Publications by authors named "Chuan-Ho Tang"

20 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Lipid changes in extrapulmonary organs and serum of rats after chronic exposure to ambient fine particulate matter.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Aug 10;784:147018. Epub 2021 Apr 10.

Institute of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan; Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Fine particulate matter (PM) is able to pass through the respiratory barrier to enter the circulatory system and can consequently spread to the whole body to cause toxicity. Although our previous studies have revealed significantly altered levels of phosphorylcholine-containing lipids in the lungs of rats after chronic inhalation exposure to PM, the effects of PM on phosphorylcholine-containing lipids in the extrapulmonary organs have not yet been elucidated. In this study, we examined the lipid effects of chronic PM exposure on various organs and serum by using a rat inhalation model followed by a mass spectrometry-based lipidomic approach. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were continuously exposed at the whole body level to nonfiltered and nonconcentrated ambient air from the outside environment of Taipei city for 8 months, while the control rats inhaled filtered air simultaneously. After exposure, serum samples and various organs, including the testis, pancreas, heart, liver, kidney, spleen, and epididymis, were collected for lipid extraction and analysis to examine the changes in phosphorylcholine-containing lipids after exposure. The results from the partial least squares discriminant analysis models demonstrated that the lipid profiles in the PM exposure group were different from those in the control group in the rat testis, pancreas, heart, liver, kidney and serum. The greatest PM-induced lipid effects were observed in the testes. Decreased lyso-phosphatidylcholines (PCs) as well as increased unsaturated diacyl-PCs and sphingomyelins in the testes may be related to maintaining the membrane integrity of spermatozoa, antioxidation, and cell signaling. Additionally, our results showed that decreased PC(16:0/18:1) was observed in both the serum and testes. In conclusion, exposure to chronic environmental concentrations of PM caused lipid perturbation, especially in the testes of rats. This study highlighted the susceptibility of the testes and suggested possible molecular events for future study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147018DOI Listing
August 2021

Brain lipid profiles in the spontaneously hypertensive rat after subchronic real-world exposure to ambient fine particulate matter.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Mar 18;707:135603. Epub 2019 Nov 18.

Institute of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan; Department of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Recent studies have illustrated an association between ambient fine particulate matter (PM) exposure and neuronal toxicity in epidemiological studies and animal models. However, the possible molecular effects on brains under real-world exposure to PM remain unclear. In this pilot study, male spontaneously hypertensive rats were whole-bodily exposed to ambient air from the outdoor environment of Taipei City for 3 months, while the control rats inhaled HEPA-filtered air. The PM-induced phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin profiles in the hippocampus, cortex, medulla, cerebellum, and olfactory bulb were assessed by mass spectrometry (MS)-based lipidomics. Partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and the Wilcoxon rank sum test were used to examine the lipid changes between the exposed and control groups. The PLS-DA models showed that phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin profiles of the PM exposure group were different from those of the control group in each brain region except the cortex. More lipid changes were found in the hippocampus, while fewer lipid changes were observed in the olfactory bulb. The lipid alteration in the hippocampus may strengthen membrane integrity, modulate signaling pathways, and avoid accumulation of lipofuscin to counter the PM-induced stress. The lipid changes in the cortex and medulla may respond to PM-induced injury and inflammation; while the lipid changes in the cerebellum were associated with neuron protection. This study suggests that the MS-based lipidomics is a powerful approach to discriminate the brain lipid profiles even at the environmental level of ambient PM and has the potential to suggest possible adverse health effects in long-term PM exposure studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.135603DOI Listing
March 2020

Lipidomics as a diagnostic tool of the metabolic and physiological state of managed whales: A correlation study of systemic metabolism.

Zoo Biol 2018 Nov 20;37(6):440-451. Epub 2018 Nov 20.

Department of Biology, National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium, Pingtung, Taiwan.

