Publications by authors named "Chuan-Chao Wang"

67 Publications

Forensic features and genetic legacy of the Baloch population of Pakistan and the Hazara population across Durand line revealed by Y-chromosomal STRs.

Int J Legal Med 2021 Apr 5. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Human Anatomy, School of Basic Medicine, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, 110122, People's Republic of China.

The Hazara population across Durand line has experienced extensive interaction with Central Asian and East Asian populations. Hazara individuals have typical Mongolian facial appearances and they called themselves descendants of Genghis Khan's army. The people who speak the Balochi language are called Baloch. Previously, a worldwide analysis of Y-chromosomal haplotype diversity for rapidly mutating (RM) Y-STRs and with PowerPlex Y23 System (Promega Corporation Madison, USA) kit was created with collaborative efforts, but Baloch and Hazara population from Pakistan and Hazara population from Afghanistan were missing. In the current study, Yfiler Plus PCR Amplification Kit loci were examined in 260 unrelated Hazara individuals from Afghanistan, 153 Hazara individuals, and 111 Balochi individuals from Baluchistan Pakistan. For the Hazara population from Afghanistan and Pakistan overall, 380 different haplotypes were observed on these 27 Y-STR loci, gene diversities ranged from 0.51288 (DYS389I) to 0.9257 (DYF387S1), and haplotype diversity was 0.9992. For the Baloch population, every individual was unique at 27 Y-STR loci; gene diversity ranged from 0.5718 (DYS460) to 0.9371(DYF387S1). Twelve haplotypes were shared between 178 individuals, while only two haplotypes among these twelve were shared between 87 individuals in Hazara populations. Rst and Fst pairwise genetic distance analyses, multidimensional scaling plot, neighbor-joining tree, linear discriminatory analysis, and median-joining network were performed, which shed light on the history of Hazara and Baloch populations. The results of our study showed that the Yfiler Plus PCR Amplification Kit marker set provided substantially stronger discriminatory power in the Baloch population of Pakistan and the Hazara population across the Durand line.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00414-021-02591-2DOI Listing
April 2021

New insights into the fine-scale history of western-eastern admixture of the northwestern Chinese population in the Hexi Corridor via genome-wide genetic legacy.

Mol Genet Genomics 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Belt and Road Research Center for Forensic Molecular Anthropology Gansu University of Political Science and Law, Lanzhou, 730000, China.

Trans-Eurasian cultural and genetic exchanges have significantly influenced the demographic dynamics of Eurasian populations. The Hexi Corridor, located along the southeastern edge of the Eurasian steppe, served as an important passage of the ancient Silk Road in Northwest China and intensified the transcontinental exchange and interaction between populations on the Central Plain and in Western Eurasia. Historical and archeological records indicate that the Western Eurasian cultural elements were largely brought into North China via this geographical corridor, but there is debate on the extent to which the spread of barley/wheat agriculture into North China and subsequent Bronze Age cultural and technological mixture/shifts were achieved by the movement of people or dissemination of ideas. Here, we presented higher-resolution genome-wide autosomal and uniparental Y/mtDNA SNP or STR data for 599 northwestern Han Chinese individuals and conducted 2 different comprehensive genetic studies among Neolithic-to-present-day Eurasians. Genetic studies based on lower-resolution STR markers via PCA, STRUCTURE, and phylogenetic trees showed that northwestern Han Chinese individuals had increased genetic homogeneity relative to northern Mongolic/Turkic/Tungusic speakers and Tibeto-Burman groups. The genomic signature constructed based on modern/ancient DNA further illustrated that the primary ancestry of the northwestern Han was derived from northern millet farmer ancestors, which was consistent with the hypothesis of Han origin in North China and more recent northwestward population expansion. This was subsequently confirmed via excess shared derived alleles in f/f statistical analyses and by more northern East Asian-related ancestry in the qpAdm/qpGraph models. Interestingly, we identified one western Eurasian admixture signature that was present in northwestern Han but absent from southern Han, with an admixture time dated to approximately 1000 CE (Tang and Song dynasties). Generally, we provided supporting evidence that historic Trans-Eurasian communication was primarily maintained through population movement, not simply cultural diffusion. The observed population dynamics in northwestern Han Chinese not only support the North China origin hypothesis but also reflect the multiple sources of the genetic diversity observed in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00438-021-01767-0DOI Listing
March 2021

Genomic insights into the formation of human populations in East Asia.

Nature 2021 Mar 22;591(7850):413-419. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

The deep population history of East Asia remains poorly understood owing to a lack of ancient DNA data and sparse sampling of present-day people. Here we report genome-wide data from 166 East Asian individuals dating to between 6000 BC and AD 1000 and 46 present-day groups. Hunter-gatherers from Japan, the Amur River Basin, and people of Neolithic and Iron Age Taiwan and the Tibetan Plateau are linked by a deeply splitting lineage that probably reflects a coastal migration during the Late Pleistocene epoch. We also follow expansions during the subsequent Holocene epoch from four regions. First, hunter-gatherers from Mongolia and the Amur River Basin have ancestry shared by individuals who speak Mongolic and Tungusic languages, but do not carry ancestry characteristic of farmers from the West Liao River region (around 3000 BC), which contradicts theories that the expansion of these farmers spread the Mongolic and Tungusic proto-languages. Second, farmers from the Yellow River Basin (around 3000 BC) probably spread Sino-Tibetan languages, as their ancestry dispersed both to Tibet-where it forms approximately 84% of the gene pool in some groups-and to the Central Plain, where it has contributed around 59-84% to modern Han Chinese groups. Third, people from Taiwan from around 1300 BC to AD 800 derived approximately 75% of their ancestry from a lineage that is widespread in modern individuals who speak Austronesian, Tai-Kadai and Austroasiatic languages, and that we hypothesize derives from farmers of the Yangtze River Valley. Ancient people from Taiwan also derived about 25% of their ancestry from a northern lineage that is related to, but different from, farmers of the Yellow River Basin, which suggests an additional north-to-south expansion. Fourth, ancestry from Yamnaya Steppe pastoralists arrived in western Mongolia after around 3000 BC but was displaced by previously established lineages even while it persisted in western China, as would be expected if this ancestry was associated with the spread of proto-Tocharian Indo-European languages. Two later gene flows affected western Mongolia: migrants after around 2000 BC with Yamnaya and European farmer ancestry, and episodic influences of later groups with ancestry from Turan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03336-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7993749PMC
March 2021

Shared paternal ancestry of Han, Tai-Kadai-speaking, and Austronesian-speaking populations as revealed by the high resolution phylogeny of O1a-M119 and distribution of its sub-lineages within China.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2021 04 8;174(4):686-700. Epub 2021 Feb 8.

