Publications by authors named "Chun-Sheng Jia"

63 Publications

[Question and thinking on study of acupuncture-moxibustion academic school].

Zhongguo Zhen Jiu 2021 Jun;41(6):663-5

College of Acupuncture-Moxibustion and Tuina, Hebei University of TCM, Shijiazhuang 050200, China.

The concepts of acupuncture-moxibustion "academic school" "school of thought" and "school" are differentiated. It is believed that "academic school" is the general term of "school of thought" and "school". This paper puts forward a solution to the confusion of related concepts, disunity of formation conditions, disunity of divisionmethods and disunity of nomenclature. It is proposed that a great concentration should be put on the arrangement of acupuncture-moxibustion academic school and the regulation on related issues. Because of the complexity and diversity of the form and content of acupuncture-moxibustion schools, the division of them should not be so specified and the unification of related issues should not be so strictly required.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13703/j.0255-2930.20201223-k0002DOI Listing
June 2021

[Master DOU Han-qing's academic achievements in acupuncture and moxibustion].

Zhen Ci Yan Jiu 2021 May;46(5):426-30

Institute of Acupuncture-moxibustion and Massage, Hebei University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang 050200, China.

Master DOU Han-qing is one famous acupuncturist in the Jin and Yuan Dynasties of China. In consideration of his newly neatened works (,《》), (,《》) and (,《》) which were not paid enough attention in the past, we make a systematic and comprehensive summary about his academic achievements in the present paper. There are six main aspects about Dou's academic achievements: blending the essence of sages' acupuncture theories and clinical experience, correcting predecessors' mistakes; innovating the needlingmethods; expanding the clinical applications of acupoints and paying attention to combination of meridian acupoints and extra-points in clinical practice; inheriting and developing acupuncture prescriptions in the Song Dynasty, creating new diagnostic and treatment modes; initiating needling techniques of various schools in the Ming Dynasty; and describing the contents of acupuncture and moxibustion in the form of odes. Moreover, we also put forward some of our enlightenments and considerations about DOU Han-qing's academic achievements.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13702/j.1000-0607.200755DOI Listing
May 2021

[Characteristics of clinical application of electroacupuncture therapy for peripheral neuropathy based on data mining].

Zhen Ci Yan Jiu 2021 Mar;46(3):240-7

Institute of Acupuncture-moxibustion and Massage, Hebei University of Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang 050200, China.

Objective: To investigate the application characteristics of electroacupuncture (EA) in the treatment of peripheral neuropathy, so as to provide a basis for clinical use of EA therapy.

Methods: Keywords of "electroacupuncture"peripheral neuropathy" "facial paralysis" "trigeminal neuralgia" "sciatica" "common peroneal nerve injury" "diabetic peripheral neuropathy" "intercostal neuralgia" "gluteal epithelial neuritis" "ulnar nerve injury" "median nerve paralysis" "postherpetic neuralgia", and "great occipital neuralgia" were used to search articles in both English and Chinese published from 1999 to 2019 in databases of CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, CBM, Ovid, PubMed and Embase and related books such as electroacupuncture, and neurology, followed by establishing a database of "Electroacupuncture Treatment of Peripheral Neuropathy". Then, the collected articles were put into statistical analysis after sorting, screening, input, checking, and data extracting by using data mining technology and statistical software EpiData.

Results: Of the searched 1 528 papers, 778 were eligible, involving 13 types of peripheral neuropathy which the facial paralysis and facial spasm were most frequently seen, followed by trigeminal neuralgia and sciatica, with an effective rate being above 90% for nearly all the 13 diseases. The acupoints employed were chiefly those close to the affected area and distribute along the nerve trunk.In addition, about the needling techniques, the penetration needling was frequently used, and the triple needling, quintuple needling and accompanied needling were also used. Regarding the related needle manipulations, the uniform reinforcing-reduction technique was most frequently used. The duration of EA was 30 min, with a highest stimulating frequency of 50 Hz. The acupoint injection was frequently supplemented, followed by moxibustion, and the treatment sessions were usually about 30 times.

Conclusion: EA therapy is frequently used in the treatment of peripheral neuropathy, and has some characteristics in acupoint selection, stimulating parameters and some additional needling techniques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13702/j.1000-0607.200638DOI Listing
March 2021

[Comparison of different schools of hand acupuncture therapies].

Zhongguo Zhen Jiu 2020 Nov;40(11):1223-8

School of Acupuncture-Moxibustion and Tuina, Hebei University of CM, Shijiazhuang 050200, China.

The historical origin of hand acupuncture therapies were collected. The positioning method, acupuncture manipulation and dominant diseases, etc. were compared among 8 kinds of extensively used hand acupuncture schools, such as traditional hand acupuncture, Korean finger needle and 's hand image needle. It is found that the positioning method and needling method are not unified and the dominant diseases not specified. In the future study, the regimen of hand acupuncture should be optimized, the optimal holographic image, acupuncture manipulation and quantitative standards should be developed and the integration among schools should be promoted so that the relevant specifications can be formulated, national standards be developed and the application and development of hand acupuncture therapy be promoted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13703/j.0255-2930.20190828-k0007DOI Listing
November 2020

[Study on characteristics and regularity of acupuncture prescription by ].

Zhongguo Zhen Jiu 2021 Jan;41(1):105-9

College of Acupuncture-Moxibustion and Tuina, Hebei University of CM, Shijiazhuang 050200, China.

Summarized the characteristics and rules of -'s acupuncture prescription in ancient acupuncture and moxibustion literature, and provided reference for studying -'s academic thought and modern acupuncture clinic. The literature of 's acupuncture prescription was collected, sorted out and input, the database of -s acupuncture prescription was established, the frequency of acupoints in the prescription was analyzed, and the Apriori algorithm was used to analyze the rule of acupoints in the prescription. A total of 446 -s acupuncture prescriptions are included, and the maximum number of acupoints in acupuncture prescriptions is 12. The most common diseases are internal medicine syndrome, pain syndrome of head, face and body and five sense organs disease. In all the prescriptions of -, 205 acupoints are used in total, including 25 extra-meridian points. There are 7 groups of acupoint pairs with the strongest correlation in -'s acupuncture prescription, including Hegu (LI 4) - Zusanli (ST 36), Zusanli (ST 36) - Zhongwan (CV 12), Hegu (LI 4) - Quchi (LI 11), Hegu (LI 4)-Weizhong (BL 40), Quchi (LI 11) - Jianjing(GB 21), Weizhong (BL 40) - Quchi (LI 11) and Weizhong (BL 40)-Zusanli (ST 36). The principle of acupoint selection mainly includes near acupoint selection and far acupoint selection. In the method of matching acupoints, above and below the matching acupoints, this meridian matching acupoints and inner and outer meridian matching acupoints are used. pays attention to the coordination of acupuncture and moxibustion methods with acupoints and emphasizes acupuncture sequence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13703/j.0255-2930.20200703-k0002DOI Listing
January 2021

[Regularities of acupoint combinations and characteristics of core acupoint application for acupuncture-moxibustion treatment of mammary gland hyperplasia based on complex network analysis].