Integrating multifactor blood analysis is a key step toward a precise diagnosis of the health status of marine mammals. Variations in the circulating lipid profile reflect changes in the metabolism and physiology of an individual. To demonstrate the practicability of lipid profiling for physiological assessment, the phosphorylcholine-containing lipids in the plasma of long-term managed beluga whales (Delphinapterus leucas) were profiled using a lipidomics methodology. Using a multivariate analysis, the mean corpuscular volume, cholesterol, potassium, and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase levels were well modeled with the lipid profile of the female whales. In the models, the correlated lipids provided information about blood parameter-related metabolism and physiological regulation, in particular relating to cholesterol and inflammation. In the males, the levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, plasma iron, and segmented neutrophil were well modeled with the lipid profile. In addition to providing information about the related metabolism and regulation, through a cross-linked analysis of the blood parameters, the correlated lipids indicated a parallel regulation involved in the energy metabolism of the male whales. Lipidomics as a method for revealing the context of physiological change shows practical potential for the health care of managed whales.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/zoo.21452DOI Listing
November 2018

Using lipidomic methodology to characterize coral response to herbicide contamination and develop an early biomonitoring model.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Jan 23;648:1275-1283. Epub 2018 Aug 23.

National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium, 2 Hou-Wan Rd., Checheng, Pingtung 944, Taiwan; Department of Marine Biotechnology and Resources, Asia-Pacific Ocean Research Center, National Sun Yat-sen University, 70 Lien-Hai Rd., Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan. Electronic address:

The use of omics technologies to profile an organism's systemic response to environmental changes can improve the effectiveness of biomonitoring. In cell physiology, the dynamic characteristics of membranes can be used to identify lipid profiles that detect environmental threats and assess the health problems associated with them. The efficacy of this approach was demonstrated by profiling glycerophosphocholines (GPCs, a major membrane lipid class) in the coral Seriatopora caliendrum after exposure to Irgarol 1051. A quantitative biomonitoring model for this photosystem II herbicide was developed by correlating variations in coral lipid profile with herbicide exposure levels and degree of photoinhibition. After 4 days of exposure, the predominant changes correlated with photoinhibition were an increase in lyso-GPCs and saturated GPCs and a decrease in phosphatidylcholines with unsaturated C18 chains or a polyunsaturated C22 chain. A time-course experiment showed that most of these lipid changes occurred opposite to the initial response and that the persistent changes can be attributed to photosynthetic shortages and the membrane accommodation of photoinhibition-induced oxidative conditions. These changes can help predict risk factors leading to coral bleaching. In this study, the application of a lipidomic methodology to characterize the adaptation of coral to ambient contamination serves as a basis for advancing environmental monitoring and assessment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.08.296DOI Listing
January 2019

Mass spectrometry-based lipidomics to explore the biochemical effects of naphthalene toxicity or tolerance in a mouse model.

PLoS One 2018 1;13(10):e0204829. Epub 2018 Oct 1.

Institute of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Naphthalene causes mouse airway epithelial injury. However, repeated exposures of naphthalene result in mouse airway tolerance. Previous results showed that toxicity or tolerance was correlated with changes of phosphorylcholine-containing lipids. In this study, a mass spectrometry-based lipidomic approach was applied to examine the effects of naphthalene-induced injury or tolerance in the male ICR mice. The injury model was vehicle x 7 plus 300 mg/kg naphthalene while the tolerant one was 200 mg/kg daily x 7 followed by 300 mg/kg naphthalene on day 8. The lung, liver, kidney, and serum samples were collected for profiles of phosphorylcholine-containing lipids including phosphatidylcholines (PCs) and sphingomyelins (SMs). A partial least-square-discriminate analysis model showed different lung phosphorylcholine-containing lipid profiles from the injured, tolerant, and control groups. Perturbation of diacyl-PCs and plasmenylcholines may be associated with enhanced membrane flexibility and anti-oxidative mechanisms in the lungs of tolerant mice. Additionally, alterations of lyso-PCs and SMs may be responsible for pulmonary dysfunction and inflammation in the lungs of injured mice. Moreover, serum PC(16:0/18:1) has potential to reflect naphthalene-induced airway injuries. Few phosphorylcholine-containing lipid alterations were found in the mouse livers and kidneys across different treatments. This study revealed the changes in lipid profiles associated with the perturbations caused by naphthalene tolerance and toxicity; examination of lipids in serum may assist biomarker development with the potential for application in the human population.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0204829PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6166967PMC
March 2019

LC-MS-based lipidomics to examine acute rat pulmonary responses after nano- and fine-sized ZnO particle inhalation exposure.

