Publications by authors named "Chu Zhang"

161 Publications

Carrier Transport Layer-Free Perovskite Solar Cells.

ChemSusChem 2021 Aug 25. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Graduate School of Life Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 2-4 Hibikino, Wakamatsu-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka, Japan.

Power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of up to 25.5 % have been reported for perovskite solar cells (PSCs). Thus, they have shown great potential for commercial applications. Therefore, simplifying technological process and reducing production costs have been a widespread concern among scientific and industrial communities. In this study, PSCs are prepared with the simplest device architecture (FTO/MAPbI /carbon). A high-quality perovskite film with few interface defects and good carrier transport is obtained by tuning the p-n properties, matching energy levels, and enhancing carrier collection and transport. A PCE of 12.01 % is achieved, which is the best reported to date for this device structure. The device also shows excellent long-term stability, owing to the elimination of charge transport layers and the usage of hydrophobic materials. This study provides a new approach to reduce production costs and simplify production of PSCs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cssc.202101592DOI Listing
August 2021

A novel RIP1/RIP3 dual inhibitor promoted OPC survival and myelination in a rat neonatal white matter injury model with hOPC graft.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 08 18;12(1):462. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Department of Cell Biology and Neurobiology, Xuzhou Key Laboratory of Neurobiology, Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, 221004, People's Republic of China.

Background: The dual inhibitors of receptor interacting protein kinase-1 and -3 (RIP1 and RIP3) play an important role in cell death processes and inflammatory responses. White matter injury (WMI), a leading cause of neurodevelopmental disabilities in preterm infants, which is characterized by extensive myelination disturbances and demyelination. Neuroinflammation, leads to the loss and differentiation-inhibition of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), represents a major barrier to myelin repair. Whether the novel RIP1/RIP3 dual inhibitor ZJU-37 can promote transplanted OPCs derived from human neural stem cells (hOPCs) survival, differentiation and myelination remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of ZJU-37 on myelination and neurobehavioral function in a neonatal rat WMI model induced by hypoxia and ischemia.

Methods: In vivo, P3 rat pups were subjected to right common carotid artery ligation and hypoxia, and then treated with ZJU-37 or/and hOPCs, then OPCs apoptosis, myelination, glial cell and NLRP3 inflammasome activation together with cognitive outcome were evaluated at 12 weeks after transplantation. In vitro, the effect of ZJU-37 on NLRP3 inflammasome activation in astrocytes induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) were examined by western blot and immunofluorescence. The effect of ZJU-37 on OPCs apoptosis induced by the conditioned medium from OGD-injured astrocytes (OGD-astrocyte-CM) was analyzed by flow cytometry and immunofluorescence.

Results: ZJU-37 combined with hOPCs more effectively decreased OPC apoptosis, promoted myelination in the corpus callosum and improved behavioral function compared to ZJU-37 or hOPCs treatment. In addition, the activation of glial cells and NLRP3 inflammasome was reduced by ZJU-37 or/and hOPCs treatment in the neonatal rat WMI model. In vitro, it was also confirmed that ZJU-37 can suppress NLRP3 inflammasome activation in astrocytes induced by OGD. Not only that, the OGD-astrocyte-CM treated with ZJU-37 obviously attenuated OPC apoptosis and dysdifferentiation caused by the OGD-astrocyte-CM.

Conclusions: The novel RIP1/RIP3 dual inhibitor ZJU-37 may promote OPC survival, differentiation and myelination by inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome activation in a neonatal rat model of WMI with hOPC graft.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13287-021-02532-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8375070PMC
August 2021

Rapid and Accurate Varieties Classification of Different Crop Seeds Under Sample-Limited Condition Based on Hyperspectral Imaging and Deep Transfer Learning.

Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2021 23;9:696292. Epub 2021 Jul 23.

College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Rapid varieties classification of crop seeds is significant for breeders to screen out seeds with specific traits and market regulators to detect seed purity. However, collecting high-quality, large-scale samples takes high costs in some cases, making it difficult to build an accurate classification model. This study aimed to explore a rapid and accurate method for varieties classification of different crop seeds under the sample-limited condition based on hyperspectral imaging (HSI) and deep transfer learning. Three deep neural networks with typical structures were designed based on a sample-rich Pea dataset. Obtained the highest accuracy of 99.57%, VGG-MODEL was transferred to classify four target datasets (rice, oat, wheat, and cotton) with limited samples. Accuracies of the deep transferred model achieved 95, 99, 80.8, and 83.86% on the four datasets, respectively. Using training sets with different sizes, the deep transferred model could always obtain higher performance than other traditional methods. The visualization of the deep features and classification results confirmed the portability of the shared features of seed spectra, providing an interpreted method for rapid and accurate varieties classification of crop seeds. The overall results showed great superiority of HSI combined with deep transfer learning for seed detection under sample-limited condition. This study provided a new idea for facilitating a crop germplasm screening process under the scenario of sample scarcity and the detection of other qualities of crop seeds under sample-limited condition based on HSI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2021.696292DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8343196PMC
July 2021

Improving the metabolic stability of antifungal compounds based on a scaffold hopping strategy: Design, synthesis, and structure-activity relationship studies of dihydrooxazole derivatives.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 Jul 21;224:113715. Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Key Laboratory of Structure-Based Drug Design & Discovery of Ministry of Education, School of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, 103 Wenhua Road, Shenhe District, Shenyang, 110016, China.

l-amino alcohol derivatives exhibited high antifungal activity, but the metabolic stability of human liver microsomes in vitro was poor, and the half-life of optimal compound 5 was less than 5 min. To improve the metabolic properties of the compounds, the scaffold hopping strategy was adopted and a series of antifungal compounds with a dihydrooxazole scaffold was designed and synthesized. Compounds A33-A38 substituted with 4-phenyl group on dihydrooxazole ring exhibited excellent antifungal activities against C. albicans, C. tropicalis and C. krusei, with MIC values in the range of 0.03-0.25 μg/mL. In addition, the metabolic stability of compounds A33 and A34 in human liver microsomes in vitro was improved significantly, with the half-life greater than 145 min and the half-life of 59.1 min, respectively. Moreover, pharmacokinetic studies in SD rats showed that A33 exhibited favourable pharmacokinetic properties, with a bioavailability of 77.69%, and half-life (intravenous administration) of 9.35 h, indicating that A33 is worthy of further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2021.113715DOI Listing
July 2021

Efficiency and microbial diversity of aeration solid-phase denitrification process bioaugmented with HN-AD bacteria for the treatment of low C/N wastewater.