Zhen Ci Yan Jiu 2021 Jan;46(1):76-83

Institute of Acupuncture-moxibustion and Massage, Hebei University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang 050200, China.

Objective: To analyze the acupoint combination regularities and application characteristics of core acupoints in acupuncture-moxibustion treatment of mammary gland hyperplasia (MGH) by using complex network technology, so as to provide reliable evidence for clinical selection of acupoints and treatment ideas.

Methods: The articles related to acupuncture treatment of MGH published from January of 1981 to May of 2020 were collected from databases as China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform (Wanfang), Chinese Journal of Science and Technology of VIP (VIP), PubMed, the Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), Cochrane Library, and Web of Science and Ovid database (OVID) according to the set inclusion and exclusion criteria of the present paper and by using keywords of "mammary gland hyperplasia", "mastalgia" or "fibrocystic breast change", "breast cystic hyperplasia ", etc. plus "acupuncture", "moxibustion", etc. Then, a correlative database model was established by using SPSS Modeler 18.0 to analyze their association regularities, followed by conducting a complex network analysis with Gephi 0.9.2 software.

Results: A total of 312 eligible articles containing 343 acupoint prescriptions and 113 acupoints were collected. The total frequency of use of the 113 acupoints was 1 998. The association regularity analysis showed a top relativity between Danzhong(CV17) and Zusanli(ST36). The analysis of the complex network topology revealed that CV17, Qimen(LR14), Sanyinjiao(SP6), Taichong(LR3), ST36, Jianjing(GB21), Rugen(ST18), Wuyi(ST15), Neiguan(PC6), Ashi-points, Fenglong (SP40), Guanyuan(CV4), Taixi(KI3), Tianzong(SI11), Ganshu (BL18), and Hegu(LI14) are the core acupoints for treatment of MGH. The principle for composing acupoint prescriptions is mainly the combination of acupoints on the left and right sides, the upper and lower parts, front and back parts of the body, respectively, and those of the outer and inner meridians, and those of the same name meridians and Zangfu-organ syndrome differentiation. The needle-insertion direction is mostly toward the focus.

Conclusion: The composition of acupoint prescriptions for treating MGH with acupuncture and moxibustion is mainly based on the combination of specific acupoints among which the confluent acupoints are most frequently used, followed by the combination of acupoints distributing at the chest, back, upper and lower limbs, and the local acupoints.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13702/j.1000-0607.200696DOI Listing
January 2021

[Comparison and analysis of different schools of Chinese auricular acupuncture].

Zhongguo Zhen Jiu 2020 Dec;40(12):1363-8

College of Acupuncture-Moxibustion and Tuina, Hebei University of CM, Shijiazhuang 050200, China.

Based on the literature regarding auricular acupuncture in recent 60 years, the theoretical basis, acupuncturemethods and dominant diseases are analyzed and compared, and three major auricular acupuncture schools are proposed. The first school is the sinicized auricular acupuncture school derived from French Nogier auricular acupuncture school, which can be further divided into three branches: 's auricular acupuncture school, 's auricular acupuncture school and 's auricular acupuncture school. The second school is auricular acupuncture school inherited and developed from classical Chinese auricular acupuncture. The third school is 's auricular acupuncture school which is based on Chinese and western medical theories but different from the embryo inversion theory of Nogier auricular acupuncture school. Furthermore, the similarities and differences of the theoretical sources, the distribution characteristics of auricular points and the clinical application characteristics of different auricular acupuncture schools are analyzed, so as to provide useful reference for the clinical application, basic research and national standards of auricular acupuncture in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13703/j.0255-2930.20200404-k0006DOI Listing
December 2020

Efficacy of Intensive Acupuncture Versus Sham Acupuncture in Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Arthritis Rheumatol 2021 03 15;73(3):448-458. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Beijing University of Chinese Medicine and Beijing Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing, China.

Objective: To assess the efficacy of intensive acupuncture (3 times weekly for 8 weeks) versus sham acupuncture for knee osteoarthritis (OA).

Methods: In this multicenter, randomized, sham-controlled trial, patients with knee OA were randomly assigned to receive electroacupuncture (EA), manual acupuncture (MA), or sham acupuncture (SA) 3 times weekly for 8 weeks. Participants, outcome assessors, and statisticians were blinded with regard to treatment group assignment. The primary outcome measure was response rate, which is the proportion of participants who simultaneously achieved minimal clinically important improvement in pain and function by week 8. The primary analysis was conducted using a Z test for proportions in the modified intent-to-treat population, which included all randomized participants who had ≥1 post-baseline measurement.

Results: Of the 480 participants recruited in the trial, 442 were evaluated for efficacy. The response rates at week 8 were 60.3% (91 of 151), 58.6% (85 of 145), and 47.3% (69 of 146) in the EA, MA, and SA groups, respectively. The between-group differences were 13.0% (97.5% confidence interval [97.5% CI] 0.2%, 25.9%; P = 0.0234) for EA versus SA and 11.3% (97.5% CI -1.6%, 24.4%; P = 0.0507) for MA versus SA. The response rates in the EA and MA groups were both significantly higher than those in the SA group at weeks 16 and 26.

Conclusion: Among patients with knee OA, intensive EA resulted in less pain and better function at week 8, compared with SA, and these effects persisted though week 26. Intensive MA had no benefit for knee OA at week 8, although it showed benefits during follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.41584DOI Listing
March 2021

[Revelation and reflection of overseas acupuncture to acupuncture in China].

Zhongguo Zhen Jiu 2020 Oct;40(10):1123-7

School of Acupuncture-Moxibustion and Tuina, Hebei University of CM, Shijiazhuang 050200, China.

The development and innovation of overseas acupuncture was expounded from four aspects: meridian diagnosis and physical examination, activity of acupoint, acupuncture and moxibustion method and acupuncture level, enrichment and improvement of TCM theory and technology, and it was summarized what can be learned of principles, methods, prescriptions, acupoints and technology. On the basis of inheriting the experience of ancient acupuncture and moxibustion, the advanced experience and theory at home and abroad should be accommodated , which is helpful to better perfect and reconstruct the theoretical system of acupuncture and moxibustion, and realize the sustainable development of acupuncture and moxibustion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13703/j.0255-2930.20191118-k0006DOI Listing
October 2020

[Effect of moxibustion on inflammatory factors and oxidative stress factors in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial].