Nanotoxicology 2018 06 11;12(5):439-452. Epub 2018 Apr 11.

a Institute of Environmental Health, College of Public Health , National Taiwan University , Taipei , Taiwan.

Zinc oxide (ZnO) nano- and fine-sized particles are associated with respiratory toxicity in humans, but the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Our previous nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomic study demonstrated that changes in phosphorylcholine-containing lipids (PC-CLs) in the respiratory system were associated with ZnO particle-induced respiratory toxicity. However, the details of the lipid species associated with adverse effects and possible biomarker signatures have not been identified. Thus, a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)-based lipidomics platform was applied to examine the alterations of PC-CL species in the lungs of rats treated with a series of concentrations of nano-sized (35 nm) or fine-sized (250 nm) ZnO particles via inhalation. Principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), and the Mann-Whitney U (MWU) test with false discovery rate (FDR) control were conducted to explore the perturbed lipid species and to discriminate a potential pulmonary biomarker signature after ZnO particle exposure. The PCA and PLS-DA models revealed that the fine-sized ZnO particle-treated groups and the high-concentration nano-sized group were separated from the control groups as well as from the low and moderate nano-sized groups. The results from the MWU test further suggested that after FDR adjustment, numerous PC-CL species were altered in the high-concentration and moderate-concentration fine-sized groups. Furthermore, our results suggested that lipids involved in anti-oxidation, membrane conformation, and cellular signal transduction were altered in response to ZnO-induced oxidative stress and inflammation. One lipid, PC(18:0/18:1), exhibited good performance (AUC > 0.8) of discriminative ability in distinguishing ZnO particle exposure from the control. These findings not only provide a foundation for the exploration of possible ZnO particle-mediated mechanisms but also suggest a lipid biomarker for ZnO particle exposure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17435390.2018.1458918DOI Listing
June 2018

Modeling the effects of Irgarol 1051 on coral using lipidomic methodology for environmental monitoring and assessment.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Jun 3;627:571-578. Epub 2018 Feb 3.

National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium, Department of Biology, Pingtung 944, Taiwan; Department of Marine Biotechnology and Resources and Asia-Pacific Ocean Research Center, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Coral is commonly selected as a bioindicator of detecting a variety of adverse factors such as photosystem II herbicide Irgarol 1051, through measuring pan-type biomarkers. To improve the effectiveness of biomonitoring, omic technologies have recently been applied to model the systemic changes in an organism. Membrane lipids create a dynamic cell structure based on the physiological state, which offers a distinct lipid profile to specifically detect environmental threats and assess the associated health risk. To demonstrate the potential of a lipidomic methodology for biomonitoring, the glycerophosphocholine (GPC) profiles of the coral Seriatopora caliendrum were observed during 3 days of Irgarol (0.1-2.0 μg/L) exposure. The lipid profile variations were modeled based on the Irgarol dose and the coral photoinhibition levels to develop an excellent quantitative model. The predominant changes correlated with the photoinhibition, decreasing the lyso-GPCs and GPCs with lower unsaturated chains and increasing GPCs with highly polyunsaturated chains, can be related to the consequence of blocking the photosynthetic electron flow based on the associated physiological roles. Other dose-specific lipid changes led to the partial exchange of PC(O-16:0/20:5) for PC(16,0/20:5) as a first-line response to counteract the membrane opening caused by Irgarol. Increased levels of the GPCs with 20:4 or 22:6 chains, which can promote mitochondrial functionality, confirmed an elevated respiration level in the coral exposed to Irgarol levels of >0.5 μg/L. Notably, plasmanylcholines with 20:4 or 22:6 chains and phosphatidylcholines with 22:6 or 22:5 chains, which can alter their membrane material properties to mitigate organelle pre-swelling and swelling in different ways, formed in the coral exposed to the 0.5 and 2.0 μg/L Irgarol levels. Such coral adaptations further predict the health risks associated with altered physiological conditions. In this study, the lipidomic methodology is demonstrated as a potential tool for environmental monitoring and assessment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.01.276DOI Listing
June 2018

Membrane lipid profiles of coral responded to zinc oxide nanoparticle-induced perturbations on the cellular membrane.

