Publications by authors named "Christopher U Jones"

36 Publications

The impact of age on outcome in phase III NRG Oncology/RTOG trials of radiotherapy (XRT) +/- systemic therapy in locally advanced head and neck cancer.

J Geriatr Oncol 2021 Apr 1. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Stanford University, United States of America.

Purpose: To examine the role age plays in the treatment and prognosis of locally advanced head and neck cancer (LAHNC) treated definitively with radiation alone or combined modality therapy.

Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed of three NRG/RTOG trials examining either radiation alone or combined radiation and systemic therapy for LAHNC. The effect of age (≥70 yrs.) on cause-specific survival (CSS), overall survival (OS), and toxicity was evaluated.

Results: A total of 2688 patients were analyzed, of whom 309 patients (11.5%) were ≥ 70. For all studies combined, the hazard ratio (HR) for CSS for patients age ≥ 70 vs. those <70 was 1.33 (95%CI: 1.14-1.55, p < 0.001). For OS, the HR for patients age ≥ 70 vs. those <70 for all studies combined was 1.55 (95% CI 1.35-1.77, p < 0.001). After adjustment for all covariates, age ≥ 70 was associated with worse OS regardless of adjustment for smoking and p16 status. The survival difference was more pronounced in those receiving combined radiation and systemic therapy. Hematologic and renal toxicities were increased in combined modality trials in patients ≥70 years old.

Conclusions: Patients age ≥ 70 with LAHNC were underrepresented in these clinical trials. Their CSS and OS proved inferior to patients <70 years old.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgo.2021.03.011DOI Listing
April 2021

Reduced-Dose Radiation Therapy for HPV-Associated Oropharyngeal Carcinoma (NRG Oncology HN002).

J Clin Oncol 2021 Mar 28;39(9):956-965. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Stanford University, Stanford, CA.

Purpose: Reducing radiation treatment dose could improve the quality of life (QOL) of patients with good-risk human papillomavirus-associated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). Whether reduced-dose radiation produces disease control and QOL equivalent to standard chemoradiation is not proven.

Patients And Methods: In this randomized, phase II trial, patients with p16-positive, T1-T2 N1-N2b M0, or T3 N0-N2b M0 OPSCC (7th edition staging) with ≤ 10 pack-years of smoking received 60 Gy of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) over 6 weeks with concurrent weekly cisplatin (C) or 60 Gy IMRT over 5 weeks. To be considered for a phase III study, an arm had to achieve a 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate superior to a historical control rate of 85% and a 1-year mean composite score ≥ 60 on the MD Anderson Dysphagia Inventory (MDADI).

Results: Three hundred six patients were randomly assigned and eligible. Two-year PFS for IMRT + C was 90.5% rejecting the null hypothesis of 2-year PFS ≤ 85% ( = .04). For IMRT, 2-year PFS was 87.6% ( = .23). One-year MDADI mean scores were 85.30 and 81.76 for IMRT + C and IMRT, respectively. Two-year overall survival rates were 96.7% for IMRT + C and 97.3% for IMRT. Acute adverse events (AEs) were defined as those occurring within 180 days from the end of treatment. There were more grade 3-4 acute AEs for IMRT + C (79.6% 52.4%; < .001). Rates of grade 3-4 late AEs were 21.3% and 18.1% ( = .56).

Conclusion: The IMRT + C arm met both prespecified end points justifying advancement to a phase III study. Higher rates of grade ≥ 3 acute AEs were reported in the IMRT + C arm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.20.03128DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8078254PMC
March 2021

Gleason pattern 5 is associated with an increased risk for metastasis following androgen deprivation therapy and radiation: An analysis of RTOG 9202 and 9902.

Radiother Oncol 2019 12 17;141:137-143. Epub 2019 Sep 17.

Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Los Angeles, USA. Electronic address:

Background/purpose: Stratification of Gleason score (GS) into three categories (2-6, 7, and 8-10) may not fully utilize its prognostic discrimination, with Gleason pattern 5 (GP5) previously identified as an independent adverse factor.

