938 cells from CC and adjacent normal tissues were examined by scRNA-seq. We identified four tumor cell subpopulations in tumor cells, which had specific signature genes with different biological functions and presented different prognoses. Among them, we identified a subset of cancer stem cells (CSCs) that was related to the developmental hierarchy of tumor progression. Then, we compared the expressive differences between tumor-derived endothelial cells (TECs) and normal ECs (NECs) and revealed higher expression of several metabolism-related genes in TECs. Then, we explored the potential biological function of ECs in vascularization and found several marker genes, which played a prior role in connections between cancer cells and ECs. Our findings provide valuable resources for deciphering the intra-tumoral heterogeneity of CC and uncover the developmental procedure of ECs, which paves the way for CC therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.omtn.2021.03.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8099483PMC
June 2021

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Prodromal Stage of Psychosis-Outcomes for Transition, Functioning, Distress, and Quality of Life: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Schizophr Bull 2021 May 4. Epub 2021 May 4.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic Disorders, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Objective: This study aimed to provide insight into the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral therapy for psychosis (CBTp) in patients with "clinical high risk of psychosis (CHR-P)".

Methods: Major scientific databases were searched up to April 17, 2020. Randomized controlled trials in CHR-P individuals, comparing CBTp with needs-based interventions (NBI, including treatment as usual or nonspecific control treatment) were included, following PRISMA guidelines. The primary outcome (efficacy) was transition to psychosis by 6 months, 12 months, 24 months, and over 24 months. Secondary outcomes were change in attenuated psychotic symptoms, depression, distress, improvements in functioning, and quality of life.

Results: Ten randomized controlled studies met inclusion criteria. The comparisons included 1128 participants. CBTp was significantly more efficacious in reducing rate of transition to psychosis by 6 months (after post-hoc sensitivity analysis) (relative risk [RR] = 0.44, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.26, 0.73), 12 months (RR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.30, 0.64), 12 months (RR = 0.46, 95%CI: 0.30, 0.69), and over 24 months (RR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.35, 0.95) after treatment, compared with those receiving NBI. CBTp was also associated with more reduced attenuated psychotic symptoms by 12 months (SMD = -0.17, 95% CI: -0.33, -0.02) and by 24 months (SMD = -0.24, 95% CI: -0.43, -0.06). No beneficial effects on functioning, depression, quality of life, or distress were observed favoring CBTp.

Conclusions: CBTp is effective in reducing both psychosis transition rates and attenuated psychotic symptoms for the prodromal stage of psychosis. It is a promising intervention at the preventative stage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbab044DOI Listing
May 2021

Development and Validation of a Nomogram Based on Motoric Cognitive Risk Syndrome for Cognitive Impairment.

Front Aging Neurosci 2021 16;13:618833. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic Disorders, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Objective: To develop and validate a prediction nomogram based on motoric cognitive risk syndrome for cognitive impairment in healthy older adults.

Methods: Using two longitudinal cohorts of participants (aged ≥ 60 years) with 4-year follow-up, we developed ( = 1,177) and validated ( = 2,076) a prediction nomogram. LASSO (least absolute shrinkage and selection operator) regression model and multivariable Cox regression analysis were used for variable selection and for developing the prediction model, respectively. The performance of the nomogram was assessed with respect to its calibration, discrimination, and clinical usefulness.

Results: The individualized prediction nomogram was assessed based on the following: motoric cognitive risk syndrome, education, gender, baseline cognition, and age. The model showed good discrimination [Harrell's concordance index (C-index) of 0.814; 95% confidence interval, 0.782-0.835] and good calibration. Comparable results were also seen in the validation cohort, which includes good discrimination (C-index, 0.772; 95% confidence interval, 0.776-0.818) and good calibration. Decision curve analysis demonstrated that the prediction nomogram was clinically useful.

Conclusion: This prediction nomogram provides a practical tool with all necessary predictors, which are accessible to practitioners. It can be used to estimate the risk of cognitive impairment in healthy older adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2021.618833DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8086554PMC
April 2021

Functional Connectome Prediction of Anxiety Related to the COVID-19 Pandemic.