Environ Res 2021 Jul 30;202:111786. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chongqing University of Technology, Chongqing, 400054, China. Electronic address:

To evaluate the simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) performance of the aeration solid-phase denitrification (SPD) process and improve the operating efficiency, aeration SPD process using polybutanediol succinate as carbon source was optimized and the process was bioaugmented with heterotrophic nitrification-aerobic denitrification bacteria for the treatment of real wastewater. The results showed that after bioaugmentation, the total nitrogen removal efficiency of the aeration SPD process increased by 50.46 % under condition of dissolved oxygen (DO) 3 mg/L. According to Illumina MiSeq sequencing and correlation analyses, the microbial community can perform SND under the conditions of DO 5 mg and HRT 6 h, but is susceptible to DO. Bioaugmentation mainly affected the carbon source metabolic network with heterotrophic bacteria Methyloversatilis, Thiothrix, and norank_Lentimicrobiaceae as nodes to change the community structure, thereby improving the performance of the functional microbial community. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis suggested that narB, narG, narH, nirK and narI were the key genes involved in the response to bioaugmentation. This work provides new insights for the application of the SPD process in wastewater treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.111786DOI Listing
July 2021

Hyperspectral imaging with shallow convolutional neural networks (SCNN) predicts the early herbicide stress in wheat cultivars.

J Hazard Mater 2021 Jul 22;421:126706. Epub 2021 Jul 22.

College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, 866 Yuhangtang Road, Hangzhou 310058, China. Electronic address:

The toxicity impacts of herbicides on crop, animals, and human are big problems global wide. The rapid and non-invasive ways for assessing herbicide-responsible effects on crop growth regarding types and levels still remain unexplored. In this study, visible/near infrared hyperspectral imaging (Vis/NIR HSI) coupled with SCNN was used to reveal the different characteristics in the spectral reflectance of 2 varieties of wheat seedling leaves that were subjected to 4 stress levels of 3 herbicide types during 4 stress durations and make early herbicide stress prediction. The first-order derivative results showed the spectral reflectance exhibited obvious differences at 518-531 nm, 637-675 nm and the red-edge. A SCNN model with attention mechanism (SCNN-ATT) was proposed for herbicide type and level classification of different stress durations. Further, a SCNN-based feature selection model (SCNN-FS) was proposed to screen out the characteristic wavelengths. The proposed methods achieved 96% accuracy of herbicide type classification and around 80% accuracy of stress level classification for both wheat varieties after 48 h. Overall, this study illustrated the potential of using Vis/NIR HSI to rapidly distinguish different herbicide types and serial levels in wheat at an early stage, which held great value for developing on-line herbicide stress recognizing methods in the field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126706DOI Listing
July 2021

Identification and Validation of Immune-Related LncRNA Prognostic Signature for Lung Adenocarcinoma.

Front Genet 2021 5;12:681277. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Shaoxing University (Shaoxing People's Hospital), Shaoxing, China.

This study aimed to establish a prognostic risk model for lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). We firstly divided 535 LUAD samples in TCGA-LUAD into high-, medium-, and low-immune infiltration groups by consensus clustering analysis according to immunological competence assessment by single-sample gene set enrichment analysis (ssGSEA). Profile of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in normal samples and LUAD samples in TCGA was used for a differential expression analysis in the high- and low-immune infiltration groups. A total of 1,570 immune-related differential lncRNAs in LUAD were obtained by intersecting the above results. Afterward, univariate COX regression analysis and multivariate stepwise COX regression analysis were conducted to screen prognosis-related lncRNAs, and an eight-immune-related-lncRNA prognostic signature was finally acquired (AL365181.2, AC012213.4, DRAIC, MRGPRG-AS1, AP002478.1, AC092168.2, FAM30A, and LINC02412). Kaplan-Meier analysis and ROC analysis indicated that the eight-lncRNA-based model was accurate to predict the prognosis of LUAD patients. Simultaneously, univariate COX regression analysis and multivariate COX regression analysis were undertaken on clinical features and risk scores. It was illustrated that the risk score was a prognostic factor independent from clinical features. Moreover, immune data of LUAD in the TIMER database were analyzed. The eight-immune-related-lncRNA prognostic signature was related to the infiltration of B cells, CD4+ T cells, and dendritic cells. GSEA enrichment analysis revealed significant differences in high- and low-risk groups in pathways like pentose phosphate pathway, ubiquitin mediated proteolysis, and P53 signaling pathway. This study helps to treat LUAD patients and explore molecules related to LUAD immune infiltration to deeply understand the specific mechanism.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fgene.2021.681277DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8301374PMC
July 2021

Si-Wu-Tang facilitates ovarian function through improving ovarian microenvironment and angiogenesis in a mouse model of premature ovarian failure.

J Ethnopharmacol 2021 Nov 19;280:114431. Epub 2021 Jul 19.