Department of Anthropology and Ethnology, Institute of Anthropology, School of Sociology and Anthropology, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China.

Objectives: The aim of this research was to explore the origin, diversification, and demographic history of O1a-M119 over the past 10,000 years, as well as its role during the formation of East Asian and Southeast Asian populations, particularly the Han, Tai-Kadai-speaking, and Austronesian-speaking populations.

Materials And Methods: Y-chromosome sequences (n = 141) of the O1a-M119 lineage, including 17 newly generated in this study, were used to reconstruct a revised phylogenetic tree with age estimates, and identify sub-lineages. The geographic distribution of 12 O1a-M119 sub-lineages was summarized, based on 7325 O1a-M119 individuals identified among 60,009 Chinese males.

Results: A revised phylogenetic tree, age estimation, and distribution maps indicated continuous expansion of haplogroup O1a-M119 over the past 10,000 years, and differences in demographic history across geographic regions. We propose several sub-lineages of O1a-M119 as founding paternal lineages of Han, Tai-Kadai-speaking, and Austronesian-speaking populations. The sharing of several young O1a-M119 sub-lineages with expansion times less than 6000 years between these three population groups supports a partial common ancestry for them in the Neolithic Age; however, the paternal genetic divergence pattern is much more complex than previous hypotheses based on ethnology, archeology, and linguistics.

Discussion: Our analyses contribute to a better understanding of the demographic history of O1a-M119 sub-lineages over the past 10,000 years during the emergence of Han, Austronesians, Tai-Kadai-speaking populations. The data described in this study will assist in understanding of the history of Han, Tai-Kadai-speaking, and Austronesian-speaking populations from ethnology, archeology, and linguistic perspectives in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.24240DOI Listing
April 2021

Male-Dominated Migration and Massive Assimilation of Indigenous East Asians in the Formation of Muslim Hui People in Southwest China.

Front Genet 2020 11;11:618614. Epub 2021 Jan 11.

Department of Anthropology and Ethnology, Institute of Anthropology, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China.

The origin and diversification of Muslim Hui people in China via demic or simple cultural diffusion is a long-going debate. We here generated genome-wide data at nearly 700,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 45 Hui and 14 Han Chinese individuals collected from Guizhou province in southwest China. We applied principal component analysis (PCA), ADMIXTURE, -statistics, , and analysis to infer the population genetic structure and admixture history. Our results revealed the Guizhou Hui people have a limited amount of West Eurasian related ancestry at a proportion of 6%, but show massive genetic assimilation with indigenous southern Han Chinese and Tibetan or Tungusic/Mongolic related northern East Asians. We also detected a high frequency of North Asia or Central Asia related paternal Y-chromosome but not maternal mtDNA lineages in Guizhou Hui. Our observation supports the cultural diffusion has played a vital role in the formation of Hui people and the migration of Hui people to southwest China was probably a sex-biased male-driven process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2020.618614DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7834311PMC
January 2021

27 Y-chromosomal STR haplotypic structure for the Chinese Han population from Changchun, Northeastern China.

Leg Med (Tokyo) 2021 Feb 18;48:101813. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Department of Anthropology and Ethnology, Institute of Anthropology, National Institute for Data Science in Health and Medicine, and School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, PR China. Electronic address:

Y- Changchun is the capital and largest city of Jilin Province in the northeast China. In this study, we genotyped and investigated haplotypes of 27 Y-STR loci in 1037 Changchun Han male individuals using commercially available AmpFlSTR Yfiler® Plus kit. We calculated the Gene diversity (GD) values and haplotype diversity (HD) as important forensic parameters. Furthermore, we observed genetic affinities between Changchun Han with other Northern Han Chinese populations and also Korans in Yanbian in the Multidimensional scaling and phylogenetic tree analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.legalmed.2020.101813DOI Listing
February 2021

Genomic insight into the population history of Central Han Chinese.

Ann Hum Biol 2021 Feb 5;48(1):49-55. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Anthropology and Ethnology, Institute of Anthropology, National Institute for Data Science in Health and Medicine, and School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China.

Background: In recent decades, considerable attention has been paid to exploring the population genetic characteristics of Han Chinese, mainly documenting a north-south genetic substructure. However, the central Han Chinese have been largely underrepresented in previous studies.

Aim: To infer a comprehensive understanding of the homogenisation process and population history of Han Chinese.

Subjects And Methods: We collected samples from 122 Han Chinese from seven counties of Hubei province in central China and genotyped 534,000 genome-wide SNPs. We compared Hubei Han with both ancient and present-day Eurasian populations using Principal Component Analysis, ADMIXTURE,  statistics, and .

Results: We observed Hubei Han Chinese are at a genetically intermediate position on the north-south Han Chinese cline. We have not detected any significant genetic substructure in the studied groups from seven different counties. Hubei Han show significant evidence of genetic admixture deriving about 63% of ancestry from Tai-Kadai or Austronesian-speaking southern indigenous groups and 37% from Tungusic or Mongolic related northern populations.

Conclusions: The formation of Han Chinese has involved extensive admixture with Tai-Kadai or Austronesian-speaking populations in the south and Tungusic or Mongolic speaking populations in the north. The convenient transportation and central location of Hubei make it the key region for the homogenisation of Han Chinese.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03014460.2020.1851396DOI Listing
February 2021

Genetic substructure and admixture of Mongolians and Kazakhs inferred from genome-wide array genotyping.

Ann Hum Biol 2020 Dec 23;47(7-8):620-628. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

Department of Anthropology and Ethnology, Institute of Anthropology, National Institute for Data Science in Health and Medicine, and School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China.