Am J Psychiatry 2021 06 26;178(6):530-540. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Key Laboratory of Cognition and Personality of Ministry of Education, Faculty of Psychology, Southwest University, Chongqing, China (He, Wei, W. Yang, Zhuang, Q. Chen, Ren, Y. Li, Wang, Mao, Z. Chen, Q. He, Lei, T. Feng, H. Chen, Qiu); Guangdong Mental Health Center, Guangdong Provincial People's Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou, China (F. Yang); Institute of Science and Technology for Brain-Inspired Intelligence, Fudan University, Shanghai, China (Zhang, Cheng, J. Feng); Department of Psychiatry, the Second Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, China (Liao, Su, L. Li,); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic Disorders, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China (Cui, C. Li); Department of Neurology, First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China (Xie); Oxford Center for Computational Neuroscience, Oxford, U.K. (Rolls); Department of Computer Science, University of Warwick, Coventry, U.K. (Rolls); and Southwest University Branch, Collaborative Innovation Center of Assessment Toward Basic Education Quality, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China (Qiu).

Objective: Increased anxiety in response to the COVID-19 pandemic has been widely noted. The purpose of this study was to test whether the prepandemic functional connectome predicted individual anxiety induced by the pandemic.

Methods: Anxiety scores from healthy undergraduate students were collected during the severe and remission periods of the pandemic (first survey, February 22-28, 2020, N=589; second survey, April 24 to May 1, 2020, N=486). Brain imaging data and baseline (daily) anxiety ratings were acquired before the pandemic. The predictive performance of the functional connectome on individual anxiety was examined using machine learning and was validated in two external undergraduate student samples (N=149 and N=474). The clinical relevance of the findings was further explored by applying the connectome-based neuromarkers of pandemic-related anxiety to distinguish between individuals with specific mental disorders and matched healthy control subjects (generalized anxiety disorder, N=43; major depression, N=536; schizophrenia, N=72).

Results: Anxiety scores increased from the prepandemic baseline to the severe stage of the pandemic and remained high in the remission stage. The prepandemic functional connectome predicted pandemic-related anxiety and generalized to the external sample but showed poor performance for predicting daily anxiety. The connectome-based neuromarkers of pandemic-related anxiety further distinguished between participants with generalized anxiety and healthy control subjects but were not useful for diagnostic classification in major depression and schizophrenia.

Conclusions: These findings demonstrate the feasibility of using the functional connectome to predict individual anxiety induced by major stressful events (e.g., the current global health crisis), which advances our understanding of the neurobiological basis of anxiety susceptibility and may have implications for developing targeted psychological and clinical interventions that promote the reduction of stress and anxiety.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2020.20070979DOI Listing
June 2021

Author Correction: Effects of multi-domain cognitive training on working memory retrieval in older adults: behavioral and ERP evidence from a Chinese community study.

Sci Rep 2021 Apr 23;11(1):9271. Epub 2021 Apr 23.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic Disorders, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 600 Wan Ping Nan Road, Shanghai, 200030, People's Republic of China.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-88990-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8065114PMC
April 2021

Effects of off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting on clinical efficacy, cardiac function and the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events in patients with coronary heart disease.

Am J Transl Res 2021 15;13(3):1742-1749. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

The First Department of Cardiac Surgery, Tangshan Gongren Hospital Tangshan, Hebei Province, China.

Objective: To explore the effects of off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPC) on clinical efficacy, cardiac function and the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in patients with coronary heart disease.

Methods: According to different surgical methods, 93 patients with coronary heart disease who were hospitalized and treated in our hospital were collapsed into the off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting group (OPC group) and the extracorporeal circulation coronary artery bypass grafting group (PC group). The perioperative indexes, cardiac function indexes, postoperative recovery, quality of life, the incidence of MACE and adverse reactions and the survival rate of patients in PC group and OPC group were analyzed and compared.

Results: Compared with the PC group, the operation time and blood transfusion volume of OPC group were both largely decreased (P<0.05), but the number of bypass grafts was similar (P>0.05). The cardiac function index of OPC group was much higher than that of PC group (P<0.05). The postoperative recovery after operation of OPC group was better than that of PC group (P<0.05). The scores of quality of life scale in OPC group were markedly higher than those in PC group (P<0.05). The incidence of MACE in OPC group was obviously lower than that in PC group (P<0.05). Patients in in the OPC group had slightly lower incidence of adverse reactions, and slightly higher survival rate than the PC group, but there was no statistical difference (P>0.05).