Zhongguo Zhen Jiu 2020 Sep;40(9):913-7

College of Acupuncture-Moxibustion and Tuina, Hebei Univerisity of TCM, Shijiazhuang 050091, China.

Objective: To compare the clinical efficacy between moxibustion and acupuncture for knee osteoarthritis (KOA), and to observe the effect on serum tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), interleukin-1β(IL-1β), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA).

Methods: A total of 60 patients with KOA were randomized into a moxibustion group (30 cases, 2 cases dropped off) and an acupuncture group (30 cases, 2 cases dropped off). In the aucpuncture group, acupuncture was applied at Neixiyan (EX-LE 4), Dubi (ST 35), Heding (EX-LE 2), Xuehai (SP 10), Liangqiu (ST 34), Zusanli (ST 36) and point on the affected side for 30 min.In the moxibustion group, moxibustion was adopted at knee for 60 min. The treatment was given once every two days for 4 weeks, totally 14 times. Before and after treatment, the western ontario and McMaster universities osteoarthritis index (WOMAC) score was compared, and the therapeutic effect was evaluated in the two groups. The contents of serum TNF-αand IL-1β, the activity of serum SOD and the serum level of MDA were detected in the two groups.

Results: Compared before treatment, the WOMAC scores and the contents of serum TNF-α, IL-1β and MDA after treatment were reduced (<0.05), the activity of serum SOD was increased (<0.05) in the two groups. In the moxibustion group, the WOMAC score and the contents of serum TNF-α, IL-1β and MDA after treatment were lower than the acupuncture group (<0.05), the activity of serum SOD was higher than the acupuncture group (<0.05). The total effective rate was 89.3% (25/28) in the moxibustion group, which was superior to 42.9% (12/28) in the acupuncture group (<0.05).

Conclusion: Moxibustion and acupuncture can relieve KOA symptoms, and the therapeutic effect of moxibustion is superior to acupuncture. The mechanism may be related to the reduction of serum inflammatory factor and oxidative stress factor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13703/j.0255-2930.20200310-k0011DOI Listing
September 2020

Exploration on the feasibility of moxibustion in prevention and treatment of COVID-19 from the perspective of modern medical mechanism.

World J Acupunct Moxibustion 2020 Jun 11;30(2):81-84. Epub 2020 Jun 11.

School of Acupuncture, Moxibustion and Tuina, Hebei University of Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang 050200, China, (, 050200, ).

Novel coronavirus pneumonia (COVID-19) is rampant in many countries and regions and there is no time to delay the exploration of the scheme for its prevention and control. The pathogenic characteristics of novel coronavirus and the effect of moxibustion for warming up and strengthening the antipathogenic were analyzed in this paper. From the perspective of modern medical mechanism, during the prevention and treatment of novel coronaviral infection, moxibustion may be able to prevent and treat COVID-19 by improving the body's immunity so as to conquer virus, by anti-inflammation to alleviate the inflammatory response of COVID-19 and by improving lung function to inhibit pulmonary fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wjam.2020.06.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7287468PMC
June 2020

[Comparision of therapertic effect of different acupuncture methods for knee osteoarthritis].

Zhen Ci Yan Jiu 2020 Jul;45(7):569-73

School of Acupuncture-moxibustion and Tuina, Hebei University of Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang 050091, China.

Objective: To compare the clinical efficacy of acupuncture, electroacupuncture (EA) and moxibustion in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis (KOA).

Methods: A total of eight-four patients with KOA were randomly and equally divided into acupuncture group, EA group and moxibustion group. Neixiyan (EX-LE40), Dubi (ST35), Heding (EX-LE2), Liangqiu (ST34), Xuehai (SP10), Zusanli (ST36) and Ashi-point on the affected side of the body were punctured with filiform needles or EA (2 Hz/100 Hz) for 30 min. In the moxibustion group, moxibustion was applied to the surrounding area of the affected joint for 60 min. The treatment was conducted once every other day for 4 weeks. The pain degree was assessed by using numerical rating scale (NRS) and the Western Ontario McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) scale (0-240 points) was used to evaluate the severity of KOA. The "Minimal Clinically Important Improvement (MCII)" was used to assess the therapeutic effect after the treatment.

Results: After the treatment, the scores of NRS, and the pain, stiffness, motor function and total scores of WOMAC were significantly decreased in the three groups compared with their own pre-treatment (<0.05), and were obviously lower in the EA and moxibustion groups than in the acupuncture group (<0.05), and those of the moxibustion group was notably lower than those of the acupuncture group (<0.05). Of the 28 cases in the acupuncture, EA and moxibustion groups, 11, 17 and 22 were effective, with the effective rate being 39.29%, 60.71% and 78.57%, respectively. The comprehensive therapeutic effect of the moxibustion group was significantly superior to that of the acupuncture and EA groups (<0.05).

Conclusion: All the three different kinds of acupuncture and moxibustion methods have positively regulatory effect on KOA, and moxibustion is the best for reducing the joint pain and stiffness, and improving the motor function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13702/j.1000-0607.191015DOI Listing
July 2020

[Clinical application characteristics of different acupuncture-moxibustion therapies for knee osteoarthritis in the past decade: an analysis based on data mining techniques].

Zhen Ci Yan Jiu 2020 Jun;45(6):490-4

Institute of Acupuncture-moxibustion and Massage of Hebei University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang 050200, China.

Objective: To investigate the application characteristics of different acupuncture-moxibusition (acu-moxi) therapies for knee osteoarthritis (KOA), and to provide a reference for clinical application.

Methods: Computer and data mining techniques were used to establish a database of acu-moxi therapies for KOA, and the articles on acu-moxi in the treatment of KOA in the past decade were collected, screened, entered, reviewed, and analyzed. Acu-moxi therapies for KOA were summarized in terms of treatment method, clinical effect, association between treatment method and acupoint selection, needle specifications, and depth of acupuncture.

Results: There are as many as 46 kinds of operation methods to treat knee osteoarthritis, among which moxibustion method has the highest frequency and the most operation methods. Traditional Chinese acupuncture and moxibustion technology has a significant effect on knee osteoarthritis, and the effective rate is more than 90%, among which the minimally invasive technique of traditional Chinese medicine has the highest cure rate and recovery rate. The relationship between traditional Chinese medicine operation and acupoint selection shows that the acupuncture and moxibustion therapy guided by traditional Chinese medicine theory pays more attention to acupoint selection based on syndrome differentiation, while the minimally invasive technique of traditional Chinese medicine is mostly proximal acupoint selection. The diameter of the needle with the highest usage frequency was 0.3 mm. The larger the diameter of the needle, the higher the specificity. The level of acupuncture was mostly tendon, followed by bone. The cure rate of acupuncture to bone is the highest.