Aquat Toxicol 2017 Jun 31;187:72-81. Epub 2017 Mar 31.

National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium, Pingtung, Taiwan; Department of Marine Biotechnology and Resources and Asia-Pacific Ocean Research Center, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnOs) released from popular sunscreens used during marine recreation apparently endanger corals; however, the known biological effects are very limited. Membrane lipids constitute the basic structural element to create cell a dynamic structure according to the circumstance. Nano-specific effects have been shown to mechanically perturb the physical state of the lipid membrane, and the cells accommodating the actions of nZnOs can be involved in the alteration of the membrane lipid composition. To gain insight into the effects of nanoparticles on coral, glycerophosphocholine (GPC) profiling of the coral Seriatopora caliendrum exposed to nZnOs was performed in this study. Increasing lyso-GPCs, docosapentaenoic acid-possessing GPCs and docosahexaenoic acid-possessing GPCs and decreasing arachidonic acid-possessing GPCs were the predominant changes responded to nZnO exposure in the coral. A backfilling of polyunsaturated plasmanylcholines was observed in the coral exposed to nZnO levels over a threshold. These changes can be logically interpreted as an accommodation to nZnOs-induced mechanical disturbances in the cellular membrane based on the biophysical properties of the lipids. Moreover, the coral demonstrated a difference in the changes in lipid profiles between intra-colonial functionally differentiated polyps, indicating an initial membrane composition-dependent response. Based on the physicochemical properties and physiological functions of these changed lipids, some chronic biological effects can be incubated once the coral receives long-term exposure to nZnOs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2017.03.021DOI Listing
June 2017

Intra-Colonial Functional Differentiation-Related Modulation of the Cellular Membrane in a Pocilloporid Coral Seriatopora caliendrum.

Mar Biotechnol (NY) 2015 Oct 5;17(5):633-43. Epub 2015 Aug 5.

Department of Biology, National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium, 2 Houwan Rd., Checheng, Pingtung, 944, Taiwan,

Scleractinian corals have displayed phenotypic gradients of polyps within a single genotypic colony, and this has profound implications for their biology. The intrinsic polymorphism of membrane lipids and the molecular interactions involved allow cells to dynamically organize their membranes to have physicochemical properties appropriate for their physiological requirements. To gain insight into the accommodation of the cellular membrane during ontogenetic shifts, intra-colony differences in the glycerophosphocholine profiling of a pocilloporid coral, Seriatopora caliendrum, were characterized using a previously validated method. Specifically, several major polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholines showed higher levels in the distal tissue of coral branches. In contrast, the corresponding molecules with 1-2-degree less unsaturation and plasmanylcholines were expressed more highly in the proximal tissue. The lipid profiles of these two colonial positions also contrasted sharply with regard to the saturated, monounsaturated, and lyso-glycerophosphocholine ratios. Based on the biochemical and biophysical properties of these lipids, the associated modulation of cellular membrane properties could be related to the physiological requirements, including coral growth and aging, of the functionally differentiated polyps. In this study, the metabolic regulation of membrane lipids involved in the functional differentiation of polyps within a S. caliendrum colony was identified.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10126-015-9645-9DOI Listing
October 2015

Cellular membrane accommodation to thermal oscillations in the coral Seriatopora caliendrum.

PLoS One 2014 20;9(8):e105345. Epub 2014 Aug 20.