Conclusion: Compared with PC, OPC has a significantly better therapeutic effect on patients with coronary heart disease, which can significantly improve the perioperative indices and cardiac function, and enhance the quality of life of patients.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8014410PMC
March 2021

An update on the prevalence of eating disorders in the general population: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Eat Weight Disord 2021 Apr 8. Epub 2021 Apr 8.

Shanghai Yangpu District Central Hospital, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Objective: To update the prevalence of eating disorders in the general population before 2021 and to analyze the distribution characteristics at different times and in different regions and sexes, as well as the diagnostic criteria.

Methods: Based on the method from a previous report by the authors, studies were identified from the following databases: PubMed/Medline, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Knowledge, Ovid and the 4 most important Chinese databases. Articles in English and Chinese before 2021 were retrieved. The data retrieved at this time were pooled with the data from a previous report for analyses.

Results: Thirty-three studies were identified, which included 18 studies supplemented in this retrieval. The pooled lifetime and 12-month prevalence of eating disorders were 0.91% (95% CI, 0.48-1.71) and 0.43% (95% CI, 0.18-0.78), respectively. The pooled lifetime and 12-month prevalence of the subgroup EDs (any), which covers all types of eating disorders, were 1.69% and 0.72%, respectively. The lifetime prevalence of AN, BN and BED was 0.16% (95% CI, 0.06-0.31), 0.63% (95% CI, 0.33-1.02) and 1.53% (95% CI, 1.00-2.17), respectively. The lifetime prevalence of EDs in Western countries was 1.89%, and was high at 2.58% in females. Prevalence studies using DSM-5 criteria were scarce.

Conclusions: The prevalence of eating disorders might be underestimated thus far. Not all types of EDs were included in a majority of epidemiological surveys, and the prevalence rates of the new types of EDs were significantly higher. Eating disorders were especially common in Western countries and in females. New diagnostic criteria should be used to comprehensively assess all types of eating disorders.

Level Of Evidence: 1, systematic review and meta-analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40519-021-01162-zDOI Listing
April 2021

Autistic traits and negative emotions in the general population during COVID-19: Mediating roles of the behavioural immune system and COVID-19 risk perception.

Psychiatry Res 2021 06 1;300:113918. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic Disorders, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China; Institute of Psychology and Behavioral Science, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

Identifying the susceptibility factors of the emotional response to COVID-19 is highly significant for the psychological epidemic-crisis intervention, and autistic-related traits (ATs) is likely to be one of the candidate factors. The current study explored the relationships between ATs, emotional response to COVID-19, and the behavioural immune system (BIS) measured by trait pathogen avoidance and COVID-19 risk perception in the general population. The results showed that ATs predicted increased negative emotions directly and indirectly by enhancing the activation tendency of BIS and COVID-19 risk perception. The findings provide a candidate hypothesis for the reaction characteristics to pathogen threats in individuals with ASD and expand the understanding of individual differences in response to COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2021.113918DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8015391PMC
June 2021

Predicting cognitive function based on physical performance: findings from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study.

Aging Clin Exp Res 2021 Mar 7. Epub 2021 Mar 7.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic Disorders, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 600 Wan Ping Nan Road, Shanghai, 200030, China.

Background: Physical performance tests are simple means of predicting an individual's risk of cognitive decline.

Aims: This study aimed to assess the predictive value of physical performance tests and develop predictive models for cognitive function.

Methods: Cognitive function was tested biennially and calculated for mental intactness, episodic memory, and global cognition. Using a generalized estimating equation (GEE), we examined each baseline physical performance test as a predictor of cognitive decline. Using a multivariate linear regression model (MLRM), we developed predictive models for cognitive function. Bland-Altman analysis was performed to analyze the agreement between estimated and measured cognition. We validated the predictive model internally with 1000 bootstrap resamples.