Background: Mongolian populations are widely distributed geographically, showing abundant ethnic diversity with geographic and tribal differences.

Aim: To infer the genetic substructure, admixture and ancient genetic sources of Mongolians together with Kazakhs.

Subjects And Methods: We genotyped more than 690,000 genome-wide SNPs from 33 Mongolian and Chinese Kazakh individuals and compared these with both ancient and present-day Eurasian populations using Principal Component Analysis (PCA), ADMIXTURE, -IBD, statistics, and .

Results: We found genetic substructures within Mongolians corresponding to Ölöd, Chahar, and Inner Mongolian clusters, which was consistent with tribe classifications. Mongolian and Kazakh groups derived about 6-40% of West Eurasian related ancestry, most likely from Bronze Age Steppe populations. The East Asian related ancestry in Mongolian and Kazakh groups was well represented by the Neolithic DevilsCave related nomadic lineage, comprising 42-64% of studied groups. We also detected 10-51% of Han Chinese related ancestry in Mongolian and Kazakh groups, especially in Inner Mongolians. The average admixture times for Inner Mongolian, Mongolian_Chahar, Mongolian_Ölöd and Chinese Kazakh were about 1381, 626, 635 and 632 years ago, respectively, with Han and French as the sources.

Conclusion: The DevilsCave related ancestry was once widespread westwards covering a wide geographical range from Far East Russia to the Mongolia Plateau. The formation of present-day Mongolic and Turkic-speaking populations has also received genetic influence from agricultural expansion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03014460.2020.1837952DOI Listing
December 2020

Genome-wide analysis of unrecognised ethnic group Chuanqing people revealing a close affinity with Southern Han Chinese.

Ann Hum Biol 2020 Aug 3;47(5):465-471. Epub 2020 Jul 3.

Department of Anthropology and Ethnology, Institute of Anthropology, School of Sociology and Anthropology, and National Institute for Data Science in Health and Medicine, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China.

Background: Chuanqing is an unrecognised ethnic group in Guizhou, southwest China. The genetic history of the Chuanqing people is hotly debated due to a lack of available genetic data.

Aim: To infer the genetic structure and population history of the Chuanqing people and genetic relationships of the Chuanqing with other East Asians.

Subjects And Methods: We collected samples from 14 Chuanqing individuals from Guizhou and genotyped about 690,000 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We used Principal Component Analysis (PCA), ADMIXTURE analysis, and statistics to infer the population genetic structure and admixture.

Results: Chuanqing people show a distinct genetic profile from indigenous Tai-Kadai and Tibeto-Burman speaking populations in southwest China, but they are genetically similar to southern Han Chinese, Miao, She and Tujia populations. The Han Chinese characteristic Y chromosomal lineages reach high frequencies in the Chuanqing.

Conclusions: The genetic formation of the Chuanqing people has been greatly influenced by Han Chinese related populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03014460.2020.1782470DOI Listing
August 2020

Ancient genomes from northern China suggest links between subsistence changes and human migration.

Nat Commun 2020 06 1;11(1):2700. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, 130012, China.

Northern China harbored the world's earliest complex societies based on millet farming, in two major centers in the Yellow (YR) and West Liao (WLR) River basins. Until now, their genetic histories have remained largely unknown. Here we present 55 ancient genomes dating to 7500-1700 BP from the YR, WLR, and Amur River (AR) regions. Contrary to the genetic stability in the AR, the YR and WLR genetic profiles substantially changed over time. The YR populations show a monotonic increase over time in their genetic affinity with present-day southern Chinese and Southeast Asians. In the WLR, intensification of farming in the Late Neolithic is correlated with increased YR affinity while the inclusion of a pastoral economy in the Bronze Age was correlated with increased AR affinity. Our results suggest a link between changes in subsistence strategy and human migration, and fuel the debate about archaeolinguistic signatures of past human migration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-16557-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7264253PMC
June 2020

Haplotype analysis of 36 Y-STR loci in a Chinese Han population from Anhui Province, Eastern China.

Int J Legal Med 2020 Nov 29;134(6):2063-2065. Epub 2020 May 29.

Department of Anthropology and Ethnology, Institute of Anthropology, National Institute for Data Science in Health and Medicine, and School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005, China.

We analyzed haplotypes for 36 Y chromosomal STRs (Y-STRs), including 27 Yfiler Plus loci and 9 additional STRs (DYS549, DYS643, DYS508, DYS447, DYS596, DYS444, DYS557, and DYS527a/b) in 2018 unrelated Chinese Han individuals from Anhui Province using DNATyper 36Y Kit. Phylogenetic analysis was performed to determine the genetic relationship of the Anhui Han population with other neighboring and/or linguistically close populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00414-020-02321-0DOI Listing
November 2020

Forensic Features and Population Genetic Structure of Dong, Yi, Han, and Chuanqing Human Populations in Southwest China Inferred From Insertion/Deletion Markers.

Front Genet 2020 30;11:360. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

Department of Forensic Medicine, Guizhou Medical University, Guiyang, China.

Guizhou province in southwest China has abundant genetic and cultural diversities, but the forensic features and genetic structure of Guizhou populations remain poorly understood due to the sparse sampling of present-day populations. Here, we present 30 insertion/deletion polymorphisms (InDels) data of 591 human individuals collected from four populations, Dong, Yi, Han, and Chuanqing residing in Guizhou. We calculated the forensic parameters of 30 InDel loci and found that this panel meets the efficiency of forensic personal identification based on the high combined power of discrimination, but it could only be used as a complementary tool in the parentage testing because of the lower combined probability of exclusion values. The studied populations are genetically closer related to geographically adjacent or linguistically related populations in southern China, such as the Tai-Kadai and Hmong-Mien speaking groups. The unrecognized ethnic Chuanqing people show an additional genetic affinity with Han Chinese, highlighting the role of possible military immigrations in their origin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2020.00360DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7205039PMC
April 2020

Y-chromosome evidence confirmed the Kerei-Abakh origin of Aksay Kazakhs.

J Hum Genet 2020 Sep 20;65(9):797-803. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

MOE Key Laboratory of Contemporary Anthropology and B&R International Joint Laboratory for Eurasian Anthropology, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, 200433, China.