Materials/methods: Patients treated on RTOG 9202 (n = 1292) or RTOG 9902 (n = 378) were pooled and assessed for association of GS and GP5 on biochemical failure (BF), local failure (LF), distant metastasis (DM), and overall survival (OS). Fine and Gray's regression and cumulative incidence methods were used for univariate and multivariate analyses.

Results: With median follow-up of 9.4 years, patients with GS 8-10 with GP5 had worse outcome than GS 4 + 4 for DM on both RTOG9202 (p = 0.038) and RTOG9902 (p < 0.001) with a trend toward worse OS (p = 0.059 and p = 0.089, respectively), but without differences in BF or LF. At 10-years DM was higher by 11% (RTOG 9202) and 18% (RTOG 9902) with GP5 compared to GS 4 + 4. On multivariate analysis restricted to long-term androgen deprivation therapy the presence of GP5 substantially increased distant metastasis (HR = 0.43, 95%CI: 0.24-0.76, p = 0.0039) with a trend toward worse OS (HR:0.74, 95% CI:0.54-1.0, p = 0.052) without association with LF (HR:0.55, 95%CI:0.28-1.09, p = 0.085) or BF (HR:1.15, 95%CI:0.84-1.59, p = 0.39). We did not observed substantial differences between Gleason 3 + 5, 5 + 3, or Gleason 9-10.

Conclusions: These results validate GP5 as an independent prognostic factor which is strongest for DM. As a result GP5 should be considered when stratifying patients with GS 8 and may be a patient population in which to evaluate newly approved systemic therapies or additional local treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2019.08.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6912855PMC
December 2019

Nomogram to Predict the Benefit of Intensive Treatment for Locoregionally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer.

Clin Cancer Res 2019 12 16;25(23):7078-7088. Epub 2019 Aug 16.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California.

Purpose: Previous studies indicate that the benefit of therapy depends on patients' risk for cancer recurrence relative to noncancer mortality (ω ratio). We sought to test the hypothesis that patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) with a higher ω ratio selectively benefit from intensive therapy.

Experimental Design: We analyzed 2,688 patients with stage III-IVB HNC undergoing primary radiotherapy (RT) with or without systemic therapy on three phase III trials (RTOG 9003, RTOG 0129, and RTOG 0522). We used generalized competing event regression to stratify patients according to ω ratio and compared the effectiveness of intensive therapy as a function of predicted ω ratio (i.e., ω score). Intensive therapy was defined as treatment on an experimental arm with altered fractionation and/or multiagent concurrent systemic therapy. A nomogram was developed to predict patients' ω score on the basis of tumor, demographic, and health factors. Analysis was by intention to treat.

Results: Decreasing age, improved performance status, higher body mass index, node-positive status, P16-negative status, and oral cavity primary predicted a higher ω ratio. Patients with ω score ≥0.80 were more likely to benefit from intensive treatment [5-year overall survival (OS), 70.0% vs. 56.6%; HR of 0.73, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.57-0.94; = 0.016] than those with ω score <0.80 (5-year OS, 46.7% vs. 45.3%; HR of 1.02, 95% CI: 0.92-1.14; = 0.69; = 0.019 for interaction). In contrast, the effectiveness of intensive therapy did not depend on risk of progression.

Conclusions: Patients with HNC with a higher ω score selectively benefit from intensive treatment. A nomogram was developed to help select patients for intensive therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-19-1832DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7028339PMC
December 2019

ACR Appropriateness Criteria Neck Mass-Adenopathy.

J Am Coll Radiol 2019 May;16(5S):S150-S160

Specialty Chair, UC San Diego Health Center, San Diego, California.

A palpable neck mass may be the result of neoplastic, congenital, or inflammatory disease. Older age suggests neoplasia, and a congenital etiology is more prevalent in the pediatric population. The imaging approach is based on the patient age, mass location, and clinical pulsatility. Underlying human papillomavirus-related malignancy should be considered in all age groups. Although the imaging appearance of some processes in the head and neck overlap, choosing the appropriate imaging examination may allow a specific diagnosis, or a limited differential diagnosis. Tissue sampling is indicated to confirm suspected malignancy. The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacr.2019.02.025DOI Listing
May 2019

Role of Treatment Deintensification in the Management of p16+ Oropharyngeal Cancer: ASCO Provisional Clinical Opinion.