Results: Better physical performance test results, except for standing balance, were associated with a slower cognitive decline over time and better cognitive function at follow-up. Regarding the predictive models, all physical performance tests were included in men; only five chair stands test was included in women. Bland-Altman analysis showed that measured cognition was equivalent to estimated cognition in men (mean bias, 0; 95% limits of agreement, - 8.56 to 8.56) and women (mean bias, 0; 95% limits of agreement - 8.79 to 8.7). Bootstrap analysis showed that predictors were selected in 78.4-100% for men and 64.5-100% for women.

Discussion: Bland-Altman and bootstrap analysis demonstrated good agreement and stability of the predictive models.

Conclusions: Physical performance tests are simple, easily obtainable, and clinically relevant markers for cognitive function with aging; predictive models based on physical performance can be used to predict cognitive function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40520-021-01810-5DOI Listing
March 2021

Conflict Processing in Schizophrenia: Dissociable neural mechanisms revealed by the N2 and frontal midline theta.

Neuropsychologia 2021 05 18;155:107791. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, 200030, China. Electronic address:

Deficits in executive control have long been regarded as one of the hallmark cognitive characteristics in people with schizophrenia (SZ), and current neurocognitive models of SZ generally regard the dysfunctional anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) as the possible neural mechanism. This however, contrasts with recent studies showing that conflict processing, a key component of executive functions that relies on ACC, remains relatively intact in SZ. The current study aimed to investigate this issue through two well-known electrophysiological signatures of conflict processing that have been suggested to originate from ACC, i.e., the N2 component of event-related potentials (ERPs) and frontal midline theta (FMθ) oscillations. We recorded 64-channel scalp electroencephalography from 29 SZ (17 women; mean age: 30.4 years) and 31 healthy control subjects (HC; 17 women; mean age: 29.1 years) performing a modified flanker task. Behavioral data revealed no significant differences in flanker conflict effects (lower accuracy and longer reaction times in incongruent trials than in congruent trials) between HC and SZ. Trial-averaged ERP and spectral analysis suggested that both N2 and FMθ were significantly impaired in SZ relative to HC. Furthermore, by sorting incongruent trials according to their reaction times within individual subjects, we found that the trial-by-trial modulation of N2 (larger amplitude and longer latency in slower trials) which was observed and localized in ACC for HC was totally absent for SZ. By contrast, the trial-by-trial modulation of FMθ (larger power in slower trials) was observed and localized in ACC for both groups, despite a smaller magnitude in SZ, which suggested that FMθ, not N2, might serve as the neural substrate of conflict processing in SZ. Taken together, our results enrich the current neurocognitive models of SZ by revealing dissociable neural responses between N2 and FMθ during conflict processing in SZ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2021.107791DOI Listing
May 2021

Individualized risk components guiding antipsychotic delivery in patients with a clinical high risk of psychosis: application of a risk calculator.

Psychol Med 2021 Feb 17:1-10. Epub 2021 Feb 17.

Institute of Psychology and Behavioral Science, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, PR China.

Background: Antipsychotics are widely used for treating patients with psychosis, and target threshold psychotic symptoms. Individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis are characterized by subthreshold psychotic symptoms. It is currently unclear who might benefit from antipsychotic treatment. Our objective was to apply a risk calculator (RC) to identify people that would benefit from antipsychotics.

Methods: Drawing on 400 CHR individuals recruited between 2011 and 2016, 208 individuals who received antipsychotic treatment were included. Clinical and cognitive variables were entered into an individualized RC for psychosis; personal risk was estimated and 4 risk components (negative symptoms-RC-NS, general function-RC-GF, cognitive performance-RC-CP, and positive symptoms-RC-PS) were constructed. The sample was further stratified according to the risk level. Higher risk was defined based on the estimated risk score (20% or higher).

Results: In total, 208 CHR individuals received daily antipsychotic treatment of an olanzapine-equivalent dose of 8.7 mg with a mean administration duration of 58.4 weeks. Of these, 39 (18.8%) developed psychosis within 2 years. A new index of factors ratio (FR), which was derived from the ratio of RC-PS plus RC-GF to RC-NS plus RC-CP, was generated. In the higher-risk group, as FR increased, the conversion rate decreased. A small group (15%) of CHR individuals at higher-risk and an FR >1 benefitted from the antipsychotic treatment.