Conclusion: Acupuncture and moxibustion has a significant effect in the treatment of KOA, with a profound theoretical basis; treatment of KOA should emphasize overall conditioning, and acupuncture should reach the bone and the tendon, so as to achieve a better clinical effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13702/j.1000-0607.190360DOI Listing
June 2020

[Feasibility analysis on acupuncture therapy for the treatment of Corona Virus Disease 2019 and the exploration on the application scheme].

Zhen Ci Yan Jiu 2020 May;45(5):345-50

Institute of Acupuncture Moxibustion and Massage of Hebei University of Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang 050200, China.

The situation of Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is still severe at present. In order to better fight against the epidemic and give full play to the advantages of traditional Chinese medicine, we explored the feasibility of acupuncture therapy in the intervention of COVID-19 through analyzing the relevant literature in both ancient and modern time. Additionally, we analyzed the intervention scheme of acupuncture for COVID-19 developed by China Association of Acupuncture and Moxibustion and supplemented the protocol of the intervention with auricular acupuncture. It was proposed that the advantages of acupuncture and moxibustion should be fully displayed while Chinese herbal medications have been applied in the treatment of COVID-19. During treatment, acupuncture physicians should be rationally allocated to a certain proportion so as to adequately utilize comprehensive therapeutic approaches and guarantee people's safety to the greatest extent. Eventually, the clinical therapeutic effect may be improved, the national resources be economized on and the COVID-19 epidemic be conquered early.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13702/j.1000-0607.200275DOI Listing
May 2020

[Application characteristics of abdominal acupuncture based on data mining technique].

Zhen Ci Yan Jiu 2020 Mar;45(3):237-42

Institute of Acupuncture-moxibustion and Massage, Hebei University of Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang 050200, China.

Objective: To investigate the disease spectrum and predominant diseases treated by abdominal acupuncture by data mining and analysis of journal articles on abdominal acupuncture, and to provide a reference for clinical diagnosis and treatment.

Methods: Based on the database of abdominal acupuncture established by the research group, the data mining technique was used for the analysis and extraction of the articles on abdominal acupuncture included in this study.

Results: A total of 788 original journal articles were included. Six departments and 96 disease categories, among which there were 45 internal diseases (46.84%) and 18 surgical diseases (18.75%) were involved. As for the diseases involved, cervical spondylosis had the highest frequency of 84, followed by low back and leg pain with a frequency of 77 and stroke sequela with a frequency of 67. Of all 788 studies, 519 (65.86%) used abdominal acupuncture combined with other therapies with a total frequency of 552, among which acupuncture had the highest frequency of 135 (24.46%), followed by oral administration of traditional Chinese medicine with a frequency of 81 (14.67%) and moxibustion with a frequency of 80 (14.49%). Abdominal acupuncture had a marked clinical effect in the treatment of various diseases, with the highest effective rate of 95.10% in surgical diseases.

Conclusion: Abdominal acupuncture has a wide disease spectrum and is most frequently used for the treatment of cervical spondylosis, with a marked clinical effect. Abdominal acupuncture has unique therapeutic characteristics and advantages, but it can achieve a better clinical effect when combined with other therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13702/j.1000-0607.190169DOI Listing
March 2020

[Regularity of body surface resistance at the acupoints of three yin meridians of the foot in reflecting physiological changes of the uterus].

Zhen Ci Yan Jiu 2020 Feb;45(2):157-63

Institute of Acupuncture-moxibustion and Massage of Hebei University of Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang 050091, China.

Objective: To investigate the specific regularity of body surface resistance at different acupoints of the meridians associated with the uterus in reflecting menstrual cycle by observing the change in body surface resistance at source points, cleft points, confluent points, and non-specific points of three meridians of the foot in different menstrual cycles in normal female college students, to lay a foundation for the in-depth research on the mechanism of acupoints reflecting the function of , and to provide a reference for the clinical and scientific research on the biophysical characteristics of menstrual cycle-related acupoints in normal female.

Methods: A total of 90 normal female college students were recruited. The source points, cleftpoints, confluent points, and non-specific points of three yin meridians of the foot which were located in the adjacent spinal segments of the uterus were selected, and body surface resistance was monitored for 30 consecutive minutes at the same time-points of menstrual phase, follicular phase, ovulation phase, and luteal phase to observe the change in the resistance of each acupoint during the menstrual cycle.

Results: There was no significant change in the resistance value of unilateral acupoints during the menstrual cycle (>0.05). In the same period, there was no significant difference in resistance value between unilateral three source points, three cleftpoints, different acupoints of the spleen meridian, and different acupoints of lumbar 4 dermatomere (>0.05). As for the comparison of resistance of the same acupoint at the left and right sides, Taichong (LR3) at the left side had a higher resistance value than that at the right side in the menstrual phase (<0.05); Taibai (SP3) at the left side had a higher resistance value than that at the right side in the ovulation phase (<0.05); Zhongdu (LR6) at the left side had a higher resistance value than that at the right side in the follicular phase, the ovulation phase, and the luteal phase (<0.05); Taixi (KI3), Diji (SP8), and Sanyinjiao (SP6) at the left side had a higher resistance value than those at the right side in the menstrual phase, the follicular phase, the ovulation phase, and the luteal phase (<0.05); Shuiquan (KI5) at the left side had a lower resistance value than that at the right side in these four phases (<0.05).

Conclusion: The change trend of the resistance of the acupoints at the left and right sides associated with the three yin meridians of the foot can specifically reflect the change in qi and blood in the uterus during the menstrual cycle. The change trend of the source and cleft points of the liver meridian in the menstrual phase is different from that in the other phases, and the change trend of SP3, a source point of the spleen meridian, in the ovulation phase is different from that in the other phases, which suggests the specificity of meridian points in reflecting function. The mechanism by which meridian points reflect the function of zang-fu is associated with the meridian points and the spinal cord segments of , and meanwhile, it has a specific relationship with the meridians to which meridian points belong and the attributes of acupoints.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13702/j.1000-0607.1906046DOI Listing
February 2020

[Progress of researches on electrical characteristics of meridians and acupoints in recent 10 years].

Zhen Ci Yan Jiu 2020 Jan;45(1):77-82

College of Acupuncture and Moxibustion, Hebei University of Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang 050200, China.