National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium, Pingtung, Taiwan; Department of Marine Biotechnology and Resources and Asia-Pacific Ocean Research Center, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

In the present study, the membrane lipid composition of corals from a region with tidally induced upwelling was investigated. The coral community is subject to strong temperature oscillations yet flourishes as a result of adaptation. Glycerophosphocholine profiling of the dominant pocilloporid coral, Seriatopora caliendrum, was performed using a validated method. The coral inhabiting the upwelling region shows a definite shift in the ratio of lipid molecular species, covering several subclasses. Mainly, the coral possesses a higher percentage of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated plasmanylcholines and a lower percentage of polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholines. Higher levels of lyso-plasmanylcholines containing saturated or monounsaturated fatty acid chains were also revealed in coral tissue at the distal portion of the branch. Based on the physicochemical properties of these lipids, we proposed mechanisms for handling cellular membrane perturbations, such as tension, induced by thermal oscillation to determine how coral cells are able to spontaneously maintain their physiological functions, in both molecular and physical terms. Interestingly, the biochemical and biophysical properties of these lipids also have beneficial effects on the resistance, maintenance, and growth of the corals. The results of this study suggest that lipid metabolic adjustment is a major factor in the adaption of S. caliendrum in upwelling regions.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0105345PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4139334PMC
November 2015

Two-dimensional LC-MS/MS to enhance ceramide and phosphatidylcholine species profiling in mouse liver.

Biomed Chromatogr 2014 Sep 2;28(9):1284-93. Epub 2014 Apr 2.

Graduate Institute of Toxicology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, No. 1, Sec. 1, Jen-ai Rd, Taipei, 100, Taiwan; Institute of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, No. 17, Xu-zhou Rd, Taipei, 100, Taiwan.

A two-dimensional (2D) hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and reverse-phase (RP) liquid chromatography (LC) system coupled with triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (MS) was developed to comprehensively profile ceramides and phosphatidylcholine in extracted biological samples. Briefly, the 2D HILIC-RPLC system used a silica HILIC column operated in the first dimension to distinguish the lipid classes and a BEH C18 column operated in the second dimension to separate the lipid species of the same class. The regression linearity of each lipid was satisfactory in both systems; however, the absolute matrix effect factor was reduced in 2D LC-MS/MS system. Limits of detection of 2D LC-MS/MS system were 2- to 3-fold lower compared with one-dimensional RPLC-MS/MS. The recovery from the sample ranged from 84.5 to 110%. To summarize, the developed method was proven to be accurate and producible, as relative standard deviations remained <20% at three spiked levels. The efficiency of this newly developed system was applied to measure changes of lipids in the liver of mice after naphthalene treatment. Orthogonal projection to latent structures-discriminant analysis discriminated the lipids from control and the treatment group. We concluded that 2D LC-MS/MS is a promising method to assist lipidomic studies of complex biological samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bmc.3162DOI Listing
September 2014

Cellular membrane accommodation of copper-induced oxidative conditions in the coral Seriatopora caliendrum.

Aquat Toxicol 2014 Mar 3;148:1-8. Epub 2014 Jan 3.

National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium, Pingtung, Taiwan, ROC; Department of Marine Biotechnology and Resources and Asia-Pacific Ocean Research Center, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC.