Aksay Kazakhs are the easternmost branch of Kazakhs, residing in Jiuquan city, the forefront of the ancient Silk Road. However, the genetic diversity of Aksay Kazakhs and its relationships with other Kazakhs still lack attention. To clarify this issue, we analyzed the non-recombining portion of the Y-chromosome from 93 Aksay Kazakhs samples, using a high-resolution analysis of 106 biallelic markers and 17 STRs. The lowest haplogroup diversity (0.38) was observed in Aksay Kazakhs among all studied Kazakh populations. The social and cultural traditions of the Kazakhs shaped their current pattern of genetic variation. Aksay Kazakhs tended to migrate with clans and had limited paternal admixture with neighboring populations. Aksay Kazakhs had the highest frequency (80%) of haplogroup C2b1a3a1-F3796 (previous C3*-Star Cluster) among the investigated Eurasian steppe populations, which was now seen as the genetic marker of Kerei clan. Furthermore, NETWORK analysis indicated that Aksay Kazakhs originated from sub-clan Kerei-Abakh in Kazakhstan with DYS448 = 23. TMRCA estimates of three recent descent clusters detected in C2*-M217 (xM48) network, one of which incorporate nearly all of the C2b1a3a1-F3796 Aksay Kazakhs samples, gave the age range of 976-1405 YA for DC1, 1059-1314 YA for DC2, and 1139-1317 YA for DC3, respectively; this is coherent with the 7 to the 11 centuries Altaic-speaking pastoral nomadic population expansion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s10038-020-0759-1DOI Listing
September 2020

Inferring the population history of Tai-Kadai-speaking people and southernmost Han Chinese on Hainan Island by genome-wide array genotyping.

Eur J Hum Genet 2020 08 2;28(8):1111-1123. Epub 2020 Mar 2.

Institute of Forensic Medicine, West China School of Basic Science and Forensic Medicine Sichuan University, Chengdu, China.

Hainan Island, located between East Asia and Southeast Asia, represents an ideal region for the study of the genetic architecture of geographically isolated populations. However, the genetic structure and demographic history of the indigenous Tai-Kadai-speaking Hlai people and recent expanded southernmost Han Chinese on this island are poorly characterized due to a lack of genetic data. Thus, we collected and genotyped 36 Qiongzhong Hlai and 48 Haikou Han individuals at 497,637 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We applied principal component analysis, ADMIXTURE, symmetrical D-statistics, admixture-f statistics, qpWave, and qpAdm analysis to infer the population history. Our results revealed the East Asian populations are characterized by a north-south genetic cline with Hlai at the southernmost end. We have not detected recent gene flow from neighboring populations into Hlai, therefore, we used Hlai as an unadmixed proxy to model the admixture history of mainland Tai-Kadai-speaking populations and southern Han Chinese. The mainland Tai-Kadai-speaking populations are suggested deriving a larger number of their ancestry from Hlai-related lineage, but also having admixture from South Asian-related or other neighboring populations. The Hlai group is also suggested to contribute about half of the ancestry to Han Chinese in Hainan. The complex patterns of genetic structure in East Asia were shaped via language categories, geographical boundaries, and large southward population movements with language dispersal and agriculture propagation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41431-020-0599-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7381617PMC
August 2020

Comprehensive genetic structure analysis of Han population from Dalian City revealed by 20 Y-STRs.

Mol Genet Genomic Med 2020 03 27;8(3):e1149. Epub 2020 Jan 27.

Department of Forensic Genetics and Biology, School of Forensic Medicine, China Medical University, Shenyang, P.R. China.

Background: Dalian is a city formed in the 1880s in Liaoning province, Northeastern China with a population of 6.69 million now. Han is the largest ethnic group not only across Mainland China (92%) and Taiwan (97%) but also considered to be the largest ethnic group of the world contributing to above 18% of world's population.

Methods: In the current study, we genotyped Goldeneye 20Y System loci in 879 unrelated male individuals from the Han ethnic group in Dalian city and calculated the forensic parameters of the 20 Y-STR loci.

Results: In total, we observed 855 haplotypes, among which 835 (94.99%) were unique. The discrimination capacity (DC) of overall Goldeneye 20Y System is 97.27% and it slightly reduces to 96.93% when only Y-filer® set of 17 Y-STRs were used, which mitigates using the extended set of markers in this population. We found DYS388 showed the lowest gene diversity (0.5151), whereas DYS389II showed the highest gene diversity (0.7621) in single copy Y-STR, and DYS385 showed the highest gene diversity (0.9683) among all.

Conclusion: Multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis based upon pairwise Rst genetic distance showed difference among Han population from the east to the west and from the north to the south. We also predicted haplogroups using Y-STR haplotypes, which showed the dominance of Haplogroup O (65.2%) followed by Haplogroup C (14.5%) in Dalian Han population. Moreover, we found 10 individuals showed a null allele at the DYS448 in our samples. We also performed linear discriminatory analysis (LDA) between Han and other prominent Chinese minority ethnic groups. We presented Y-STRs data in the Y-Chromosome Haplotype Reference Database (YHRD) for the future forensic and other usage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mgg3.1149DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7057124PMC
March 2020

High Genetic Diversity With Weak Phylogeographic Structure of the Invasive (Poaceae) in China.

Front Plant Sci 2019 20;10:1467. Epub 2019 Nov 20.