The electrical characteristics of meridians and acupoints have been being one of the hot topics discussed by scholars, because of many influencing factors and inconsistent research results. In the present article, we collected papers published in Chinese or English in recent 10 years from PubMed, CNKI, and VIP databases by using key words of"acupuncture"meridian"resistance"capacitance"electrodermal"and"impedance". Then, we make an analysis about its development from three aspects, 1) manifestations of electrical properties of acupoints (low dermal resistance under pathological state, imbalance between left and right sides of the synonym acupoints), 2) clinical application of acupoint electrical characteristics for diagnosis of clinical disorders and evaluation of therapeutic effect, and 3) current situations of development of meridian detection instruments based on electrical characteristics (improving stability of instruments,expansion of the detected regions and measuring time, realization of visualization, and operational automation). In the process of coming studies, we highly recommend that more attention should be paid to the acupoints' "dynamic changes", and forming a standardized research plan, strengthening domestic and international academic exchanges and cooperation are definitely necessary in order to validate the objectivity and specificity of electrical characteristics of meridians and acupoints, further expanding its clinical application.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13702/j.1000-0607.1808286DOI Listing
January 2020

Predictions of Entropy and Gibbs Energy for Carbonyl Sulfide.

ACS Omega 2019 Nov 14;4(22):20000-20004. Epub 2019 Nov 14.

State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500, Sichuan, People's Republic of China.

Many chemical and physical equilibrium conditions can be determined from minimizing the Gibbs free energies of the system. Efficient analytical representations of the entropy and Gibbs free energy of carbonyl sulfide remain elusive in the communality of science and engineering. Here, we report two analytical representations of the entropy and Gibbs free energy for carbonyl sulfide, and the prediction procedures only involve six molecular constants of the carbonyl sulfide molecule. In the temperature range from 300 to 6000 K, the average relative deviations of the predicted molar entropy and reduced Gibbs free energy values of carbonyl sulfide from the National Institute of Standards and Technology database are arrived at 0.150 and 0.189%, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.9b02950DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6882136PMC
November 2019

Thermodynamic Properties for Carbon Dioxide.

ACS Omega 2019 Nov 5;4(21):19193-19198. Epub 2019 Nov 5.

State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500, People's Republic of China.

We first report three reliable analytical expressions of the entropy, enthalpy and Gibbs free energy of carbon dioxide (CO) and perform predictions of these three thermodynamic quantities on the basis of the proposed analytical expressions and in terms of experimental values of five molecular constants for CO. The average relative deviations of the calculated values from the National Institute of Standards and Technology database over the temperature range from 300 to 6000 K are merely 0.053, 0.95, and 0.070%, respectively, for the entropy, enthalpy, and Gibbs free energy. The present predictive expressions are away from the utilization of plenty of experimental spectroscopy data and are applicable to treat CO capture and storage processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.9b02488DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6868907PMC
November 2019

Thermodynamic Properties of Gaseous Carbon Disulfide.

ACS Omega 2019 Oct 19;4(14):16121-16124. Epub 2019 Sep 19.

Petroleum Engineering School and State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500, People's Republic of China.

Efficient analytical representations of the thermodynamic properties for carbon disulfide remain open challenges in the communality of science and engineering. We present two analytical representations of the entropy and Gibbs free energy for gaseous carbon disulfide which we find to be of satisfactory accuracy and convenient for future use. The proposed two analytical representations merely rely on five molecular constants of the carbon disulfide molecule and avoid applications of a large number of experimental spectroscopy data. In the temperature range from 300 to 6000 K, the average relative deviations of the predicted molar entropy and reduced Gibbs free energy values from the National Institute of Standards and Technology database are 0.250 and 0.108%, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.9b02303DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6777084PMC
October 2019

[Exploration of dominant diseases and clinical application characteristics of wrist-ankle acupuncture therapy based on data mining technology].

Zhongguo Zhen Jiu 2019 Jun;39(6):673-8

College of Acupuncture-Moxibustion and Tuina, Hebei University of CM, Shijiazhuang 050020, China.

Objective: To analyze the literature regarding wrist-ankle acupuncture therapy by data mining technology, and the dominant diseases of wrist-ankle acupuncture therapy were summarized to provide reference for evaluation of specificity effect of wrist-ankle acupuncture therapy.

Methods: The journal articles regarding wrist-ankle acupuncture therapy from the CNKI, WANFANG, and VIP since January 1, 1975 to December 31, 2017, and the medical cases regarding wrist-ankle acupuncture therapy in - and were retrieved. Based on the disease types of wrist-ankle acupuncture therapy in the journal articles and medical cases, the association rules method of data mining technology was applied to calculate frequent itemsets. The self-developed database platform for wrist-ankle acupuncture therapy was used to extract and summarize the information to explore the rules of clinical application.

Results: The scope of disease involved a total of 7 disease entities in the literature regarding wrist-ankle acupuncture therapy. In the journal articles, there were 83 disease types and the most common surgical diseases were soft tissue injury and periarthritis of shoulder, the frequency were 34 and 24 times respectively. The total effective rates of wrist-ankle acupuncture therapy were 92.74% in internal medicine, 91.39% in surgery, 91.51% in gynecology, 90.88% in dermatology, 96.20% in pediatric, 89.05% in ophthalmology and otorhinolaryngology and 88.78% in psychiatry. In the medical cases of wrist-ankle acupuncture therapy, there were 118 disease types and the most common diseases were pain and syndrome, herpes zoster was also a common disease. Psychiatric diseases used more wrist-ankle acupuncture therapy, and the common diseases were anxiety and mania.

Conclusion: Wrist-ankle acupuncture therapy is widely used in treatment of clinical diseases and has significant therapeutic effects. It is mostly used in the treatment of surgery, internal medicine (neurology particularly), dermatology (herpes zoster particularly). Besides, the wrist-ankle acupuncture therapy is also applicable in the treatment of diseases of ophthalmology and otorhinolaryngology, gynecology, pediatric and psychiatry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13703/j.0255-2930.2019.06.029DOI Listing
June 2019

[Features of clinical application of eye acupuncture therapy revealed by data mining].

Zhen Ci Yan Jiu 2019 May;44(5):377-82

School of Acupuncture-moxibustion and Massage, Hebei College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang 050200, China.

Objective: To investigate the features, dominant indications and application regularities of eye acupuncture therapy in clinical practice.

Methods: We first collected original articles, academic dissertations, conference articles, and case reports from databases of CNKI, Wanfang, and Chinese biomedical literature (CBM) from Jan. 1 of 1980 to Dec. 31 of 2017, and medical records from medical books of Zhonghua Yan Zhen (), Yanzhen Shijian Lu (), and Peng Jing-shan's Yanzhen Liaofa Yanjiu () by using keyword of "eye acupuncture". Then, we established an "Eye-acupuncture Database" after sorting, screening, typing-in, checking, and extraction of the collected data by SQL server 2005 and 2005 Analysis Services (SASS), followed by analysis of the dominant indications, needling methods, needle manipulations, principles for acupoint selection, and clinical effect.