Oxidative stress has been associated with copper-induced toxicity in scleractinian corals. To gain insight into the accommodation of the cellular membrane to oxidative conditions, a pocilloporid coral, Seriatopora caliendrum, was exposed to copper at distinct, environmentally relevant dose for various lengths of time. Glycerophosphocholine profiling of the response of the coral to copper exposure was characterized using a validated method. The results indicate that coral lipid metabolism is programmed to induce membrane alterations in response to the cellular deterioration that occurs during the copper exposure period. Decreasing lyso-phosphatidylcholines and exchanging polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholines for polyunsaturated plasmanylcholines were the initial actions taken to prevent membrane permeabilization. To relax/resist the resulting membrane strain caused by cell/organelle swelling, the coral cells inversely exchanged polyunsaturated plasmanylcholines for polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholines and further increased the levels of monounsaturated glycerophosphocholines. At the same time, the levels of saturated phosphatidylcholines were also increased to increase membrane rigidity and protect against oxidative attack. Interestingly, such alterations in lipid metabolism were also required for membrane fusion to repair the deteriorated membranes by repopulating them with proximal lipid reservoirs, similar to symbiosome membranes. Additionally, increasing saturated and monounsaturated plasmanylcholines and inhibiting the suppression of saturated lyso-phosphatidylcholines were shown to facilitate membrane fusion. Based on the biochemical and biophysical properties of these lipids, the chronic effects of copper, such as coral resistance and growth, can be logically interpreted to result from long-term perturbations in cellular membrane-related functions. In conclusion, the cells of S. caliendrum alter their lipid metabolism and sacrifice fitness to allow the membrane to accommodate copper-induced oxidative situations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2013.12.027DOI Listing
March 2014

Phosphorylcholine-containing lipid molecular species profiling in biological tissue using a fast HPLC/QqQ-MS method.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2012 Dec 22;404(10):2949-61. Epub 2012 Sep 22.

National Museum of Marine Biology and Aquarium, 2 Houwan Rd., Checheng, Pingtung 944, Taiwan.

A fast reversed-phase liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry method was developed for the molecular species profiling of glycerophosphocholine (GPC) and sphingomyelin (SM) in total lipid extracts. A two-stage mass spectrometry strategy was adopted to analyze in detail the composition of lipid molecular species. Precursor ion analysis was first conducted to obtain the preliminary composition profile of the phosphorylcholine-containing lipid. The product ion spectra were sequentially acquired for each recorded signal to determine the molecular structure of the lipid. A total of 150 GPCs and 12 SMs were identified in the fetal mouse lung with relative amounts ranging from 13.7% to less than 0.002% (normalizing by the total signal response). A column packed with core-shell particles was used to obtain excellent chromatographic separation with a shorter time demand in a conventional high-performance liquid chromatography system. Considering the compromise between the chromatographic efficiency and the electrospray signal response, the optimization of the mobile phase improves the chromatographic plate number to approximately 40,000 and the detection limits to less than 0.001 mg/L. The applicability of the method was validated through a study of chemically induced early lung maturation. The metabolic alteration in the fetal mouse lung was clearly reflected in the GPC and SM composition with several characteristics of the molecular structure that related to the character of the phospholipid layer upon the epithelial lining of alveoli and the relevant cell function. The results indicated that this analytical strategy is reliable for comprehensive molecular species profiling of GPC and SM and might be extended to the analysis of other phospholipids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-012-6414-8DOI Listing
December 2012

Glycerophosphocholine molecular species profiling in the biological tissue using UPLC/MS/MS.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2011 Jul 12;879(22):2095-106. Epub 2011 Jun 12.

Institute of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei City, Taiwan.

A strategy consisting of a two-phase analytical procedure was used to obtain detailed molecular species composition for glycerophosphocholines (GPCs) profiling in biological tissue using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operating under electrospray mode. In phase one of the analytical procedure, the precursor ion scan was first conducted to obtain the preliminary lipid profile that revealed the composition of the molecular species possessing phosphocholine structure in the biological tissue. In phase two of the analytical procedure, each product ion spectrum obtained for the GPC components in the profile was sequentially acquired for the determination of the molecular structure. A simple guide with high differentiability was proposed for the diacyl-, alkyl-acyl- and alk-1-enyl-acyl-GPC, and related lyso-GPCs molecular structure decision. Total 93 GPCs molecular species were identified in the fetal mouse lung with the relative amounts from 14.39% to less than 0.01% (normalizing by the total GPCs signal). The optimized chromatographic conditions were also proposed in the analytical procedure based on the compromise between the separation efficiency and electrospray signal response. The plate number of the probing GPCs was obviously improved to above 30,000 and the detection limits of the probing GPCs were between 0.002 and 0.016 ng/μL. The practical usability of the analytical procedure has been validated using a study of chemically induced early lung maturation. The metabolic difference between chemically treated and untreated fetal mouse lung was clearly distinguished by the composition of GPCs with several characteristics of molecular structure. The overall results showed that this two-phase analytical procedure was reliable for comprehensive GPC profiling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchromb.2011.05.044DOI Listing
July 2011

Butyltin accumulation in marine bivalves under field conditions in Taiwan.

