Publications by authors named "Chrysiis Michaloglou"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Combined Inhibition of mTOR and CDK4/6 Is Required for Optimal Blockade of E2F Function and Long-term Growth Inhibition in Estrogen Receptor-positive Breast Cancer.

Mol Cancer Ther 2018 05 26;17(5):908-920. Epub 2018 Feb 26.

Bioscience, Oncology, IMED Biotech Unit, AstraZeneca, Cambridge United Kingdom.

The cyclin dependent kinase (CDK)-retinoblastoma (RB)-E2F pathway plays a critical role in the control of cell cycle in estrogen receptor-positive (ER) breast cancer. Small-molecule inhibitors of CDK4/6 have shown promise in this tumor type in combination with hormonal therapies, reflecting the particular dependence of this subtype of cancer on cyclin D1 and E2F transcription factors. mTOR inhibitors have also shown potential in clinical trials in this disease setting. Recent data have suggested cooperation between the PI3K/mTOR pathway and CDK4/6 inhibition in preventing early adaptation and eliciting growth arrest, but the mechanisms of the interplay between these pathways have not been fully elucidated. Here we show that profound and durable inhibition of ER breast cancer growth is likely to require multiple hits on E2F-mediated transcription. We demonstrate that inhibition of mTORC1/2 does not affect ER function directly, but does cause a decrease in cyclin D1 protein, RB phosphorylation, and E2F-mediated transcription. Combination of an mTORC1/2 inhibitor with a CDK4/6 inhibitor results in more profound effects on E2F-dependent transcription, which translates into more durable growth arrest and a delay in the onset of resistance. Combined inhibition of mTORC1/2, CDK4/6, and ER delivers even more profound and durable regressions in breast cancer cell lines and xenografts. Furthermore, we show that CDK4/6 inhibitor-resistant cell lines reactivate the CDK-RB-E2F pathway, but remain sensitive to mTORC1/2 inhibition, suggesting that mTORC1/2 inhibitors may represent an option for patients that have relapsed on CDK4/6 therapy. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-17-0537DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6485624PMC
May 2018

The tyrosine phosphatase PTPN14 is a negative regulator of YAP activity.

PLoS One 2013 16;8(4):e61916. Epub 2013 Apr 16.

Novartis Institutes for BioMedical Research, Disease Area Oncology, Basel, Switzerland.

The Hippo (Hpo) pathway is a novel signaling pathway that controls organ size in Drosophila and mammals and is deregulated in a variety of human cancers. It consists of a set of kinases that, through a number of phosphorylation events, inactivate YAP, a transcriptional co-activator that controls cellular proliferation and apoptosis. We have identified PTPN14 as a YAP-binding protein that negatively regulates YAP activity by controlling its localization. Mechanistically, we find that the interaction of ectopic YAP with PTPN14 can be mediated by the respective WW and PPxY motifs. However, the PTPN14 PPxY motif and phosphatase activity appear to be dispensable for the negative regulation of endogenous YAP, likely suggesting more complex mechanisms of interaction and modulation. Finally, we demonstrate that PTPN14 downregulation can phenocopy YAP activation in mammary epithelial cells and synergize with YAP to induce oncogenic transformation.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0061916PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3628344PMC
November 2013

Abrogation of BRAFV600E-induced senescence by PI3K pathway activation contributes to melanomagenesis.

Genes Dev 2012 May 1;26(10):1055-69. Epub 2012 May 1.

Division of Molecular Oncology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, 1066 CX Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Human melanocytic nevi (moles) are benign lesions harboring activated oncogenes, including BRAF. Although this oncogene initially acts mitogenically, eventually, oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) ensues. Nevi can infrequently progress to melanomas, but the mechanistic relationship with OIS is unclear. We show here that PTEN depletion abrogates BRAF(V600E)-induced senescence in human fibroblasts and melanocytes. Correspondingly, in established murine BRAF(V600E)-driven nevi, acute shRNA-mediated depletion of PTEN prompted tumor progression. Furthermore, genetic analysis of laser-guided microdissected human contiguous nevus-melanoma specimens recurrently revealed identical mutations in BRAF or NRAS in adjacent benign and malignant melanocytes. The PI3K pathway was often activated through either decreased PTEN or increased AKT3 expression in melanomas relative to their adjacent nevi. Pharmacologic PI3K inhibition in melanoma cells suppressed proliferation and induced the senescence-associated tumor suppressor p15(INK4B). This treatment also eliminated subpopulations resistant to targeted BRAF(V600E) inhibition. Our findings suggest that a significant proportion of melanomas arise from nevi. Furthermore, these results demonstrate that PI3K pathway activation serves as a rate-limiting event in this setting, acting at least in part by abrogating OIS. The reactivation of senescence features and elimination of cells refractory to BRAF(V600E) inhibition by PI3K inhibition warrants further investigation into the therapeutic potential of simultaneously targeting these pathways in melanoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gad.187252.112DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3360561PMC
May 2012

The essence of senescence.