Results: Among the 850 articles retrieved, 178 were eligible to be subjected to analysis, including 42 disorders/diseases in 7 categories. The eye acupuncture therapy has the highest application frequency for 19 types of disorders/diseases of the internal medicine, such as sequela of apoplexy, hiccup, insomnia, vertigo, hypertension, etc., followed by head and body pain (7 types: headache, lumbago, sciatica, shoulder pain, etc.), disorders of the ophthalmology and otorhinolaryngology (deafness, squinting eyes, dry eye syndrome, amblyopia, etc.), traumatic injury, gynecopathy, acute pain (biliary colic, renal colic). The effect rate was 95.87% for disorders of the gynecopathy, 95.54% for head and body pain, 94.53% for traumatic skin injury, 92.16% for emergency, 91.98% for disorders of the five sense organs, 91.43% for problems of the internal medicine, etc. Regarding the principle of acupoint selection, acupoints were chosen mainly according to the meridian running (146 articles), local region of the eye (14 articles) and diseased location (153 articles). A total of 157 articles have a marked description about the needling methods, including horizontal needling (81 articles), intra-orbital straight needling (22 articles), extra-orbital oblique needling (13 articles), etc. The duration of needle retaining was mostly from 15 to 30 minutes, and the handle-scraping was frequently adopted (34 articles), and the overall treatment frequency ranged from 11 to 20 times. In regard to the medical records, a total of 53 types of disorders were involved, including 37 types of the internal medicine such as stroke sequelae (34 articles), facial paralysis (11 articles), etc. The acupoints were selected according to the local region of eye (129 articles), the needle insertion involved horizontal needling (102 articles), and cured rate reported was higher than 90%.

Conclusion: Eye acupuncture therapy is widely used for a variety of disorders and has a positive effect, particularly for stroke sequelae and various acute and chronic pain problems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13702/j.1000-0607.180495DOI Listing
May 2019

Correction to: Efficacy of electro-acupuncture and manual acupuncture versus sham acupuncture for knee osteoarthritis: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

Trials 2019 04 10;20(1):204. Epub 2019 Apr 10.

School of Acupuncture-Moxibustion and Tuina, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Fengtai District, Beijing, China.

After publication of the original article [1], the authors have notified us that the Trial registration number NCT03274713 should be replaced by NCT03366363 in the Abstract section of the paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-019-3338-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6457001PMC
April 2019

[Regularities of clinical application of hand acupuncture therapy to treatment of various diseases based on data mining].

Zhen Ci Yan Jiu 2019 Mar;44(3):220-5

Department of Public Course Education, Hebei University of Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang 050200, China.

Objective: To explore the regularities of clinical application of hand acupuncture therapy to the treatment of diseases of different departments by using data mining technique, so as to provide a reference for clinical practice.

Methods: We searched papers, academic dissertations and case reports (published in journals from Jan 1, 1953 to December 31, 2017) from databases of China National Knowledge Internet (CNKI), VIP, and Wanfang, and also searched papers from medical books about hand acupuncture treatment of different diseases/illness by using keywords of "hand acupuncture" and "hand acupoints", followed by constructing a database after sorting, screening, recording, extracting, and statistical analysis by using a computer. Then, the data mining was conducted for summarizing the characteristics and rules of the hand acupuncture therapy in clinical application.

Results: The hand acupuncture therapy in Chinese medical journals was found to be applied to various clinical departments, with the frequency from high to low successively being 16 types of diseases (37.21%) in the surgery, 15 diseases (34.88%) in the internal medicine, 2 diseases (4.65%) in the pediatrics, 8 diseases (18.60%) in the ophthalmology-otorhinolaryngology, 1 disease (2.33%) in the genecology and 1 disease (2.33%) in the dermatology. In the treatment of diseases, the cure plus markedly effective rate of hand acupuncture was found to be highest for diseases of the pediatrics (90.65%), and was 88.45% surgery, 78.06% internal medicine, 89.96% ophthalmology-otorhinolaryngology, 60.61% gynecology, and 67.73% dermatology, respectively. When hand acupuncture used, the acupoints of the hand region on both sides, healthy side and affected side were often selected, and movement exercise was often used in combination, particularly for problems of the surgery. In the collected medical records and 6 acupuncture books, the hand acupuncture was employed for treatment of 34 and 123 kinds of diseases or problems, respectively, with the tissue injury, lumbocrural pain being most frequently seen in the records, and abdominal pain, lumbocrural, chest obstruction, etc. most frequently seen in the acupuncture books.

Conclusion: Hand acupuncture therapy is widely used in the treatment of many clinical problems of different departments, such as tissue injury, leg pain, etc. of the surgery; abdominal pain, asthma, etc. of the internal medicine; infantile enuresis, diarrhea, etc. of the pediatrics. Acupoints of the hand on the unilateral side are frequently employed and may have a better therapeutic effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13702/j.1000-0607.180237DOI Listing
March 2019

[Deep acupuncture of Lianquan (CV23) and Yifeng (TE17) in combination with conventional acupuncture of other acupoints is superior to swallowing rehabilitation training in improving post-stroke dysphagia in apoplexy patients].

Zhen Ci Yan Jiu 2019 Feb;44(2):144-7

Hebei College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang 050091.

Objective: To observe the therapeutic effect of acupuncture therapy in the treatment of dysphagia in apoplexy patients.

Methods: A total of 104 patients with post-stroke dysphagia were randomized into a control (conventional swallowing rehabilitation training) group and an acupuncture group (= 52 cases in each one). In the control group, the conventional swallowing rehabilitation training was conducted, twice daily, 6 times a week for 4 weeks. In the acupuncture group, deep needling of main acupoints Lianquan (CV23) and Yifeng (TE17), and conventional acupuncture of adjuvant acupoints as Fengchi (GB20) and Fengfu (GV16), Wangu (GB12), Lieque (LU7), Jinjin (EX-HN12), Yuye (EX-HN13), etc. as well as electroacupuncture stimulation (15-20 Hz, 5 mA, and duration of 30 min) of ipsilateral CV23-GV16, TE17-GB20, and bilateral Neidaying acupoints were conducted. The acupuncture treatment was given once daily, 6 times a week for consecutive 4 weeks. In addition, patients of the two groups also received routine symptomatic treatment with drugs for anti-platelet aggregation, nourishing cranial nerve, lowering blood pressure, controlling blood glucose, improving cerebral circulation, etc. Before and after the treatment, the standard swallowing assessment (SSA, 18-46 points) and Kubota water swallowing test (WST, 1-5 grades) were conducted to evaluate the patient's swallowing function. The comprehensive therapeutic effect was assessed in accordance with the SSA and Kubota WST, and adverse reactions were recorded.