Mar Environ Res 2010 Aug 2;70(2):125-32. Epub 2010 Apr 2.

Department of Marine Biotechnology and Resources, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, Republic of China.

This study aimed to characterize the butyltin bioaccumulation in a simple food chain under varied conditions. Significant trophic level magnification factors of tributyltin (21.5-1546) were observed in two filter-feeders, oysters (Crassostrea gigas) and mussels (Perna viridis), in an environment with low tributyltin pollution levels (0.4-13.1 ng L(-1) as tin). Both of these bivalve species showed higher bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) of tributyltin under low pollution levels, while smaller magnification factors (5.4-6.4), an up-regulated tributyltin metabolism and smaller BAFs of tributyltin were found in oysters at higher tributyltin pollution levels (39.6-99.3 ng L(-1) as tin). Unlike oysters, mussels cannot up-regulate their tributyltin metabolism, which caused a dramatic change in butyltin accumulation between oysters and mussels as tributyltin pollution levels increased. In addition, higher BAF values of tributyltin were also obtained under the water summer conditions when higher temperatures and phytoplankton contents, and lower tributyltin pollution levels were observed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marenvres.2010.03.011DOI Listing
August 2010

Organotin accumulation in oysters and rock shells under field conditions.

J Environ Monit 2009 Sep 20;11(9):1601-7. Epub 2009 Jul 20.

Department of Marine Biotechnology and Resources, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan 80424, ROC.

This study characterises the accumulation of organotin in oysters (Crassostrea gigas) and rock shells (Thais clavigera and Thais rufotincta) under different field conditions. The bioaccumulation of tributyltin and triphenyltin in oysters and rock shells was less efficient during the winter, when higher levels of tributyltin pollution were not reflected in rock shell concentrations. The accumulations of tributyltin and triphenyltin were higher in T. clavigera than in T. rufotincta, while less difference between the two species was observed during the winter. A negative correlation was found between the ratio of tributyltin/total butyltin and tributyltin content in oysters and rock shells, suggesting that the metabolic rate of tributyltin is burden-dependent in these organisms, and that bioaccumulation factors are reduced by a high tributyltin burden. In addition, persistent accumulation of triphenyltin has a high probability of food chain magnification. These observations provide insights for future study of organotin pollution and suggest considerations for monitoring these species as bioindicators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b907172eDOI Listing
September 2009

Metal accumulation in marine bivalves under various tributyltin burdens.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2009 Nov;28(11):2333-40

Department of Marine Biotechnology and Resources, National Sun Yat-Sen University, 70 Lien-hai Road, Kaohsiung, Taiwan 80424, Republic of China.

In the present study, a field survey was conducted to measure the accumulation of butyltin, Cu, Zn, and Cd in green mussels (Perna viridis) and Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas) at the regions along a tributyltin pollution gradient. A negative correlation was found between the tributyltin/total butyltin ratio (0.87-0.31) and tributyltin content (114-5,817 ng/g as tin dry wt) in oysters, while the Cu content (44.2-381 mg/kg dry wt) was positively correlated with the logarithm of tributyltin content during the summer and winter. This suggests that as the tributyltin burden increases, the rates of tributyltin metabolism may be elevated, leading to enhanced Cu accumulation. A similar accumulation pattern for Zn was also found in oysters. In mussels, however, the tributyltin/total butyltin ratio and the Cu and Zn contents remained relatively constant (~ 0.7, 12, and 100 mg/kg dry wt, respectively) regardless of the tributyltin burden. Clearly, the butyltin and Cu/Zn accumulation processes in oysters differ from those in mussels under tributyltin pollution. These observations provide valuable information for those who evaluate or compare tributyltin and/or Cu/Zn pollution using oysters and mussels as bioindicators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1897/09-178.1DOI Listing
November 2009

Characterization of the planktonic shrimp, Acetes intermedius, as a potential biomonitor for butyltin.