Genes Dev 2010 Nov;24(22):2463-79

Division of Molecular Genetics, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Almost half a century after the first reports describing the limited replicative potential of primary cells in culture, there is now overwhelming evidence for the existence of "cellular senescence" in vivo. It is being recognized as a critical feature of mammalian cells to suppress tumorigenesis, acting alongside cell death programs. Here, we review the various features of cellular senescence and discuss their contribution to tumor suppression. Additionally, we highlight the power and limitations of the biomarkers currently used to identify senescent cells in vitro and in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gad.1971610DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2975923PMC
November 2010

Oncogene-induced senescence relayed by an interleukin-dependent inflammatory network.

Cell 2008 Jun;133(6):1019-31

Division of Molecular Genetics, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, 1066 CX Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Oncogene-induced cellular senescence (OIS) is emerging as a potent cancer-protective response to oncogenic events, serving to eliminate early neoplastic cells from the proliferative pool. Using combined genetic and bioinformatic analysis, we find that OIS is linked specifically to the activation of an inflammatory transcriptome. Induced genes included the pleiotropic cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6), which upon secretion by senescent cells acted mitogenically in a paracrine fashion. Unexpectedly, IL-6 was also required for the execution of OIS, but in a cell-autonomous mode. Its depletion caused the inflammatory network to collapse and abolished senescence entry and maintenance. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the transcription factor C/EBPbeta cooperates with IL-6 to amplify the activation of the inflammatory network, including IL-8. In human colon adenomas, IL-8 specifically colocalized with arrested, p16(INK4A)-positive epithelium. We propose a model in which the context-dependent cytostatic and promitogenic functions of specific interleukins contribute to connect senescence with an inflammatory phenotype and cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2008.03.039DOI Listing
June 2008

BRAFE600-associated senescence-like cell cycle arrest of human naevi.

Nature 2005 Aug;436(7051):720-4

Division of Molecular Genetics, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Most normal mammalian cells have a finite lifespan, thought to constitute a protective mechanism against unlimited proliferation. This phenomenon, called senescence, is driven by telomere attrition, which triggers the induction of tumour suppressors including p16(INK4a) (ref. 5). In cultured cells, senescence can be elicited prematurely by oncogenes; however, whether such oncogene-induced senescence represents a physiological process has long been debated. Human naevi (moles) are benign tumours of melanocytes that frequently harbour oncogenic mutations (predominantly V600E, where valine is substituted for glutamic acid) in BRAF, a protein kinase and downstream effector of Ras. Nonetheless, naevi typically remain in a growth-arrested state for decades and only rarely progress into malignancy (melanoma). This raises the question of whether naevi undergo BRAF(V600E)-induced senescence. Here we show that sustained BRAF(V600E) expression in human melanocytes induces cell cycle arrest, which is accompanied by the induction of both p16(INK4a) and senescence-associated acidic beta-galactosidase (SA-beta-Gal) activity, a commonly used senescence marker. Validating these results in vivo, congenital naevi are invariably positive for SA-beta-Gal, demonstrating the presence of this classical senescence-associated marker in a largely growth-arrested, neoplastic human lesion. In growth-arrested melanocytes, both in vitro and in situ, we observed a marked mosaic induction of p16(INK4a), suggesting that factors other than p16(INK4a) contribute to protection against BRAF(V600E)-driven proliferation. Naevi do not appear to suffer from telomere attrition, arguing in favour of an active oncogene-driven senescence process, rather than a loss of replicative potential. Thus, both in vitro and in vivo, BRAF(V600E)-expressing melanocytes display classical hallmarks of senescence, suggesting that oncogene-induced senescence represents a genuine protective physiological process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature03890DOI Listing
August 2005
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