Institute of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430030, China; Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, 430030, China. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a severe illness, characterized by premature menopause with a markedly decrease in ovarian function, which leads to infertility. Si-Wu-Tang (SWT), also called "the first prescription of gynecology" by medical experts in China, is widely used as the basic formula in regulating the menstrual cycle and treating infertility. However, the potential effect and underlying mechanisms of action of SWT on the treatment of POF have not yet been elucidated.

Purpose: This study aimed to explore the therapeutic effect and underlying molecular mechanism of action of SWT on the treatment of POF in C57BL/6 mice.

Materials And Methods: The main compounds of SWT were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). POF model groups were established by a single intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide (Cy, 100 mg/kg). SWT or dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) were administered via oral gavage for 28 consecutive days. Ovarian function and pathological changes were evaluated by hormone levels, follicular development, and changes in angiogenesis. Furthermore, statistical analyses of fertility were also performed.

Results: Treatment with SWT significantly improved estrogen levels, the number of follicles, antioxidant defense, and microvascular formation in POF mice. Moreover, SWT significantly activated the Nrf2/HO-1 and STAT3/HIF-1α/VEGF signaling pathways to promote angiogenesis, resulting in a better fertility outcome when compared to the model group.

Conclusions: Our findings indicated that SWT protected ovarian function of Cy-induced POF mice by improving the antioxidant ability and promoting ovarian angiogenesis, thereby providing scientific evidence for the treatment of POF using SWT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2021.114431DOI Listing
November 2021

Impact of Surgical Wait Time on Survival in Patients With Upper Urinary Tract Urothelial Carcinoma With Hydronephrosis.

Front Oncol 2021 5;11:698594. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Urology, The Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical University, Xuzhou, China.

Background And Objectives: Due to the inevitability of waiting time for surgery, this problem seems to have become more pronounced since the outbreak of COVID-19, and due to the high incidence of preoperative hydronephrosis in upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC) patients, it is particularly important to explore the impact of preoperative waiting time and hydronephrosis on upper urinary urothelial carcinoma.

Methods: 316 patients with UTUC who underwent radical surgery at a high-volume center in China between January 2008 and December 2019 were included in this study. We retrospectively collected the clinicopathologic data from the medical records, including age, sex, smoking history, ECOG performance status (ECOG PS), body mass index (BMI), tumor location and size, number of lesions, T stage, N stage, surgical approach and occurrence of hydronephrosis, lymph node invasion, lymph node dissection, surgical margin, tumor necrosis, infiltrative tumor architecture, lymphovascular invasion and concomitant bladder cancer. Surgical wait time was defined as the interval between initial imaging diagnosis and radical surgery of UTUC. Hydronephrosis was defined as abnormal dilation of the renal pelvis and calyces due to obstruction of the urinary system. Firstly, all patients were divided into short-wait (<31 days), intermediate-wait (31-90 days) and long-wait (>90 days) groups according to the surgical wait time. The clinicopathological characteristics of each group were evaluated and the survival was compared. For patients with hydronephrosis, we subsequently divided them into two groups: short-wait (≤60 days) and long-wait (>60 days) groups according to the surgical wait time. Univariate and multivariate COX regression analysis were performed to evaluate the prognostic risk factor for patients with hydronephrosis.

Results: A total of 316 patients with UTUC were included in this study with a median surgical wait time of 22 days (IQR 11-71 days). Of the 316 patients, 173 were classified into the short-wait group (54.7%), 69 into the intermediate-wait group (21.8%) and 74 into the long-wait group (23.5%). The median follow-up time for all patients was 43 months (IQR 28-67months). The median surgical wait times of the short-wait, intermediate-wait and long-wait group were12 days (IQR 8-17days), 42days (IQR 37-65days) and 191days (IQR 129-372days), respectively. The 5-year overall survival (OS) of all patients was 54.3%. The 5-year OS of short-wait, intermediate-wait and long-wait groups were 56.4%, 59.3% and 35.1%, respectively (P=0.045). The 5-year cancer-specific survival (CSS) of short-wait, intermediate-wait and long-wait groups were 65.8%, 70.9% and 39.6%, respectively (P=0.032). In the subgroup analysis, we divided 158 UTUC patients with hydronephrosis into short-wait group (≤60 days) and long-wait group (> 60 days), 120 patients were included in the short-wait group and 38 patients in the long-wait group. The median surgical wait times of the short-wait and long-wait group were 14days (IQR 8-28days) and 174days (IQR 100-369days), respectively. The 5-year OS of long-wait group was significantly lower than the OS of short-wait group (44.2% 55.1%, P =0.023). The 5-year CSS of long-wait and short-wait group were 49.1% and 61.7%, respectively (P=0.041). In multivariate Cox regression analysis of UTUC patients with hydronephrosis, surgical wait time, tumor grade, pathological T stage, and tumor size were independent risk factors for OS and CSS. Lymph node involvement was also a prognostic factor for CSS.

Conclusion: For patients with UTUC, the surgical wait time should be limited to less than 3 months. For UTUC patients with hydronephrosis, the OS and CSS of patients with surgical wait time of more than 60 days were relatively shorted than those of patients with surgical wait time of less than 60 days.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2021.698594DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8287585PMC
July 2021

Low miR-1231 expression predicts poor prognosis in non-small-cell lung cancer and accelerates cell proliferation, migration and invasion.

Biomark Med 2021 Aug 5;15(11):831-840. Epub 2021 Jul 5.

Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang, 212001, China.

miRNAs have been found to be involved in the tumor progression. This study aimed to assess the prognostic significance and biological function of miRNA-1231 (miR-1231) in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Expression of miR-1231 was measured by using quantitative real-time PCR. The prognosis value of miR-1231 was evaluated by Kaplan-Meier survival curves and Cox regression analysis. The biological function of miR-1231 was further studied. Expression of miR-1231 in NSCLC patients and NSCLC cell lines were decreased. MiR-1231 was an independent prognostic biomarker. Overexpression of miR-1231 inhibited NSCLC cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Downregulated expression of miR-1231 serves as a prognostic biomarker of NSCLC and may be a potential therapeutic target.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/bmm-2020-0313DOI Listing
August 2021

Application of Visible/Infrared Spectroscopy and Hyperspectral Imaging With Machine Learning Techniques for Identifying Food Varieties and Geographical Origins.