Conclusions: Through applying a personal risk assessment, the administration of antipsychotics should be limited to CHR individuals with predominantly positive symptoms and related function decline. A strict antipsychotic prescription strategy should be introduced to reduce inappropriate use.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291721000064DOI Listing
February 2021

miR-140-5p inhibits the proliferation, migration and invasion of vascular smooth muscle cells by suppressing the expression of NCKAP1.

Folia Histochem Cytobiol 2021 9;59(1):22-29. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Cardiovascular Surgery, Tangshan Gongren Hospital, Tangshan, Hebei Province, 063000, China.

Introduction: The occurrence of aortic dissection is related to the proliferation and metastasis of vascular smooth muscle cells. In our present study, we found that the expression of miR-140-5p was inhibited in the wall of abdominal aorta of aortic dissection patients. However, the mechanism of miR-140-5p in the development of aortic dissection is unclear.

Material And Methods: We detected the expression of miR-140-5p and NCK Associated Protein 1 (NCKAP1) in blood vessel of aortic dissection patients and normal people by PCR. Next, we established the miR-140-5p overexpression and miR-140-5p inhibition vascular smooth muscle cells (CRL-1999 cells). The BrdU assays, wound healing assays and transwell assays were performed to detect the proliferation and invasion ability of these cells. Finally, luciferase reporter assay was performed to detect the relationship between miR-140-5p and NCKAP1.

Results: The expression of miR-140-5p was suppressed in blood vessel of aortic dissection patients, and the levels of NCKAP1 in those tissues were upregulated. Overexpression of miR-140-5p inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of vascular smooth muscle cells. miR-140-5p targeted and suppressed the expression of NCKAP1.

Conclusions: miR-140-5p repressed the proliferation, migration and invasion of vascular smooth muscle cells by targeting and inhibiting the expression of NCKAP1. Furthermore, the results of our study suggest new strategies and targets for the clinical treatment of arterial dissection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5603/FHC.a2021.0003DOI Listing
February 2021

Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Improving Cognitive Function in Patients With Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Systematic Review.

Front Aging Neurosci 2020 14;12:593000. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic Disorders, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an early stage of Alzheimer's disease. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been widely employed in MCI research. However, there is no reliable systematic evidence regarding the effects of rTMS on MCI. The aim of this review was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of rTMS in the treatment of MCI. A comprehensive literature search of nine electronic databases was performed to identify articles published in English or Chinese before June 20, 2019. The identified articles were screened, data were extracted, and the methodological quality of the included trials was assessed. The meta-analysis was performed using the RevMan 5.3 software. We used the GRADE approach to rate the quality of the evidence. Nine studies comprising 369 patients were included. The meta-analysis showed that rTMS may significantly improve global cognitive function (standardized mean difference [SMD] 2.09, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.94 to 3.24, = 0.0004, seven studies, = 296; low-quality evidence) and memory (SMD 0.44, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.72, = 0.002, six studies, = 204; moderate-quality evidence). However, there was no significant improvement in executive function and attention ( > 0.05). Subgroup analyses revealed the following: (1) rTMS targeting the left hemisphere significantly enhanced global cognitive function, while rTMS targeting the bilateral hemispheres significantly enhanced global cognitive function and memory; (2) high-frequency rTMS significantly enhanced global cognitive function and memory; and (3) a high number of treatments ≥20 times could improve global cognitive function and memory. There was no significant difference in dropout rate ( > 0.05) between the rTMS and control groups. However, patients who received rTMS had a higher rate of mild adverse effects (risk ratio 2.03, 95% CI 1.16 to 3.52, = 0.01, seven studies, = 317; moderate-quality evidence). rTMS appears to improve global cognitive function and memory in patients with MCI and may have good acceptability and mild adverse effects. Nevertheless, these results should be interpreted cautiously due to the relatively small number of trials, particularly for low-frequency rTMS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnagi.2020.593000DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7842279PMC
January 2021

Effects of multi-domain cognitive training on working memory retrieval in older adults: behavioral and ERP evidence from a Chinese community study.