Coastal Ecosystems Research Station of Yangtze River Estuary, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for Biodiversity Science and Ecological Engineering, Institute of Biodiversity Science, Institute of Eco-Chongming (IEC), Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Biological invasion represents a global issue of concern due to its large negative impacts on native ecosystems and society. Elucidating the evolutionary history and genetic basis underpinning invasiveness is critical to understanding how alien species invade and adapt to novel environments. Smooth cordgrass (, 2n = 6 = 62) is a notorious invasive species that causes heavily negative effects on native ecosystems worldwide. Here we addressed the evolutionary mechanisms underlying the invasion and dispersal history of this species along the China coast in the past decades. We employed nine microsatellites and three chloroplast fragments to investigate phylogeographic structure and genetic diversity of 11 native US and 11 invasive Chinese populations. Demographic history simulation was also performed for both the native and invasive populations, respectively. Comparative genetic analyses of these natural populations revealed that although all the Chinese populations were introduced only once, high level of genetic diversity with weak geographic structure was observed. In particular, both the genetic features and mathematical simulation illustrated very recent population expansion in the Chinese populations. We found that genetic variants identified in native US populations were mixed in the Chinese populations, suggesting the recombination of these original variants during the invasion process. These genetic attributes indicate that Chinese populations might not have experienced a genetic bottleneck during the invasion process. High genetic diversity and genetic admixture might have contributed to the success of invasion of in China. Our study provides a framework of how the smooth cordgrass spreads along the China coast as well as its potential genetic mechanisms underlying the invasion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2019.01467DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6896949PMC
November 2019

Paternal Y chromosomal genotyping reveals multiple large-scale admixtures in the formation of Lolo-Burmese-speaking populations in southwest China.

Ann Hum Biol 2019 Dec 11;46(7-8):581-588. Epub 2019 Dec 11.

Department of History, Department of Anthropology and Ethnology, Institute of Anthropology, National Institute for Data Science in Health and Medicine, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China.

Bai and Yi people are two Tibeto-Burman speaking ethnic groups in Yunnan, southwest China. The genetic structure and history of these two groups are largely unknown due to a lack of available genetic data. To investigate the paternal genetic structure and population relationship of the Yi and Bai people. We collected samples from 278 Bai individuals and 283 Yi individuals from Yunnan and subsequently genotyped 43 phylogenetically relevant Y-SNPs in those samples. We estimated haplogroup frequencies and merged our data with a reference database including 46 representative worldwide populations to infer genetic relationships. Y chromosomal haplogroup O-M175 is the dominant lineage in both Bai and Yi people. The Bai and Yi show a close genetic relationship with other Tibeto-Burmanspeaking populations with high frequencies of haplogroup O2a2b1a1-Page23, which is also confirmed by PCA. The frequencies of the Tai-Kadai specific lineage O1a-M119, the southern China widespread lineage O1b-P31 and the eastern China enriched lineage O2a1b-002611, are also relatively high in our studied populations. The paternal Y chromosomal affinity of the Bai and Yi with Tibeto-Burman groups is consistent with the language classification. During the formation of the Bai and Yi populations, there were multiple large-scale admixtures, including the expansion of Neolithic farming populations from northern China, the assimilation of Tai-Kadai-speaking populations in southwest China, the demographic expansion driven by Neolithic agricultural revolution from southern China, and the admixture with populations of military immigration from northern and eastern China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03014460.2019.1698655DOI Listing
December 2019

Forensic genetic polymorphisms and population structure of the Guizhou Bouyei people based on 19 X-STR loci.

Ann Hum Biol 2019 Dec 3;46(7-8):574-580. Epub 2019 Dec 3.

Department of History, Department of Anthropology and Ethnology, Institute of Anthropology, National Institute for Data Science in Health and Medicine, Xiamen University, Xiamen, China.

Guizhou province is located in southwest China with abundant genetic, linguistic and cultural diversity. The Bouyei is one of the 18 officially recognised minority groups in Guizhou, accounting for about 97% of the total Bouyei population in China. However, the genetic history and forensic characterisation of the Bouyei people is largely unknown due to a lack of genetic data. We aim to investigate genetic polymorphisms and forensic characterisation of the Guizhou Bouyei population, as well as the relationships between the Bouyei and other East Asian populations. We genotyped 19 X-STRs in 188 males and 165 females of Guizhou Bouyei using the AGCU X19 STR Kit. We estimated allele frequencies, forensic parameters and genetic distances between the Bouyei and other East Asian populations. We presented the genetic distances in a phylogenetic tree, an MDS plot and a PCA plot. In Guizhou Bouyei individuals, we observed 216 alleles with corresponding frequencies ranging from 0.0019 to 0.6757. All of the six combined powers of PD, PD, MEC Krüger, MEC Kishida, MEC Desmarais and MEC Desmarais in allele diversity and haplotype diversity are larger than 0.99999995. We found genetic affinities among the Bouyei people and their geographical neighbouring populations in Guizhou, such as the Sui, Miao and Han. The highly polymorphic and informative forensic parameters of the 19 X-STRs in Bouyei people show the powerful potential of those markers in forensic identification and parentage tests. The genetic relationships of the Bouyei with other East Asian populations correspond well with geographic affiliations as well as linguistic classifications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03014460.2019.1697362DOI Listing
December 2019

Phylogenetic relationship and genetic history of Central Asian Kazakhs inferred from Y-chromosome and autosomal variations.

Mol Genet Genomics 2020 Jan 23;295(1):221-231. Epub 2019 Oct 23.

Department of Forensic Genetics and Biology, School of Forensic Medicine, China Medical University, Shenyang, 110122, China.

The Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China (XUARC) with 47 ethnic groups is a very colorful ethnic region of China, harboring abundant genetic and cultural diversity. The Kazakhs are the third largest ethnic group (7.02%) after Uyghur (46.42%) and Han (38.99%) in Xinjiang, but their genetic diversity and forensic characterization are poorly understood. In the current study, we genotyped 15 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci and ten Y-STRs in 889 individuals (659 male and 230 female) collected from Kazak population of the Ili Kazak Autonomous Prefecture using AGCU Expressmarker 16 and 10Y-STR Kit (EX16 + 10Y). For autosomal STRs, we observed a total of 174 different alleles ranging from 6 to 34.2 repeat units and FGA showed the greatest power of discrimination (20 alleles) in Ili Kazakh population. We have not observed departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) after sequential Bonferroni correction and only found a minimal departure from linkage equilibrium (LE) for a very small number of pairwise combinations of loci. The combined power of exclusion (CPE) was 0.99999998395 and combined power of discrimination (CPD) was 99.999999999999999798%. For Y-STRs, we observed a total of 496 different haplotypes in these ten Y-STR loci. The gene diversities ranged from 0.5023 (DYS391) to 0.8357 (DYS385a/b). The overall haplotype diversity (GD) was 0.9985 with random matching probability (RMP) of 0.0015. The results of population genetic analysis based on both autosomal and Y-chromosome STRs demonstrated that the genetic affinity among populations is generally consistent with ethnic, linguistic, and continental geographical classifications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00438-019-01617-0DOI Listing
January 2020

Genetic structure and forensic characteristics of Saraiki population from Southern Punjab, Pakistan, revealed by 20 Y-chromosomal STRs.