J Environ Monit 2009 Jan 7;11(1):92-9. Epub 2008 Nov 7.

Department of Marine Biotechnology and Resources, National Sun Yat-Sen University, 70 Lien-hai Rd, Kaohsiung, Taiwan 80424, ROC.

Acute toxic responses as well as uptake and depuration rates for tributyltin (TBT) and dibutyltin (DBT) were examined in the small planktonic shrimp, Acetes intermedius. The 72-h LC(50) values of TBT and DBT for the shrimp were found to be 18.6 and 82.6 microg L(-1) as tin. The uptake rate constants of TBT and DBT in the shrimp were 0.0006 and 0.0002 L g(-1) h(-1), and the corresponding depuration rate constants were 0.0303 and 0.0106 h(-1), respectively. It appears that real-time ambient TBT pollution status can be more closely reflected in this species. The shrimp may serve as a biomonitor to indicate short-term fluctuations in ambient TBT pollution. A field survey was also conducted to distinguish contrasts in butyltin accumulation under different ambient conditions. These observations provide valuable information for the evaluation of TBT pollution status in the environment using A. intermedius as a biomonitor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/b807864eDOI Listing
January 2009

Butyltin accumulation in two marine bivalves along a pollution gradient.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2008 Oct;27(10):2179-85

Department of Marine Biotechnology and Resources, National Sun Yat-Sen University, 70 Lien-hai Road, Kaohsiung, Taiwan 80424, Republic of China.

In the present study, we describe a field survey regarding the effect of ambient water conditions in the accumulation of tributyltin (TBT) and its metabolites in green mussels (Perna viridis) and Pacific oysters (Crassostrea gigas). The results showed that following the changes in TBT pollution levels, the accumulation of butyltins exhibited clear differences between oysters and mussels. The ratio of TBT to total butyltin (TBT:SigmaBT) decreased from 0.87 to 0.31 with increasing TBT burdens in the oysters. This status suggests that following the increases of TBT burdens, the metabolic rates of TBT were clearly enhanced in oysters; however, this phenomenon was not shown in mussels. The TBT:SigmaBT remained relatively constant at approximately 0.7 in the mussels despite the TBT burdens. Because of this phenomenon, the opposite status of different TBT burdens between oysters and mussels were present at different TBT pollution levels. These observations may provide valuable insight when evaluating or comparing TBT pollution in the environment using oysters and/or mussels as bioindicators.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1897/07-508.1DOI Listing
October 2008

Optimization of an analytical method for determining organotin compounds in fish tissue by base-hydrolysis pretreatment and simultaneous ethylation-extraction procedures.

Anal Chim Acta 2007 Jan 22;581(2):370-6. Epub 2006 Aug 22.

Department of Marine Biotechnology and Resources, National Sun Yat-Sen University, 70 Lien-hai Road, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan, ROC.

To determine butyl- and phenyl-tins in fish muscle, a method including base digestion pretreatment, followed by a simultaneous ethylation-extraction procedure and gas chromatograph-flame photometric detector (GC-FPD) analysis is outlined. Key parameters that influence analyte recovery were investigated and optimized. A solution of 3% (w/v) potassium hydroxide (KOH) and 1 h digestion time at 60 degrees C were chosen in the base digestion step, to ensure complete solubilization of fish muscle and the decomposition of organotins was found to be insignificant. We found that the ratio of fish muscle/reaction solution should not exceed 0.2 g (dry weight) per 100 mL in order to avoid the matrix effect caused by the binding of hydrolyzed fish tissue with organotin ions. Ethylation of organotins were conducted at pH 6-7 with a 1% (w/v) sodium tetraethylborate (NaBEt(4)) solution for 1 h. This simple and timesaving procedure should be able to be applied to the routine analysis of organotins in other bio-tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2006.08.029DOI Listing
January 2007
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