Front Nutr 2021 17;8:680357. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

School of Information Engineering, Huzhou University, Huzhou, China.

Food quality and safety are strongly related to human health. Food quality varies with variety and geographical origin, and food fraud is becoming a threat to domestic and global markets. Visible/infrared spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging techniques, as rapid and non-destructive analytical methods, have been widely utilized to trace food varieties and geographical origins. In this review, we outline recent research progress on identifying food varieties and geographical origins using visible/infrared spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging with the help of machine learning techniques. The applications of visible, near-infrared, and mid-infrared spectroscopy as well as hyperspectral imaging techniques on crop food, beverage, fruits, nuts, meat, oil, and some other kinds of food are reviewed. Furthermore, existing challenges and prospects are discussed. In general, the existing machine learning techniques contribute to satisfactory classification results. Follow-up researches of food varieties and geographical origins traceability and development of real-time detection equipment are still in demand.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fnut.2021.680357DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8247466PMC
June 2021

Long-Term Dynamic Imaging of Cellular Processes Using an AIE Lipid Order Probe in the Dual-Color Mode.

Anal Chem 2021 07 4;93(29):10272-10281. Epub 2021 Jul 4.

Department of Chemistry, Beijing Key Laboratory for Microanalytical Methods and Instrumentation, Key Laboratory of Bioorganic Phosphorus Chemistry and Chemical Biology (Ministry of Education), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, P. R. China.

Lipid order in the cytoplasm membrane of eukaryotic cells undergoes dynamic changes in almost all cellular processes. Dynamically monitoring these changes is of essential biological significance and remains challenging. This work provides the first aggregation-induced emission probe, TPNPDA-C15, with highly three-dimensional specificity to cell membranes for fluorescent imaging of lipid order of live cells. TPNPDA-C15 displays red fluorescence enhancement with the viscosity increase while emits yellow fluorescence when aggregates form. Imaging analyses of giant unilamellar vesicles and live cells under osmotic shock by the probe demonstrate its sensitive response to the degree of phospholipids packing on artificial and cell membranes. Taking advantage of its superior low photocytotoxicity and high photostability, TPNPDA-C15 is further applied for long-term dynamic imaging of entire live cell physiological processes including apoptosis, ferroptosis, and mitosis in the dual-color mode. With the analysis of fluorescence signal changes in the two fluorescence channels, TPNPDA-C15 serves as a robust fluorescent probe for the imaging study of cellular dynamics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.1c01681DOI Listing
July 2021

Camrelizumab plus Zoledronic Acid Showed Sustained Efficacy in a Patient with Cranial and Spinal Metastases from Lung Adenocarcinoma.

Iran J Immunol 2021 06;18(2):150-157

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Shaoxing People's Hospital (Shaoxing Hospital), School of Medicine, Zhejiang University, Shaoxing, P.R.China.

The role of anti-programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) antibody camrelizumab in brain metastases (BMs) from lung adenocarcinoma is uncertain. Herein, for the first time, we report the efficacy of camrelizumab in a patient with chemotherapy-refractory BMs from lung adenocarcinoma. A 49-year-old male non-smoker was admitted with cough and back pain. Primary lung adenocarcinoma with brain and spinal metastases was diagnosed. The specimen from CT-guided lung biopsy showed a positive expression of PD-L1 (~20%).The BMs were enlarged after first-line intravenous pemetrexed/cisplatin and zoledronic acid; whereas second-line camrelizumab demonstrated impressive complete remission of the BMs. The intracranial progression-free survival and overall survival of the patients since the start of the immunotherapy plan prolonged to more than 12 months and 20 months, respectively. In addition, we searched PubMed for relevant studies from inception to May 2020, and a total of 23 reports enrolling 1187 patients also indicated the promising efficacy of immunotherapy for BMs from lung cancer. However, more and better evidence is still needed before a definite conclusion could be drawn.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22034/iji.2021.87760.1828DOI Listing
June 2021

Design, synthesis, biological evaluation and pharmacophore model analysis of novel tetrahydropyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrazol derivatives as potential TRKs inhibitors.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 Nov 15;223:113627. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

Key Laboratory of Structure-Based Drug Design and Discovery, Ministry of Education, School of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, 103 Wenhua Road, Shenhe District, Shenyang, 110016, PR China.

The tropomyosin receptor kinases TRKs are responsible for different tumor types which caused by NTRK gene fusion, and have been identified as a successful target for anticancer therapeutics. Herein, we report a potent and selectivity TRKs inhibitor 19m through rational drug design strategy from a micromolar potency hit 17a. Compound 19m significantly inhibits the proliferation of TRK-dependent cell lines (Km-12), while it has no inhibitory effect on TRK-independent cell lines (A549 and THLE-2). Furthermore, kinases selectivity profiling showed that in addition to TRKs, compound 19m only displayed relatively strong inhibitory activity on ALK. These data may indicate that compound 19m has a good drug safety. Partial ADME properties were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Compound 19m exhibited a good AUC values and volume of distribution and low clearance in the pharmacokinetics experiment of rats. Finally, a pharmacophore model guided by experimental results is proposed. We hope this theoretical model can help researchers find type I TRK inhibitors more efficiently.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2021.113627DOI Listing
November 2021

Immune-Related Long Non-coding RNA Signature and Clinical Nomogram to Evaluate Survival of Patients Suffering Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 4;9:641960. Epub 2021 Mar 4.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Shaoxing People's Hospital, Shaoxing, China.

Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) turns out to be one of the most prevalent cancer types, leading to a relatively high mortality among worldwide sufferers. In this study, gene microarray data of ESCC patients were obtained from the GEO database, with the samples involved divided into a training set and a validation set. Based on the immune-related differential long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) we identified, a prognostic eight-lncRNA-based risk signature was constructed following regression analyses. Then, the predictive capacity of the model was evaluated in the training set and validation set using survival curves and receiver operation characteristic curves. In addition, univariate and multivariate regression analyses based on clinical information and the model-based risk score also demonstrated the ability of the risk score in independently determining the prognosis of patients. Besides, based on the CIBERSORT tool, the abundance of immune infiltrates in tumor samples was scored, and a significant difference was presented between the high- and low- risk groups. Correlation analysis with immune checkpoints (PD1, PDL1, and CTLA4) indicated that the eight-lncRNA signature-based risk score was negatively correlated with PD1 expression, suggesting that the eight-lncRNA signature may have an effect in immunotherapy for ESCC. Finally, GO annotation was performed for the differential mRNAs that were co-expressed with the eight lncRNAs, and it was uncovered that they were remarkably enriched in immune-related biological functions. These results suggested that the eight-lncRNA signature-based risk model could be employed as an independent biomarker for ESCC prognosis and might play a part in evaluating the response of ESCC to immunotherapy with immune checkpoint blockade.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.641960DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7969885PMC
March 2021

Combining Multi-Dimensional Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) With Visualization Method for Detection of Glover Infection in Cotton Leaves Using Hyperspectral Imaging.

Front Plant Sci 2021 15;12:604510. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

Key Laboratory of Oasis Ecology Agriculture, Shihezi University, Shihezi, China.

Cotton is a significant economic crop. It is vulnerable to aphids ( Glovers) during the growth period. Rapid and early detection has become an important means to deal with aphids in cotton. In this study, the visible/near-infrared (Vis/NIR) hyperspectral imaging system (376-1044 nm) and machine learning methods were used to identify aphid infection in cotton leaves. Both tall and short cotton plants (Lumianyan 24) were inoculated with aphids, and the corresponding plants without aphids were used as control. The hyperspectral images (HSIs) were acquired five times at an interval of 5 days. The healthy and infected leaves were used to establish the datasets, with each leaf as a sample. The spectra and RGB images of each cotton leaf were extracted from the hyperspectral images for one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) analysis. The hyperspectral images of each leaf were used for three-dimensional (3D) analysis. Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) were used for identification and compared with conventional machine learning methods. For the extracted spectra, 1D CNN had a fine classification performance, and the classification accuracy could reach 98%. For RGB images, 2D CNN had a better classification performance. For HSIs, 3D CNN performed moderately and performed better than 2D CNN. On the whole, CNN performed relatively better than conventional machine learning methods. In the process of 1D, 2D, and 3D CNN visualization, the important wavelength ranges were analyzed in 1D and 3D CNN visualization, and the importance of wavelength ranges and spatial regions were analyzed in 2D and 3D CNN visualization. The overall results in this study illustrated the feasibility of using hyperspectral imaging combined with multi-dimensional CNN to detect aphid infection in cotton leaves, providing a new alternative for pest infection detection in plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2021.604510DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7917247PMC
February 2021

Recent progress of nondestructive techniques for fruits damage inspection: a review.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Feb 13:1-19. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

School of Information Engineering, Huzhou University, Huzhou, China.

In the process of growing, harvesting, and storage, fruits are vulnerable to mechanical damage, microbial infections, and other types of damage, which not only reduce the quality of fruits, increase the risk of fungal infections, in turn greatly affect food safety, but also sharply reduce economic benefits. Hence, it is essential to identify damaged fruits in time. Rapid and nondestructive detection of fruits damage is in great demand. In this paper, the latest research progresses on the detection of fruits damage by nondestructive techniques, including visible/near-infrared spectroscopy, chlorophyll fluorescence techniques, computer vision, multispectral and hyperspectral imaging, structured-illumination reflectance imaging, laser-induced backscattering imaging, optical coherence tomography, nuclear magnetic resonance and imaging, X-ray imaging, electronic nose, thermography, and acoustic methods, are summarized. We briefly introduce the principles of these techniques, summarize their applicability. The challenges and future trends are also proposed to provide beneficial reference for future researches and real-world applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2021.1885342DOI Listing
February 2021

Bushen Huoxue recipe attenuates early pregnancy loss via activating endometrial COX2-PGE2 angiogenic signaling in mice.

BMC Complement Med Ther 2021 Jan 14;21(1):36. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Institute of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430030, People's Republic of China.

Background: During the fresh cycles of in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer, a disturbance in the reproductive endocrine environment following controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) is closely related to compromised endometrial receptivity. This is a major disadvantage for women during pregnancy. Based on the theory of traditional Chinese medicine, Bushen Huoxue recipe (BSHXR) has been indicated to facilitate embryo implantation.

Methods: The COH model (Kunming breed) was induced by injecting mice with pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin (0.4 IU/g) and human chorionic gonadotropin (1 IU/g), followed by treatment with BSHXR at three different concentrations (5.7, 11.4, and 22.8 g/kg), Bushen recipe (BSR) (5.7 g/kg), and Huoxue recipe (HXR) (5.7 g/kg). After successful mating, the pregnancy rate and implantation sites were examined on embryo day 8 (ED8), and the weight ratio of endometrium was calculated on ED4 midnight. Serum estrogen, progesterone, and endometrial PGE2 levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The endometrial microvasculature was evaluated using CD31 immunostaining. The protein and mRNA levels of the angiogenic factors in the endometrium were evaluated using western blot, immunohistochemistry, and polymerase chain reaction.