Int J Legal Med 2020 May 7;134(3):977-979. Epub 2019 Aug 7.

Department of Forensic Genetics and Biology, School of Forensic Medicine, China Medical University, Shenyang, 110122, China.

Pakistan harbors more than 18 major ethnic groups which speak 60 different languages. People speaking Saraiki languages are known as Saraiki or Multani. They are mainly residents of Southern Punjab including Multan, Dear Ghazi Khan, Rajanpur, and Rahim Yar khan. Here, we reported the data of 20 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) genotyped with the Goldeneye® 20Y kit in 154 unrelated Saraiki individuals. We observed 141 different haplotypes on 20 Y-STR loci and the gene diversity (GD) ranged from 0.6566 (DYS448) to 0.9538 (DYS385a, b). The overall haplotype diversity was 0.9989 at 20 Y-STRs loci. Furthermore, we performed population genetic analyses by including data from 26 other South Asian populations. The presented haplotype data was recently included in the Y-Chromosome Haplotype Reference Database (YHRD) for future forensic and other usage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00414-019-02138-6DOI Listing
May 2020

Ancient Genomes Reveal Yamnaya-Related Ancestry and a Potential Source of Indo-European Speakers in Iron Age Tianshan.

Curr Biol 2019 08 25;29(15):2526-2532.e4. Epub 2019 Jul 25.

School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, China; Research Center for Chinese Frontier Archaeology, Jilin University, Changchun 130012, China; Key Laboratory for Evolution of Past Life and Environment in Northeast Asia (Jilin University), Ministry of Education, Changchun 130021, China. Electronic address:

Recent studies of early Bronze Age human genomes revealed a massive population expansion by individuals-related to the Yamnaya culture, from the Pontic Caspian steppe into Western and Eastern Eurasia, likely accompanied by the spread of Indo-European languages [1-5]. The south eastern extent of this migration is currently not known. Modern-day human populations from the Xinjiang region in northwestern China show a complex population history, with genetic links to both Eastern and Western Eurasia [6-10]. However, due to the lack of ancient genomic data, it remains unclear which source populations contributed to the Xinjiang population and what was the timing and the number of admixture events. Here, we report the first genome-wide data of 10 ancient individuals from northeastern Xinjiang. They are dated to around 2,200 years ago and were found at the Iron Age Shirenzigou site. We find them to be already genetically admixed between Eastern and Western Eurasians. We also find that the majority of the East Eurasian ancestry in the Shirenzigou individuals is-related to northeastern Asian populations, while the West Eurasian ancestry is best presented by ∼20% to 80% Yamnaya-like ancestry. Our data thus suggest a Western Eurasian steppe origin for at least part of the ancient Xinjiang population. Our findings furthermore support a Yamnaya-related origin for the now extinct Tocharian languages in the Tarim Basin, in southern Xinjiang.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2019.06.044DOI Listing
August 2019

Genetic diversity, structure and forensic characteristics of Hmong-Mien-speaking Miao revealed by autosomal insertion/deletion markers.

Mol Genet Genomics 2019 Dec 16;294(6):1487-1498. Epub 2019 Jul 16.

Department of Anthropology and Ethnology, Institute of Anthropology, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005, China.

Insertion/deletion (Indel) genetic markers have special features compared to other forensic-related markers, such as the low mutation rate and di-allelic markers with length polymorphism, playing an indispensable role in the forensic and population genetics, molecular anthropology and evolutionary biology. However, the genetic diversity, allelic frequency, forensic parameters and population genetic characteristics of the Indel markers in Hmong-Mien-speaking Guizhou Miao people are unclear due to the sparse sampling. Thus, we genotyped 30 forensic-related Indel markers in 311 unrelated healthy Miao individuals (149 females and 161 males) residing in the Guizhou Province in Southwest China using the Investigator DIPplex amplification system. All 30 Indels are in accordance with the no departures of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and linkage disequilibrium. The combined probability of discrimination and the probability of exclusion in Guizhou Miao population are 0.999999999948 and 0.9843, respectively. This observed ideal forensic parameter estimates indicate that this di-allelic Indel panel can be used as a supplementary tool in forensic retinue personal identification and complemented for autosomal STRs in the parentage testing in Miao population, especially used as the main tool in old or highly degraded samples in disaster victim identification. Eleven Indels show a high allele frequency difference between different continental populations and could be used as ancestry-informative markers in forensic ancestry inference. Phylogenetic relationships between Guizhou Miao and 68 worldwide populations based on the genetic polymorphisms of Indels are investigated via three different pairwise genetic distances, principal component analysis, multidimensional scaling analysis and phylogenetic relationship reconstructions. Analyses of the comprehensive population genetic relationship comparison reveal significant genetic differentiation of Chinese groups. Our results demonstrate that Guizhou Miao people are genetically closer related to the geographically adjacent populations, especially with Liangshan Yi, Guangxi Miao and Dong, but genetically distinct with Turkic-speaking populations. Comprehensive and precise genetic admixture and divergence history of Guizhou Miao and neighboring populations are needed to further investigate and reconstruct via high-density marker panel or whole-genome sequencing of modern or ancient Miao samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00438-019-01591-7DOI Listing
December 2019

A comprehensive exploration of the genetic legacy and forensic features of Afghanistan and Pakistan Mongolian-descent Hazara.

Forensic Sci Int Genet 2019 09 25;42:e1-e12. Epub 2019 Jun 25.