J Clin Oncol 2019 06 25;37(18):1578-1589. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

13 Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA.

Purpose: An ASCO provisional clinical opinion offers timely clinical direction to ASCO's membership after publication or presentation of potentially practice-changing data from major studies. This provisional clinical opinion addresses the role of treatment deintensification in the management of p16+ oropharyngeal cancer (OPC).

Clinical Context: For patients with p16+ OPC, current treatment approaches are well established. In the good-prognosis subset of nonsmoking p16+ patients with early-stage disease, these treatments have been highly successful, albeit with significant associated acute and late toxicity. Deintensification of surgical, radiation, and medical treatment in an effort to reduce toxicity while preserving high survival rates is an appropriate therapeutic objective currently being explored in patients who are experiencing the best treatment results. However, careful delineation of this good-risk subset is essential. While the current eighth edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system is prognostically robust, it should not be interpreted as reason to alter therapeutic decisions or justify treatment deintensification. The development of transoral surgical techniques and the adoption of intensity-modulated radiation therapy planning have been transformative in disease management and suggest potentially beneficial approaches. Recent advances in systemic treatments have been notable. The optimal integration and modification of these modalities to ameliorate toxicity has not been defined and remains an important focus of current investigation.

Provisional Clinical Opinion: The hypothesis that de-escalation of treatment intensity for patients with p16+ OPC can reduce long-term toxicity without compromising survival is compelling and necessitates careful study and the analysis of well-designed clinical trials before changing current treatment standards. Treatment deintensification for these patients should only be undertaken in a clinical trial. Additional information is available at www.asco.org/head-neck-cancer-guidelines .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.19.00441DOI Listing
June 2019

Radiotherapy plus cetuximab or cisplatin in human papillomavirus-positive oropharyngeal cancer (NRG Oncology RTOG 1016): a randomised, multicentre, non-inferiority trial.

Lancet 2019 01 15;393(10166):40-50. Epub 2018 Nov 15.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, USA.

Background: Patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma have high survival when treated with radiotherapy plus cisplatin. Whether replacement of cisplatin with cetuximab-an antibody against the epidermal growth factor receptor-can preserve high survival and reduce treatment toxicity is unknown. We investigated whether cetuximab would maintain a high proportion of patient survival and reduce acute and late toxicity.

Methods: RTOG 1016 was a randomised, multicentre, non-inferiority trial at 182 health-care centres in the USA and Canada. Eligibility criteria included histologically confirmed HPV-positive oropharyngeal carcinoma; American Joint Committee on Cancer 7th edition clinical categories T1-T2, N2a-N3 M0 or T3-T4, N0-N3 M0; Zubrod performance status 0 or 1; age at least 18 years; and adequate bone marrow, hepatic, and renal function. We randomly assigned patients (1:1) to receive either radiotherapy plus cetuximab or radiotherapy plus cisplatin. Randomisation was balanced by using randomly permuted blocks, and patients were stratified by T category (T1-T2 vs T3-T4), N category (N0-N2a vs N2b-N3), Zubrod performance status (0 vs 1), and tobacco smoking history (≤10 pack-years vs >10 pack-years). Patients were assigned to receive either intravenous cetuximab at a loading dose of 400 mg/m 5-7 days before radiotherapy initiation, followed by cetuximab 250 mg/m weekly for seven doses (total 2150 mg/m), or cisplatin 100 mg/m on days 1 and 22 of radiotherapy (total 200 mg/m). All patients received accelerated intensity-modulated radiotherapy delivered at 70 Gy in 35 fractions over 6 weeks at six fractions per week (with two fractions given on one day, at least 6 h apart). The primary endpoint was overall survival, defined as time from randomisation to death from any cause, with non-inferiority margin 1·45. Primary analysis was based on the modified intention-to-treat approach, whereby all patients meeting eligibility criteria are included. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01302834.