Results: In the COH group, the pregnancy rate and implantation sites were significantly decreased, and abnormal serum hormone levels and impaired endometrial vascular development were observed. After BSHXR treatment, the supraphysiological serum progesterone level in COH mice was restored to normalcy. Moreover, the abnormal expression of the endometrial pro-angiogenic factors, including HIF1α, COX2-PGE2 pathway, and the down-stream factors, namely, MMP2, MMP9, TIMP2, and FGF2 after subjecting mice to COH was significantly improved after BSHXR treatment.

Conclusion: BSHXR could improve embryo implantation by regulating hormonal balance and modulating endometrial angiogenesis in mice, without inducing any side effects in normal pregnancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-021-03201-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7809844PMC
January 2021

Advances in infrared spectroscopy combined with artificial neural network for the authentication and traceability of food.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2020 Dec 21:1-22. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

The authentication and traceability of food attract more attention due to the increasing consumer awareness regarding nutrition and health, being a new hotspot of food science. Infrared spectroscopy (IRS) combined with shallow neural network has been widely proven to be an effective food analysis technology. As an advanced deep learning technology, deep neural network has also been explored to analyze and solve food-related IRS problems in recent years. The present review begins with brief introductions to IRS and artificial neural network (ANN), including shallow neural network and deep neural network. More notably, it emphasizes the comprehensive overview of the advances of the technology combined IRS with ANN for the authentication and traceability of food, based on relevant literature from 2014 to early 2020. In detail, the types of IRS and ANN, modeling processes, experimental results, and model comparisons in related studies are described to set forth the usage and performance of the combined technology for food analysis. The combined technology shows excellent ability to authenticate food quality and safety, involving chemical components, freshness, microorganisms, damages, toxic substances, and adulteration. As well, it shows excellent performance in the traceability of food variety and origin. The advantages, current limitations, and future trends of the combined technology are further discussed to provide a thoughtful viewpoint on the challenges and expectations of online applications for the authentication and traceability of food.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2020.1862045DOI Listing
December 2020

Application of Deep Learning in Food: A Review.

Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2019 Nov 16;18(6):1793-1811. Epub 2019 Sep 16.

College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou, 310058, China.

Deep learning has been proved to be an advanced technology for big data analysis with a large number of successful cases in image processing, speech recognition, object detection, and so on. Recently, it has also been introduced in food science and engineering. To our knowledge, this review is the first in the food domain. In this paper, we provided a brief introduction of deep learning and detailedly described the structure of some popular architectures of deep neural networks and the approaches for training a model. We surveyed dozens of articles that used deep learning as the data analysis tool to solve the problems and challenges in food domain, including food recognition, calories estimation, quality detection of fruits, vegetables, meat and aquatic products, food supply chain, and food contamination. The specific problems, the datasets, the preprocessing methods, the networks and frameworks used, the performance achieved, and the comparison with other popular solutions of each research were investigated. We also analyzed the potential of deep learning to be used as an advanced data mining tool in food sensory and consume researches. The result of our survey indicates that deep learning outperforms other methods such as manual feature extractors, conventional machine learning algorithms, and deep learning as a promising tool in food quality and safety inspection. The encouraging results in classification and regression problems achieved by deep learning will attract more research efforts to apply deep learning into the field of food in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12492DOI Listing
November 2019

Investigation on Data Fusion of Multisource Spectral Data for Rice Leaf Diseases Identification Using Machine Learning Methods.

Front Plant Sci 2020 10;11:577063. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Rice diseases are major threats to rice yield and quality. Rapid and accurate detection of rice diseases is of great importance for precise disease prevention and treatment. Various spectroscopic techniques have been used to detect plant diseases. To rapidly and accurately detect three different rice diseases [leaf blight ( pv. ), rice blast (), and rice sheath blight ()], three spectroscopic techniques were applied, including visible/near-infrared hyperspectral imaging (HSI) spectra, mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIR), and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Three different levels of data fusion (raw data fusion, feature fusion, and decision fusion) fusing three different types of spectral features were adopted to categorize the diseases of rice. Principal component analysis (PCA) and autoencoder (AE) were used to extract features. Identification models based on each technique and different fusion levels were built using support vector machine (SVM), logistic regression (LR), and convolution neural network (CNN) models. Models based on HSI performed better than those based on MIR and LIBS, with the accuracy over 93% for the test set based on PCA features of HSI spectra. The performance of rice disease identification varied with different levels of fusion. The results showed that feature fusion and decision fusion could enhance identification performance. The overall results illustrated that the three techniques could be used to identify rice diseases, and data fusion strategies have great potential to be used for rice disease detection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.577063DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7683421PMC
November 2020

Wheat Kernel Variety Identification Based on a Large Near-Infrared Spectral Dataset and a Novel Deep Learning-Based Feature Selection Method.

Front Plant Sci 2020 10;11:575810. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectroscopy becomes an emerging nondestructive sensing technology for inspection of crop seeds. A large spectral dataset of more than 140,000 wheat kernels in 30 varieties was prepared for classification. Feature selection is a critical segment in large spectral data analysis. A novel convolutional neural network-based feature selector (CNN-FS) was proposed to screen out deeply target-related spectral channels. A convolutional neural network with attention (CNN-ATT) framework was designed for one-dimension data classification. Popular machine learning models including support vector machine (SVM) and partial least square discrimination analysis were used as the benchmark classifiers. Features selected by conventional feature selection algorithms were considered for comparison. Results showed that the designed CNN-ATT produced a higher performance than the compared classifier. The proposed CNN-FS found a subset of features, which made a better representation of raw dataset than conventional selectors did. The CNN-ATT achieved an accuracy of 93.01% using the full spectra and keep its high precision (90.20%) by training on the 60-channel features obtained via the CNN-FS method. The proposed methods have great potential for handling the analyzing tasks on other large spectral datasets. The proposed feature selection structure can be extended to design other new model-based selectors. The combination of NIR hyperspectroscopic technology and the proposed models has great potential for automatic nondestructive classification of single wheat kernels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.575810DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7683420PMC
November 2020

Novel Lead-Free Material CsPtI with Narrow Bandgap and Ultra-Stability for Its Photovoltaic Application.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Oct 25;12(40):44700-44709. Epub 2020 Sep 25.