Department of Anthropology and Ethnology, Institute of Anthropology, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005, China. Electronic address:

Afghanistan and Pakistan are rich with a complex landscape of culture, linguistics, ethnicity and genetic legacy at the crossroads between Indian-Subcontinent and Central Asia. Hazara people have historically been suggested to be Mongolian decedents but seldom been genetically studied. To dissect the genetic structure and explore the forensic characteristics of Hazara people, we first genotyped 30 Insertion/deletion (Indel) markers in 468 samples from 2 aboriginal Hazara populations from Afghanistan and Pakistan, and 100 East Asian comparative Bouyei samples using the Investigator® DIPplex kit. Subsequently, we carried out a comprehensive population genetic analysis from four different datasets: 8895 30-Indel genotype data from 51 populations, 15,895 30-Indel allele frequency data from 98 populations, 1048 genotypes of 993 STRs and Indels from 53 HGDP populations and 2068 whole-genomes (621,799 single nucleotide polymorphisms) from 165 worldwide Human origin reference populations, to further unravel the genetic complexity between Hazara and worldwide human populations using various statistical analysis. We find that 30 Indels are in accordance with HWE, and informative and polymorphic in both Central Asians Hazara and East Asian Bouyei populations. The forensic combined probability of exclusion is larger than 0.9943 and the cumulative power of discrimination is larger than 0.99999999999936. These forensic parameters show the high level of diversity, which makes the Indel amplification system suitable for forensic routine work and may be used as a supplementary assay for routine forensic investigation. The results from pairwise genetic distances, MDS, PCA, and phylogenetic relationship reconstruction demonstrate that present-day Hazaras are genetically closer to the Turkic-speaking populations (Uyghur, Kazakh, and Kyrgyz) residing in northwest China than with other Central/South Asian populations and Mongolian. Outgroup and admixture ff, f-ratio, qpWave, and qpAdm results further demonstrate that Hazara shares more alleles with East Asians than with other Central Asians and carries 57.8% Mongolian-related ancestry. Overall, our findings suggest that Hazaras have experienced genetic admixture with the local or neighboring populations and formed the current East-West Eurasian admixed genetic profile after their separation from the Mongolians.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fsigen.2019.06.018DOI Listing
September 2019

Phylogeography of Y-chromosome haplogroup Q1a1a-M120, a paternal lineage connecting populations in Siberia and East Asia.

Ann Hum Biol 2019 May 10;46(3):261-266. Epub 2019 Jul 10.

Department of Anthropology and Ethnology, Xiamen University, Xiamen, PR China.

Previous studies have suggested that the human Y-chromosome haplogroup Q1a1a-M120, a widespread paternal lineage in East Asian populations, originated in South Siberia. However, much uncertainty remains regarding the origin, diversification, and expansion of this paternal lineage. To explore the origin and diffusion of paternal Q-M120 lineages in East Asia. The authors generated 26 new Y chromosome sequences of Q-M120 males and co-analysed 45 Y chromosome sequences of this haplogroup. A highly-revised phylogenetic tree of haplogroup Q-M120 with age estimates was reconstructed. Additionally, a comprehensive phylogeographic analysis of this lineage was performed including 15,007 samples from 440 populations in eastern Eurasia. An ancient connection of this lineage with populations in Siberia was revealed. However, this paternal lineage experienced an expansion between 5000 and 3000 years ago in northwestern China. Ancient populations with high frequencies of Q-M120 were involved in the formation of ancient Huaxia populations before 2000 years ago; this haplogroup eventually became one of the founding paternal lineages of modern Han populations. This study provides a clear pattern of the origin and diffusion process of haplogroup Q1a1a-M120, as well as the role of this paternal lineage during the formation of ancient Huaxia populations and modern Han populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03014460.2019.1632930DOI Listing
May 2019

Population genetics, diversity and forensic characteristics of Tai-Kadai-speaking Bouyei revealed by insertion/deletions markers.

Mol Genet Genomics 2019 Oct 13;294(5):1343-1357. Epub 2019 Jun 13.

Department of Anthropology and Ethnology, Institute of Anthropology, Xiamen University, Xiamen, 361005, China.

China, inhabited by over 1.3 billion people and known for its genetic, cultural and linguistic diversity, is considered to be indispensable for understanding the association between language families and genetic diversity. In order to get a better understanding of the genetic diversity and forensic characteristics of Tai-Kadai-speaking populations in Southwest China, we genotyped 30 insertion/deletion (InDel) markers and amelogenin in 205 individuals from Tai-Kadai-speaking Bouyei people using the Qiagen Investigator DIPplex amplification kit. We carried out a comprehensive population genetic relationship investigation among 14,303 individuals from 84 worldwide populations based on allele frequency correlation and 4907 genotypes of 30 InDels from 36 populations distributed in all continental or major subregions and seven linguistic phyla in China. Forensic parameters observed show highly polymorphic and informative features for Asians, although the DIPplex kit was developed focusing on Europeans, and indicate that this amplification system is appropriate to forensic personal identification and parentage testing. Patterns of InDel variations revealed by principal components analysis, multidimensional scaling plots, phylogenetic relationship exploration, model-based clustering as well as four pairwise genetic distances (Fst, Nei, Cavalli-Sforza and Reynolds) demonstrate significant genetic differentiation at the continental scale and genetic uniformity in Asia except for Tibeto-Burman and Turkic-speaking populations. Additionally, Tai-Kadai speakers, including Bouyei, Zhuang and Dong, share more genetic ancestry components than with other language speakers, and in general they are genetically very similar to Hmong-Mien-speaking populations. The dataset of Bouyei people generated in the present study is valuable for forensic identification and parentage tests in China.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00438-019-01584-6DOI Listing
October 2019

Genetic structure and forensic characterisation of 19 X-chromosomal STR loci in Guizhou Sui population.

Ann Hum Biol 2019 May 1;46(3):246-253. Epub 2019 Jul 1.

Department of History, Department of Anthropology and Ethnology, Institute of Anthropology, Xiamen University, Xiamen, PR China.