Results: After the treatment, the SSA score was considerably reduced in the two groups relevant to their own pre-treatment (both <0.05), and was significantly lower in the acupuncture group than in the control group (<0.05). The Kubota WST grade was evidently increased in the number of patients with grade Ⅰ (<0.05) and reduced in the numbers of patients with grade Ⅲ-Ⅴ in both groups relevant to their own pre-treatment, and was more patients with grade Ⅰ in the acupuncture group than in the control group (<0.05). Outcomes of the comprehensive therapeutic effect indicated that of the two 52 cases in the control and acupuncture groups, 8 (15.38%) and 19 (36.53%) were cured, 7 (13.46%) and 15 (28.45%) had marked improvement, 17 (32.69%) and 12 (23.08%) were effective, and 20 (38.46%) and 6 (11.54%) failed in the treatment, with the effective rate being 61.54% and 88.46%, respectively. The total effective rate of the acupuncture group was significantly higher than that of the control group (<0.05). The adverse reactions such as regional hematoma (in 3 cases) and pain (in 2 cases) in the acupuncture group, and choking-coughing in the control group were seen, being 9.62% and 11.54% in the incidence rate, respectively.

Conclusion: Deep needling of main acupoints Lianquan (CV23) and Yifeng (TE 17) in combination with conventional acupuncture of other acupoints is effective in improving local glossopharyngeal function in apoplexy patients with dysphagia, which is obviously superior to conventional swallowing rehabilitation training in the therapeutic effect and is applicable in clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13702/j.1000-0607.180018DOI Listing
February 2019

Efficacy of electro-acupuncture and manual acupuncture versus sham acupuncture for knee osteoarthritis: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

Trials 2019 01 25;20(1):79. Epub 2019 Jan 25.

School of Acupuncture-Moxibustion and Tuina, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Fengtai District, Beijing, China.

Background: Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders. Although the available evidence for its efficacy is inconclusive, acupuncture is used as an alternative therapy for KOA. The aim of this trial is to determine the efficacy of electro-acupuncture and manual acupuncture versus sham acupuncture for KOA.

Methods/design: This is a study protocol for a randomised, three-arm, multicentre, clinical trial. A total of 480 patients with KOA will be randomly assigned to the electro-acupuncture group, the manual acupuncture group or the sham acupuncture group in a 1:1:1 ratio. All patients will receive 24 sessions over 8 weeks. Participants will complete the trial by visiting the research centre at week 26 for a follow-up assessment. The primary outcome is the success rate: the proportion of patients achieving a minimal clinically important improvement, which is defined as ≥2 points on the numerical rating scale and ≥6 points on the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) function score at week 8 compared with baseline. Secondary outcomes include the numerical rating scale, WOMAC score, global patient assessment and quality of life at weeks 4, 8, 16 and 26 after randomisation.

Discussion: This trial may provide high-quality evidence for the efficacy of acupuncture in the treatment of KOA. The results of this study will be published in peer-reviewed journals.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03274713 . Registered on 20 November 2017.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-018-3138-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6347816PMC
January 2019

[Comparison of Therapeutic Effects Between Thermosensitive Moxibustion and Medication in the Treatment of Insomnia of Liver- Stagnation Pattern].

Zhen Ci Yan Jiu 2018 Sep;43(9):573-5

School of Acupuncture-moxibustion and Massage, Hebei College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang 050020.

Objective: To compare the therapeutic effect of thermosensitive moxibustion (TSM) and medication in the treatment of insomnia patients with the syndrome of stagnation of liver-.

Methods: A total of 60 insomnia patients with the syndrome of liver-qi stagnation were randomly divided into TSM group and medication group ( = 30 in each). Mild moxibustion was applied to bilateral Taichong (LR 3) and Qiuxu (GB 40) alternatively till the patient experienced an intense warmth (diathermic, heat transmission, etc.) feeling in the local region. The treatment was conducted once daily for 15 d. Patients of the medication group were ordered to take Estazolam tablets (1 mg/d) 1 h before sleeping, once daily for successive 15 days. The sleep quality (sleeping quality, falling asleep time, sleep duration, sleep efficiency, sleep disorders, hyponotic and day time dysfunction, 0-21 points) was evaluated by using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The therapeutic effect was assessed in accordance with the "Guide Principles for Clinical Trials on New Drugs of Chinese Materia Medica (1993)" and international united sleep efficiency value.

Results: Following the treatment, the PSQI of both groups were significantly decreased relevant to their own pre-treatment (<0.05), but without significant difference between the two groups (>0.05). Of the two 30 cases in the medication and moxibustion groups, 12 (40.00%) and 20 (66.67%) had marked improvement, 7 (23.33%) and 6 (20.00%) were effective, and 11(36.67%) and 4 (13.33%) were invalid, with the effective rates being 63.33 % (19/30) and 86.67% (26/30), respectively. The effective rate of the TSM group was significantly higher than that of the medicine group (P <0.05).

Conclusion: Thermosensitive moxibustion applied to the source points of the Liver and Gallbladder Meridians can improve the quality of sleep in insomnia patients with syndrome of liver-qi stagnation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13702/j.1000-0607.170765DOI Listing
September 2018

[Data Mining-revealed Characteristics of Clinical Application of Scalp Acupuncture].

Zhen Ci Yan Jiu 2018 Mar;43(3):199-203

Library, Hebei University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang 050091.

Objective: To explore the regularity and characteristics of clinical application of scalp acupuncture therapy for different types of clinical conditions so as to provide a reference for clinical practice.

Methods: In the present study, "head acupuncture" and"scalp acupuncture" were used as the keywords to search papers and academic dissertations having definite standards for diagnosis and therapeutic effect assessment and published in journals and academic conferences collected in database China National Knowledge Internet(CNKI) from January 1 of 1959 to December 31 of 2016, followed by constructing a database after sorting, screening, recording, extracting, and statistical analysis by using a computer. Then, the data mining was conducted for summarizing the indications of disease categories, involved medical departments, needle-insertion methods, needle manipulation techniques, academic schools, and clinical efficacy of scalp acupuncture therapy.

Results: As a result, a total of 587 papers met our including criteria were analyzed. The scalp acupuncture therapy was widely employed in the treatment of various clinical conditions of different departments, with the application frequency being the internal medicine (438 times), surgery (75 times), pediatrics (44 times), etc. Of the indicated 102 types of clinical problems, 55 belong to the internal medicine, constituting of 53.92%, particularly the cerebral apoplexy and its sequelae with the top application frequency being 102 and 115 times, respectively. In terms of needle inserting methods mentioned in partial papers (most papers do not mention), fingernail-pressing-aided needle insertion, needle-twirling insertion, fingers-squeezed-needle insertion, particularly the swiftly rotating needle insertion and rapid needle-propelling insertion were most commonly used.Regarding the needle manipulation method, rapid needle twirling technique was frequently employed, usually at a frequency of approximately 200 times per min. In regard to the academic schools, JIAO Shun-fa's scalp acupuncture system was most frequently used, followed by the international standardized scalp acupuncture. The therapeutic effect of scalp acupuncture is effective in the treatment of different conditions of various departments, especially those of the dermatology and gynecology.