Graduate School of Life Science and Systems Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, 2-4 Hibikino, Wakamatsu-ku, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka 804-8550, Japan.

Lead halide perovskite has in recent years gained widespread interest due to its excellent physical and chemical properties, as well as superior optoelectronic performance. However, some restrictions still preclude full industrialization of the material, in particular toxicity issues and instability as a result to sensitivity to humidity. Lead-free all-inorganic double perovskite materials have thus recently become a focus of research. Herein, a new narrow bandgap lead-free double perovskite solar cell with a high-quality CsPtI film is proposed. It exhibits an optical bandgap of 1.37 eV, absorption within a wide range of wavelengths, and a high absorption coefficient. Following optimization, the device displays a best power conversion efficiency of 0.72% with an open-circuit voltage of 0.73 V, a short-circuit current of 1.2 mA/cm, and a fill factor of 0.82. Crucially, it also demonstrates excellent stability when exposed to extreme conditions such as high humidity, high temperature, and UV-light irradiation. Stability tests show that the PSCs can retain almost 80% of the original efficiency over 60 days stored in ambient temperature without any encapsulation, boosting prospects for applications of lead-free perovskite solar cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c11429DOI Listing
October 2020

First-line pemetrexed and carboplatin plus anlotinib for epidermal growth factor receptor wild-type and anaplastic lymphoma kinase-negative lung adenocarcinoma with brain metastasis: A case report and review of the literature.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Sep;99(36):e22128

Department of Respirology and Critical Care Medicine, Xuzhou Central Hospital, Xuzhou, China.

Rationale: Brain metastasis (BM) is a serious complication in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Pemetrexed is one of the preferred agents in nonsquamous NSCLC with BM; however, the traditional chemotherapy demonstrated limited efficacy partly due to drug resistance and the blood-brain barrier.

Patient Concerns: A 52-year-old male non-smoker was admitted for irritating cough, chest distress, and back pain.

Diagnoses: Epidermal growth factor receptor wild-type, anaplastic lymphoma kinase-negative primary lung adenocarcinoma with an asymptomatic solitary BM (cTxNxM1b, IVA).

Interventions: Pemetrexed (500 mg/m of body surface area) and carboplatin (area under the curve of 5) were firstly administered every 3 weeks for 3 cycles, followed by pemetrexed/carboplatin plus anlotinib (12 mg daily; 2 weeks on and 1 week off) for another 3 cycles. Then maintenance anlotinib monotherapy was continued for a year, without unacceptable adverse events.

Outcomes: The BM was slightly enlarged after 3 cycles of pemetrexed/carboplatin; however, a complete remission was achieved after the combination therapy. His intracranial progression-free survival was more than 2 years.

Lessons: Pemetrexed/carboplatin plus anlotinib could be considered for the treatment of epidermal growth factor receptor wild-type, anaplastic lymphoma kinase-negative lung adenocarcinoma with BM. Further well-designed trials are warranted to verify this occasional finding.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000022128DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7478551PMC
September 2020

Minichromosome maintenance protein 5 is an important pathogenic factor of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

Oncol Lett 2020 Oct 10;20(4):109. Epub 2020 Aug 10.

Department of Stomatology, China-Japan Union Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin 130033, P.R. China.

Oral squamous cell carcinoma is one of the most common causes of malignancy-associated death. Early diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is important in patient treatment and prognostic evaluation. Due to the lack of significant therapeutic benefit, the 5-year survival rate has not improved. Therefore, effective novel markers are needed to improve diagnosis. To determine novel promising diagnostic biomarkers for OSCC, 416 upregulated and 416 downregulated differentially expressed genes were screened from OSCC tissues using an RNA microarray. The results suggested that minichromosome maintenance protein () mRNA was significantly overexpressed in OSCC tissues compared with that in adjacent normal tissues. Moreover, silencing of MCM5 expression an OSCC cell line (SCC-15) significantly impaired proliferation and colony formation. Furthermore, negative regulation of the mRNA and protein expression of MCM5 and demonstrated that served as a cancer-promoting gene modulating OSCC cell proliferation through induced G/M phase arrest. In this process, the mRNA expression of cyclin E and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 was downregulated, while p21 expression was upregulated. These results suggested that MCM5 may be an important pathogenic factor of OSCC. High expression levels of MCM5 may serve as a marker for the early diagnosis of OSCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ol.2020.11970DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7439113PMC
October 2020

YAP/TAZ affects the development of pulmonary fibrosis by regulating multiple signaling pathways.

Mol Cell Biochem 2020 Dec 19;475(1-2):137-149. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Department of Thoracic Surgery, Shaoxing People's Hospital (Shaoxing Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine), No. 568 Zhongxing North Road, Yuecheng District, Shaoxing, 312000, China.

YAP and TAZ are important co-activators of various biological processes in human body. YAP/TAZ plays a vital role in the development of pulmonary fibrosis. Dysregulation of the YAP/TAZ signaling pathway is one of the most important causes of pulmonary fibrosis. Therefore, considering its crucial role, summary of the signal mechanism of YAP/TAZ is of certain guiding significance for the research of YAP/TAZ as a therapeutic target. The present review provided a detailed introduction to various YAP/TAZ-related signaling pathways and clarified the specific role of YAP/TAZ in these pathways. In the meantime, we summarized and evaluated possible applications of YAP/TAZ in the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis. Overall, our study is of guiding significance for future research on the functional mechanism of YAP/TAZ underlying lung diseases as well as for identification of novel therapeutic targets specific to pulmonary fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11010-020-03866-9DOI Listing
December 2020

Intermediate-Controlled Interfacial Engineering for Stable and Highly Efficient Carbon-Based PSCs.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2020 Jul 20;12(30):34479-34486. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Department of Materials Science and Engineering, China Jiliang University, Hangzhou 310018, P. R. China.