Guizhou Sui people are an officially recognised ethnic group living in southwest China, but have seldom been studied genetically. To investigate the polymorphisms of 19 X-chromosome STR loci in a typical Sui population and enrich the East Asian X-STR reference database for forensic DNA analysis. A total of 400 Sui individuals (195 males and 205 females) were genotyped at 19 X-STR loci using the AGCU X19 STR Kit. The allele frequencies and forensic parameters were calculated and illustrated and the data of Guizhou Sui were merged with 18 other nationwide populations to explore genetic polymorphisms and population relationships. A total of 215 alleles were observed with corresponding frequencies ranging from 0.0017-0.6512 in Sui using male and female pooled allele frequencies. Large values were observed, at least 0.9999999933, in combined powers of discrimination of Sui males and females, as well as the four mean paternity exclusion chances (MECs). The phylogenetic analysis among 19 populations showed that Sui have close genetic affinities with other Tai-Kadai populations, as well as the Sinitic populations living in southern China. The AGCU X-19 STRs are highly polymorphic and informative in Guizhou Sui people. The genetic relationships between Sui and other populations in China are generally consistent with the language classification and geographical distance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03014460.2019.1623911DOI Listing
May 2019

The paternal genetic structure of Jingpo and Dai in southwest China.

Ann Hum Biol 2019 May 27;46(3):279-283. Epub 2019 Jun 27.

Department of Anthropology and Ethnology, Institute of Anthropology, Xiamen University, Xiamen, PR China.

Yunnan province harbours substantial genetic, cultural and linguistic diversity, with the largest number of Aborigines in China, but the relationship among these Aborigines remains enigmatic. This study genotyped 45 Y chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 500 males from two aboriginal cross-border populations, Jingpo and Dai, from Dehong, Yunnan. It is reported that Haplogroup O2a2b1a1-M117 is the dominant lineage in both Jingpo and Dai. The Jingpo people show affinity with Tibeto-Burman speaking populations with a relatively high frequency of Haplogroup D-M174, and the Dai people are generally genetically similar with Tai-Kadai speaking populations with high frequencies of Haplogroup O1a-M119 and O1b1a1a-M95, which is consistent with their language classification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03014460.2019.1624821DOI Listing
May 2019

Molecular genealogy of Tusi Lu's family reveals their paternal relationship with Jochi, Genghis Khan's eldest son.

J Hum Genet 2019 Aug 5;64(8):815-820. Epub 2019 Jun 5.

MOE Key Laboratory of Contemporary Anthropology and B&R International Joint Laboratory for Eurasian Anthropology, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, 200438, Shanghai, China.

Genghis Khan's lineage has attracted both academic and general interest because of its mystery and large influence. However, the truth behind the mystery is complicated and continues to confound the scientific study. In this study, we surveyed the molecular genealogy of Northwestern China's Lu clan who claim to be the descendants of the sixth son of Genghis Khan, Toghan. We also investigated living members of the Huo and Tuo clans, who, according to oral tradition, were close male relatives of Lu clan. Using network analysis, we found that the Y-chromosomal haplotypes of Lu clan mainly belong to haplogroup C2b1a1b1-F1756, widely prevalent in Altaic-speaking populations, and are closely related to the Tore clan from Kazakhstan, who claim to be the descendants of the first son of Genghis Khan, Jochi. The most recent common ancestor of the special haplotype cluster that includes the Lu clan and Tore clan lived about 1000 years ago (YA), while the Huo and Tuo clans do not share any Y lineages with the Lu clan. In addition to the reported lineages, such as C3*-Star Cluster, R1b-M343, and Q, our results indicate that haplogroup C2b1a1b1-F1756 might be another candidate of the true Y lineage of Genghis Khan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s10038-019-0618-0DOI Listing
August 2019

The genetic history of admixture across inner Eurasia.

Nat Ecol Evol 2019 06 29;3(6):966-976. Epub 2019 Apr 29.

Department of Archaeogenetics, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Jena, Germany.

The indigenous populations of inner Eurasia-a huge geographic region covering the central Eurasian steppe and the northern Eurasian taiga and tundra-harbour tremendous diversity in their genes, cultures and languages. In this study, we report novel genome-wide data for 763 individuals from Armenia, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Moldova, Mongolia, Russia, Tajikistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan. We furthermore report additional damage-reduced genome-wide data of two previously published individuals from the Eneolithic Botai culture in Kazakhstan (~5,400 BP). We find that present-day inner Eurasian populations are structured into three distinct admixture clines stretching between various western and eastern Eurasian ancestries, mirroring geography. The Botai and more recent ancient genomes from Siberia show a decrease in contributions from so-called 'ancient North Eurasian' ancestry over time, which is detectable only in the northern-most 'forest-tundra' cline. The intermediate 'steppe-forest' cline descends from the Late Bronze Age steppe ancestries, while the 'southern steppe' cline further to the south shows a strong West/South Asian influence. Ancient genomes suggest a northward spread of the southern steppe cline in Central Asia during the first millennium BC. Finally, the genetic structure of Caucasus populations highlights a role of the Caucasus Mountains as a barrier to gene flow and suggests a post-Neolithic gene flow into North Caucasus populations from the steppe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41559-019-0878-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6542712PMC
June 2019

The massive assimilation of indigenous East Asian populations in the origin of Muslim Hui people inferred from paternal Y chromosome.

Am J Phys Anthropol 2019 06 19;169(2):341-347. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

MOE Key Laboratory of Contemporary Anthropology and Collaborative Innovation Center of Genetics and Development, School of Life Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai, China.

Objectives: The Hui people are the adherents of Muslim faith and distributing throughout China. There are two contrasting hypotheses about the origin and diversification of the Hui people, namely, the demic diffusion involving the mass movement of people or simple cultural diffusion.

Materials And Methods: We collected 621 unrelated male individuals from 23 Hui populations all over China. We comprehensively genotyped more than 100 informative Y-chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms and 17 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (STRs) on those samples.

Results: Co-analyzed with published worldwide populations, our results suggest the origin of Hui people has involved massive assimilation of indigenous East Asians with about 70% in total of the paternal ancestry could be traced back to East Asia and the left 30% to various regions in West Eurasia.

Discussion: The genetic structure of the extant Hui populations was primarily shaped by the indigenous East Asian populations as they contribute the majority part of the paternal lineages of Hui people. The West Eurasian admixture was probably a sex-biased male-driven process since we have not found such a high proportion of West Eurasian gene flow on autosomal STRs and maternal mtDNA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.23823DOI Listing
June 2019