Conclusion: Scalp acupuncture has superiority in the treatment disorders of the internal medicine and has been demonstrated to have positive effects for many types of problems, particularly for apoplexy and its sequelae. Rapid needle-propelling insertion and rapid needle-twirling technique are often employed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13702/j.1000-0607.170518DOI Listing
March 2018

[Effects of different methods of acupuncture and moxibustion on functional constipation in rats:a comparative study].

Zhongguo Zhen Jiu 2017 May;37(5):527-533

College of Acupuncture-Moxibustion and Tuina, Hebei University of CM, Shijiazhuang 050200, China.

Objective: To compare the effects of acupuncture, electroacupuncture (EA) and moxibustion on functional constipation in rats.

Methods: Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into a control group (=8), a model group (=11), a medication group (=8), an acupuncture group (=11), an EA group (=11) and a moxibustion group (=11) by random number table. The rats in the model group, medication group, acupuncture group, EA group and moxibustion group were treated with intragastric administration of loperamide hydrochloride for 6 days continuously to establish the functional constipation models, while equal volume of drinking water was administrated to rats in the control group at the same time. The rats in the acupuncture group, EA group and moxibustion group were respectively treated with acupuncture, EA and moxibustion at "Tianshu" (ST 25) and "Shangjuxu" (ST 37) one hour after intragastric administration; rats in the medication group were treated with intragastric administration of cisapride suspension. All the treatment was given once a day for 6 days. At the last day of intervention, the 24-hour food intake, stool quantity and its water content were measured in each group; the pushing rate of intestine was measured; the structure of colon tissue and acidic mucus in its mucous layer were observed by hematoxylin-eosin dyeing and alcian blue dyeing; the expression of stem cell factor (SCF) and c-kit mRNA was detected by real-time PCR.

Results: Compared with the control group, the 24-hour food intake and stool quantity were reduced in the model group (both <0.01), and the water content of stool and pushing rate of intestine were reduced (both <0.01); compared with the model group, the stool quantity and its water content were increased in the medication group, acupuncture group, EA group (<0.05, <0.01), which were not significantly different from those in the moxibustion group (both >0.05). The pushing rate of intestine in each intervention group was increased (all <0.01). The 24-hour food intake and stool quantity in the medication group were not significantly different from those in the acupuncture group, EA group and moxibustion group (all >0.05), and the water content of stool was only reduced in the moxibustion group (<0.01). The pushing rate of intestine in the acupuncture group and moxibustion group was lower than that in the medication group (both <0.01), while that in the EA group was not significantly different from that in the medication group (>0.05). The water content of stool in the moxibustion group was lower than that in the acupuncture group and EA group (both <0.01). The pushing rate of intestine in the acupuncture group and moxibustion group was lower than that in the EA group (both <0.01). The HE staining result indicated the structure of colon tissue was normal, complete and similar in each group; the alcian blue staining indicated the acidic mucosubstance in the model group was lower than that in the control group; compared with the model group, the acidic mucosubstance in the medication group, acupuncture group, EA group and moxibustion group was all increased. Compared with the control group, the expression of SCF and c-kit mRNA was reduced in the model group (both <0.05); compared with the model group, the expression of SCF and c-kit mRNA was increased in the medication group, acupuncture group, EA group and moxibustion group (all <0.05); compared with the moxibustion group, the expression of c-kit mRNA was reduced in the acupuncture group and EA group (both <0.05).

Conclusions: Acupuncture, EA and moxibustion all can play a positive regulative role on functional constipation in rats, in which EA has the best efficacy, followed by acupuncture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13703/j.0255-2930.2017.05.019DOI Listing
May 2017

[Effect of Manual Acupuncture, Electroacupuncture and Moxibustion on Intestinal Motility and Expression of Enteric Nervous Activity Related Proteins in Functional Constipation Rats].

Zhen Ci Yan Jiu 2017 Oct;42(5):407-12

College of Acupuncture-moxibustion and Tuina, Hebei University of Chinese Medicine, Shijiazhuang 050200, China.

Objective: To compare the effect of manual acupuncture (MA), electroacupuncture (EA) and moxibustion interventions on intestinal motility and expression of enteric nervous activity related proteins calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV 1) and proteinase activated receptor-4 (PAR-4) in colon tissue of rats with functional constipation (FC), so as to select a better intervention method for FC.

Methods: Sixty male SD rats were randomly divided into blank control (=8), model (=11), medication (=8), MA (=11), EA (=11), and moxibustion (=11) groups. The FC model was established by gavage of suspension of loperamide hydrochlorid for 6 days. Rats of the medication group were treated by gavage of cisapride (3 mg/kg), once daily for 6 days. MA, EA or moxibustion was separately applied to bilateral "Tianshu"(ST 25) and "Shangjuxu"(ST 37) for 15 min, once daily for 6 days. The stool weight within 24 h was measured every day, and the intestinal propulsive rate was calculated by feeding the rats with suspension fluid containing sodium carboxymethylcellulose and active carbon powder (3%) on the last day of the experiment. The expression levels of CGRP, TRPV 1 and PAR-4 proteins and genes in the colon tissue were measured by Western blot and quantitative real-time PCR, respectively.

Results: Compared with the control group, the stool weight within 24 h and intestinal propulsive rate were significantly decreased in the model group (<0.01). Compared with the model group, the two indexes considerably increased in the medication, MA and EA groups (<0.05, <0.01), and the intestinal propulsive rate was also notably increased in the moxibustion group (<0.05), suggesting an improvement of the intestinal motility after the treatment. The expression levels of intestinal CGRP, TRPV 1 and PAR-4 proteins and genes were significantly higher in the model group than in the control group (<0.01), and considerably lower in the medication, MA, EA and moxibustion groups than in the model group (<0.05, <0.01, except the protein expression of CGRP in the moxibustion group). No significant differences were found among the medication, MA, EA and moxibustion groups in the stool weight, between the medication and EA groups and between the EA and moxibustion groups in the intestinal propulsive rate, and among medication, EA and moxibustion groups in the expression levels of TRPV 1 mRNA, and among the medication, MA and EA groups in the expression levels of CGRP, TRPV 1 and PAR-4 proteins (<0.05).

Conclusions: MA, EA and moxibustion interventions can promote the intestinal motility in FC rats, which may be related to their functions in down-regulating the expression of CGRP, TRPV 1 and PAR-4 proteins and genes (except CGRP in the moxibustion group).
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October 2017