A major bottleneck hindering the performance and commercial application of cost-effective carbon-based perovskite solar cells (C-PSCs) is the contact issue at the interface of the perovskite layer and the carbon counter electrode. Herein, a new approach of intermediate-controlled interfacial engineering (IIE) utilizing an ultra-low-cost acetylene black material is developed for the first time that can improve the interfacial contact of C-PSCs. We achieved both high efficiency (16.41%) without hole-transport materials and good stability as a result of the optimal heterogeneous interfacial contact. Devices without any encapsulation consistently exhibit excellent environmental stability, retaining 93% of their original efficiency by storing in an ambient atmosphere (30 °C, 30% RH) for 2000 h and achieving 81% of their original efficiency by storing in a terrible air environment (85 °C, 65% RH) for 312 h. In addition, to acquire a deep understanding of carrier transport, a comparison of heterogeneous interfaces fabricated using different methods has been undertaken. In C-PSCs fabricated by the IIE method, the lower radioactive recombination and faster carrier transfer result in a shorter carrier lifetime. We present a promising future for the industrialization of C-PSCs by reducing the costs and improving the performance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.0c11419DOI Listing
July 2020

Emergency transarterial embolization followed by staged hepatectomy versus emergency hepatectomy for ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma: a single-center, propensity score matched analysis.

Jpn J Radiol 2020 Nov 20;38(11):1090-1098. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Department of Interventional Radiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, 300 Guangzhou Road, Gulou District, Nanjing, 210029, China.

Purpose: To compare the feasibility and efficacy of emergency transarterial embolization (TAE) followed by staged hepatectomy (SH) with emergency hepatectomy (EH) for ruptured hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

Methods: Between January 2012 and December 2017, 102 patients with HCC rupture received EH or emergency TAE followed by SH in our center. Patients were followed until April 2019. Propensity score matching (PSM) analysis was used at a 1:2 ratio, resulting in 20 patients in the SH group and 40 patients in the EH group. We retrospectively compared the operative variables, recurrence status, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) of patients between the two matched groups.

Results: Compared with the matched EH group, the SH group showed significantly decreased perioperative blood loss or blood transfusion, shortened intraoperative duration of clamping and postoperative hospital stay (P < 0.05), while achieving comparable long-term OS (SH group: 39.0 months vs. EH group: 38.1 months, P = 0.342). There was no significant difference in the peritoneal metastasis rate (SH group: 20.0% vs. EH group: 25.6%, P = 0.874), recurrence rate (SH group: 65.0% vs. EH group: 71.8%, P = 0.333) or DFS (SH group: 9.4 months vs. EH group: 7.7 months, P = 0.602) between the two matched groups.

Conclusion: For resectable ruptured HCC, emergency TAE of rupture which followed by SH, could bring patients about intraoperative and postoperative benefits when compared to EH. Moreover, this combination treatment will not increase the rate of peritoneal metastasis or recurrence, and might achieve favorable survival benefits for patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11604-020-01007-2DOI Listing
November 2020

Detection of adulteration in food based on nondestructive analysis techniques: a review.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 16;61(14):2351-2371. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China.

In recent years, people pay more and more attention to food quality and safety, which are significantly relating to human health. Food adulteration is a world-wide concerned issue relating to food quality and safety, and it is difficult to be detected. Modern detection techniques (high performance liquid chromatography, gas chromatography-mass spectrometer, etc.) can accurately identify the types and concentrations of adulterants in different food types. However, the characteristics as expensive, low efficient and complex sample preparation and operation limit the use of these techniques. The rapid, nondestructive and accurate detection techniques of food adulteration is of great and urgent demand. This paper introduced the principles, advantages and disadvantages of the nondestructive analysis techniques and reviewed the applications of these techniques in food adulteration screen in recent years. Differences among these techniques, differences on data interpretation and future prospects were also discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2020.1777526DOI Listing
August 2021

High-Throughput Screening of Free Proline Content in Rice Leaf under Cadmium Stress Using Hyperspectral Imaging with Chemometrics.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Jun 5;20(11). Epub 2020 Jun 5.

College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, 866 Yuhangtang Road, Hangzhou 310058, China.

Tracking of free proline (FP)-an indicative substance of heavy metal stress in rice leaf-is conducive to improve plant phenotype detection, which has important guiding significance for precise management of rice production. Hyperspectral imaging was used for high-throughput screening FP in rice leaves under cadmium (Cd) stress with five concentrations and four periods. The average spectral of rice leaves were used to show differences in optical properties. Partial least squares (PLS), least-squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) and extreme learning machine (ELM) models based on full spectra and effective wavelengths were established to detect FP content. Genetic algorithm (GA), competitive adaptive weighted sampling (CARS) and PLS weighting regression coefficient (Bw) were compared to screen the most effective wavelengths. Distribution map of the FP content in rice leaves were obtained to display the changes in the FP of leaves visually. The results illustrated that spectral differences increased with Cd stress time and FP content increased with Cd stress concentration. The best result for FP detection is the ELM model based on 27 wavelengths selected by CARS and is 0.9426. Undoubtedly, hyperspectral imaging combined with chemometrics was a rapid, cost effective and non-destructive technique to excavate changes of FP in rice leaves under Cd stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20113229DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7308835PMC
June 2020
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