Findings: Between June 9, 2011, and July 31, 2014, 987 patients were enrolled, of whom 849 were randomly assigned to receive radiotherapy plus cetuximab (n=425) or radiotherapy plus cisplatin (n=424). 399 patients assigned to receive cetuximab and 406 patients assigned to receive cisplatin were subsequently eligible. After median follow-up duration of 4·5 years, radiotherapy plus cetuximab did not meet the non-inferiority criteria for overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] 1·45, one-sided 95% upper CI 1·94; p=0·5056 for non-inferiority; one-sided log-rank p=0·0163). Estimated 5-year overall survival was 77·9% (95% CI 73·4-82·5) in the cetuximab group versus 84·6% (80·6-88·6) in the cisplatin group. Progression-free survival was significantly lower in the cetuximab group compared with the cisplatin group (HR 1·72, 95% CI 1·29-2·29; p=0·0002; 5-year progression-free survival 67·3%, 95% CI 62·4-72·2 vs 78·4%, 73·8-83·0), and locoregional failure was significantly higher in the cetuximab group compared with the cisplatin group (HR 2·05, 95% CI 1·35-3·10; 5-year proportions 17·3%, 95% CI 13·7-21·4 vs 9·9%, 6·9-13·6). Proportions of acute moderate to severe toxicity (77·4%, 95% CI 73·0-81·5 vs 81·7%, 77·5-85·3; p=0·1586) and late moderate to severe toxicity (16·5%, 95% CI 12·9-20·7 vs 20·4%, 16·4-24·8; p=0·1904) were similar between the cetuximab and cisplatin groups.

Interpretation: For patients with HPV-positive oropharyngeal carcinoma, radiotherapy plus cetuximab showed inferior overall survival and progression-free survival compared with radiotherapy plus cisplatin. Radiotherapy plus cisplatin is the standard of care for eligible patients with HPV-positive oropharyngeal carcinoma.

Funding: National Cancer Institute USA, Eli Lilly, and The Oral Cancer Foundation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32779-XDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6541928PMC
January 2019

Sequence of hormonal therapy and radiotherapy field size in unfavourable, localised prostate cancer (NRG/RTOG 9413): long-term results of a randomised, phase 3 trial.

Lancet Oncol 2018 11 10;19(11):1504-1515. Epub 2018 Oct 10.

Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Background: The NRG/RTOG 9413 study showed that whole pelvic radiotherapy (WPRT) plus neoadjuvant hormonal therapy (NHT) improved progression-free survival in patients with intermediate-risk or high-risk localised prostate cancer compared with prostate only radiotherapy (PORT) plus NHT, WPRT plus adjuvant hormonal therapy (AHT), and PORT plus AHT. We provide a long-term update after 10 years of follow-up of the primary endpoint (progression-free survival) and report on the late toxicities of treatment.

Methods: The trial was designed as a 2 × 2 factorial study with hormonal sequencing as one stratification factor and radiation field as the other factor and tested whether NHT improved progression-free survival versus AHT, and NHT plus WPRT versus NHT plus PORT. Eligible patients had histologically confirmed, clinically localised adenocarcinoma of the prostate, an estimated risk of lymph node involvement of more than 15% and a Karnofsky performance status of more than 70, with no age limitations. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) by permuted block randomisation to receive either NHT 2 months before and during WPRT followed by a prostate boost to 70 Gy (NHT plus WPRT group), NHT 2 months before and during PORT to 70 Gy (NHT plus PORT group), WPRT followed by 4 months of AHT (WPRT plus AHT group), or PORT followed by 4 months of AHT (PORT plus AHT group). Hormonal therapy was combined androgen suppression, consisting of goserelin acetate 3·6 mg once a month subcutaneously or leuprolide acetate 7·5 mg once a month intramuscularly, and flutamide 250 mg twice a day orally for 4 months. Randomisation was stratified by T stage, Gleason Score, and prostate-specific antigen concentration. NHT was given 2 months before radiotherapy and was continued until radiotherapy completion; AHT was given at the completion of radiotherapy for 4 months. The primary endpoint progression-free survival was analysed by intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00769548. The trial has been terminated to additional follow-up collection and this is the final analysis for this trial.