Sci Rep 2021 01 13;11(1):1207. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic Disorders, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, 600 Wan Ping Nan Road, Shanghai, 200030, People's Republic of China.

Working memory (WM) is a fundamental cognitive function that typically declines with age. Previous studies have shown that targeted WM training has the potential to improve WM performance in older adults. In the present study, we investigated whether a multi-domain cognitive training program that was not designed to specifically target WM could improve the behavioral performance and affect the neural activity during WM retrieval in healthy older adults. We assigned healthy older participants (70-78 years old) from a local community into a training group who completed a 3-month multi-domain cognitive training and a control group who only attended health education lectures during the same period. Behavioral and electroencephalography (EEG) data were recorded from participants while performing an untrained delayed match or non-match to category task and a control task at a pre-training baseline session and a post-training follow-up session. Behaviorally, we found that participants in the training group showed a trend toward greater WM performance gains than participants in the control group. Event-related potential (ERP) results suggest that the task-related modulation of P3 during WM retrieval was significantly enhanced at the follow-up session compared with the baseline session, and importantly, this enhancement of P3 modulation was only significant in the training group. Furthermore, no training-related effects were observed for the P2 or N2 component during WM retrieval. These results suggest that the multi-domain cognitive training program that was not designed to specifically target WM is a promising approach to improve WM performance in older adults, and that training-related gains in performance are likely mediated by an enhanced modulation of P3 which might reflect the process of WM updating.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79784-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7806963PMC
January 2021

Prevalence of mild cognitive impairment in community-dwelling Chinese populations aged over 55 years: a meta-analysis and systematic review.

BMC Geriatr 2021 01 6;21(1):10. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Clinical Research Center, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shangha, China.

Background: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate phase between normal cognitive ageing and overt dementia, with amnesic MCI (aMCI) being the dominant subtype. This study aims to synthesise the prevalence results of MCI and aMCI in community-dwelling populations in China through a meta-analysis and systematic review.

Methods: The study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) protocol. English and Chinese studies published before 1 March 2020 were searched from ten electronic bibliographic databases. Two reviewers screened for relevance of the studies against the pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria and assessed the quality of the included studies using the Risk of Bias Tool independently. A random-effect model was adopted to estimate the prevalence of MCI and aMCI, followed by sub-group analyses and meta-regression. Sensitivity and publication bias tests were performed to verify the robustness of the meta-analyses.

Results: A total of 41 studies with 112,632 participants were included in the meta-analyses. The Chinese community-dwelling populations over 55 years old had a pooled prevalence of 12.2% [95% confidence interval (CI): 10.6, 14.2%] for MCI and 10.9% [95% CI, 7.7, 15.4%] for aMCI, respectively. The prevalence of MCI increased with age. The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic tool (DSM-IV) generated the highest MCI prevalence (13.5%), followed by the Petersen criteria (12.9%), and the National Institute on Aging Alzheimer's Association (NIA-AA) criteria (10.3%). Women, rural residents, and those who lived alone and had low levels of education had higher MCI prevalence than others.

Conclusion: Higher MCI prevalence was identified in community-dwelling older adult populations in China compared with some other countries, possibly due to more broadened criteria being adopted for confirming the diagnosis. The study shows that aMCI accounts for 66.5% of MCI, which is consistent with findings of studies undertaken elsewhere.

Systematic Review Registration Number: PROSPERO CRD42019134686.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12877-020-01948-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7789349PMC
January 2021

Effects of transcranial electrical stimulation on working memory in patients with schizophrenia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Psychiatry Res 2021 02 23;296:113656. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic Disorders, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China; Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology (CEBSIT), Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai, China; Institute of Psychology and Behavioral Science, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China; Brain Science and Technology Research Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China. Electronic address:

To investigate the immediate and lasting effects of transcranial electrical stimulation (tES) on working memory (WM) in schizophrenia. We performed a literature search to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the ability of tES to ameliorate WM. Twelve studies were included: 215 patients in the active stimulation group and 214 in the sham stimulation group. Meta-analysis demonstrated a significant efficacy of tES on WM in follow up, a summary of one or more assessments weeks after the last tES session (standardized mean difference (SMD) 0.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.04 to 0.62; p = 0.02; n = 190, 4 studies; I = 33%) compared to sham tES, while non-significant results were observed for WM assessed immediately after the last tES session (SMD 0.14, 95% CI -0.12 to 0.41; p = 0.30; n = 417, 11 studies; I = 41%) in schizophrenia. There was no significant difference between the two groups in tolerability and dropouts. Evidence of low quality indicates that effects of tES on WM in schizophrenia may appear a few weeks after the last tES session, but not always be present when tested immediately after the last tES session. Further large-scale RCTs with a parallel-group design, sample size estimation and a longer follow-up period are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113656DOI Listing
February 2021

The effects of cognitive training on the topological properties of brain structural network among community-dwelling older adults.

J Clin Neurosci 2021 Jan 16;83:77-82. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic Disorders, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200030, China; Brain Science and Technology Research Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030, China; Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology (CEBSIT), Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 200030, China. Electronic address:

Increased number of neuroimaging studies has revealed association between age-related cognitive decline and alterations in the architecture of brain networks, while trials consistently confirmed benefits following cognitive training in the elderly. As a consequence, the present study aimed to investigate the potential moderating role of topological properties in brain structural network on training benefits. Among 32 community-dwelling older adults, 18 were randomly assigned to the training group to receive 24 sessions of multi-domain cognitive training (MDCT) over 12 weeks, and 14 to the control group. At baseline and 12-month follow-up, diffusion tensor imaging was acquired to construct the brain structural network, and the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) and the Visual Reasoning Test (VRT) were performed to assess cognitive functions. Compared with controls, participants received MDCT achieved significant larger gain in terms of delayed memory with a trend of better global cognitive function. In addition, Sigma coefficient of small-worldness were reduced in the MDCT group relative to the control group. Correlation between changes in Sigma and in delayed memory index were found among controls, however, not among older adults received MDCT. Our results demonstrated the modulating effects of cognitive training on the small-world architecture of brain structural network. And the present study suggested a trade-off mechanism underlying the benefits of cognitive training among aged people, where brain sacrificed its cost-effectiveness of network wiring for better cognitive functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2020.11.024DOI Listing
January 2021

The effects of cognitive training on the topological properties of brain structural network among community-dwelling older adults.

J Clin Neurosci 2021 Jan 16;83:77-82. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Shanghai Key Laboratory of Psychotic Disorders, Shanghai Mental Health Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200030, China; Brain Science and Technology Research Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030, China; Center for Excellence in Brain Science and Intelligence Technology (CEBSIT), Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 200030, China. Electronic address:

Increased number of neuroimaging studies has revealed association between age-related cognitive decline and alterations in the architecture of brain networks, while trials consistently confirmed benefits following cognitive training in the elderly. As a consequence, the present study aimed to investigate the potential moderating role of topological properties in brain structural network on training benefits. Among 32 community-dwelling older adults, 18 were randomly assigned to the training group to receive 24 sessions of multi-domain cognitive training (MDCT) over 12 weeks, and 14 to the control group. At baseline and 12-month follow-up, diffusion tensor imaging was acquired to construct the brain structural network, and the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) and the Visual Reasoning Test (VRT) were performed to assess cognitive functions. Compared with controls, participants received MDCT achieved significant larger gain in terms of delayed memory with a trend of better global cognitive function. In addition, Sigma coefficient of small-worldness were reduced in the MDCT group relative to the control group. Correlation between changes in Sigma and in delayed memory index were found among controls, however, not among older adults received MDCT. Our results demonstrated the modulating effects of cognitive training on the small-world architecture of brain structural network. And the present study suggested a trade-off mechanism underlying the benefits of cognitive training among aged people, where brain sacrificed its cost-effectiveness of network wiring for better cognitive functions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2020.11.024DOI Listing
January 2021

Occult vaginal cancer recurrence after hysterectomy: a case report and literature review.

J Int Med Res 2020 Dec;48(12):300060520973901

Obstetrics and Gynecology Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Vaginal cancer is a rare disease of the lower genital tract. We present the case of a 54-year-old woman with occult vaginal cancer after hysterectomy for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) III. Despite persistently negative cytology and colposcopy results, a lesion was finally detected by vagino-recto-abdominal examination and she underwent radical parametrectomy and lymph node dissection. We consider the possibility that transabdominal suturing of the vaginal cuff after hysterectomy may reduce the ability to detect subsequent vaginal lesions, and discuss the benefits of a vaginal suture approach. We recommend that suturing the vagina apex transvaginally instead of transabdominally would benefit patients during follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0300060520973901DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7720318PMC
December 2020

Functional Characterization of Chemosensory Protein AmalCSP5 From Apple Buprestid Beetle, Agrilus mali (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

J Econ Entomol 2021 02;114(1):348-359

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas (Northwest A&F University), Yangling, Shaanxi Province, China.

In the sensitive and complex chemo-sensation system of insects, chemosensory proteins (CSPs) can facilitate the transfer of chemical information and play important roles for variable behaviors of insects. We cloned the chemosensory protein AmalCSP5 from antennae of the apple buprestid beetle (Agrilus mali Matsumura), a serious invasive pest of wild apple trees. Expression profiling showed that AmalCSP5 was expressed in various tissues, suggesting its significance in multiple physiological activities and behaviors of A. mali. AmalCSP5 was preferentially expressed in female antennae and male abdomens. AmalCSP5 was able to bind a variety of test volatiles, especially alcohols and esters. AmalCSP5 exhibited good binding affinity for all five test secondary compounds (i.e., procyanidin, phlorizin, kaemferol, chlorogenic acid, and rutin), suggesting its preferential binding abilities to nonvolatile host plant secondary metabolites and critical roles in gustatory perception of nonvolatiles. Tyr27 and Ser69 of AmalCSP5 could form hydrogen bonds with hexyl benzoate and hexyl hexanoate, respectively. Procyanidin, the best ligand among all test compounds, could form hydrogen bonds with three amino acid residues (i.e., Arg7, Leu8, and Lys41) of AmalCSP5. Thus, high ligand binding affinity for AmalCSP5 seemed to be dependent mainly on the formation of hydrogen bonds. The putative key amino acid residues of AmalCSP5 can be used as molecular targets for designing and screening new attractants and repellents for A. mali. Our results provide insights into binding interactions of AmalCSP5 with volatile and nonvolatile ligands, and a firm basis for developing eco-friendly management strategies of A. mali.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jee/toaa265DOI Listing
February 2021

Analyses of structural dynamics revealed flexible binding mechanism for the Agrilus mali odorant binding protein 8 towards plant volatiles.

Pest Manag Sci 2021 Apr 2;77(4):1642-1653. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas (Northwest A&F University), Yangling, China.

Background: Volatiles from host plants are an important source of insect pest attractants and repellents. Insect odorant binding proteins (OBPs) have been widely characterized, but the molecular binding dynamics and underlying mechanisms are still not well understood. Thus, we characterized binding characteristics of AmalOBP8 from the apple buprestid beetle (Agrilus mali Matsumura), an unprecedented serious threat to rare apple germplasm resources and local ecosystems.

Results: Fluorescence studies demonstrated that the quenching mechanism was clearly static. AmalOBP8 was found to bind with both volatiles at single independent sites. Negative thermodynamic parameters suggested that binding interactions between AmalOBP8 and both volatiles could occur spontaneously. Hydrogen bonding was the key force in AmalOBP8's binding to geranyl formate, for which the amino acid residue Trp106 played a critical role in the binding pocket. Multiple Leu residues in AmalOBP8 created a strong hydrophobic environment, and formed the binding pocket for (Z)-3-hexenyl hexanoate. Compared to classic OBPs, in addition to lack of one disulfide bridge, AmalOBP8 had a small α-helix (α7) at the C-terminus, resulting in greater flexibility and adaptability for this protein to bind with different compound molecules.

Conclusion: Key residues of AmalOBP8 in binding interactions with plant volatiles were clarified. AmalOPB8 had a large ligand binding spectrum and great flexibility in binding with plant volatiles, providing good molecular targets for screening insect attractants and repellents. Our results can promote understanding of insects' perception of various odorants, and establish a foundation for discovery of new pest control agents. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ps.6184DOI Listing
April 2021