Findings: Between April 1, 1995, and June 1, 1999, 1322 patients were enrolled from 53 centres and randomly assigned to the four treatment groups. With a median follow-up of 8·8 years (IQR 5·07-13·84) for all patients and 14·8 years (7·18-17·4) for living patients (n=346), progression-free survival across all timepoints continued to differ significantly across the four treatment groups (p=0·002). The 10-year estimates of progression-free survival were 28·4% (95% CI 23·3-33·6) in the NHT plus WPRT group, 23·5% (18·7-28·3) in the NHT plus PORT group, 19·4% (14·9-24·0) in the WPRT plus AHT group, and 30·2% (25·0-35·4) in the PORT plus AHT group. Bladder toxicity was the most common grade 3 or worse late toxicity, affecting 18 (6%) of 316 patients in the NHT plus WPRT group, 17 (5%) of 313 in the NHT plus PORT group, 22 (7%) of 317 in the WPRT plus AHT group, and 14 (4%) of 315 in the PORT plus AHT group. Late grade 3 or worse gastrointestinal adverse events occurred in 22 (7%) of 316 patients in the NHT plus WPRT group, five (2%) of 313 in the NHT plus PORT group, ten (3%) of 317 in the WPRT plus AHT group, and seven (2%) of 315 in the PORT plus AHT group.

Interpretation: In this cohort of patients with intermediate-risk and high-risk localised prostate cancer, NHT plus WPRT improved progression-free survival compared with NHT plus PORT and WPRT plus AHT at long-term follow-up albeit increased risk of grade 3 or worse intestinal toxicity. Interactions between radiotherapy and hormonal therapy suggests that WPRT should be avoided without NHT.

Funding: National Cancer Institute.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(18)30528-XDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6540797PMC
November 2018

NRG oncology RTOG 9006: a phase III randomized trial of hyperfractionated radiotherapy (RT) and BCNU versus standard RT and BCNU for malignant glioma patients.

J Neurooncol 2018 Mar 5;137(1):39-47. Epub 2018 Feb 5.

Emory University/Winship Cancer Institute, 1365 Clifton Rd NE, Atlanta, GA, 30322, USA.

From 1990 to 1994, patients with newly diagnosed malignant gliomas were enrolled and randomized between hyperfractionated radiation (HFX) of 72.0 Gy in 60 fractions given twice daily and 60.0 Gy in 30 fractions given once daily. All patients received 80 mg/m of 1,3 bis(2 chloroethyl)-1 nitrosourea on days 1-3 q8 weeks for 1 year. Patients were stratified by age, KPS, and histology. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS), with secondary endpoints including progression-free survival (PFS) and toxicity. Out of the 712 patients accrued, 694 (97.5%) were analyzable cases (350 HFX, 344 standard arm). There was no significant difference between the arms on overall acute or late treatment-related toxicity. No statistically significant effect for HFX, as compared to standard therapy, was found on either OS, with a median survival time (MST) of 11.3 versus 13.1 months (p = 0.20) or PFS, with a median PFS time of 5.7 versus 6.9 months (p = 0.18). The treatment effect on OS remained insignificant based on the multivariate analysis (hazard ratio 1.16; p = 0.0682). When OS was analyzed by histology subgroup there was also no significant difference between the two arms for patients with glioblastoma multiforme (MST: 10.3 vs. 11.2 months; p = 0.34), anaplastic astrocytoma (MST: 69.8 vs. 50.0 months; p = 0.91) or anaplastic oligodendroglioma (MST: 92.1 vs. 66.5 months; p = 0.33). Though this trial provided many invaluable secondary analyses, there was no trend or indication of a benefit to HFX radiation to 72.0 Gy in any subset of malignant glioma patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11060-017-2558-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6020014PMC
March 2018

Serum testosterone changes in patients treated with radiation therapy alone for prostate cancer on NRG oncology RTOG 9408.

Adv Radiat Oncol 2017 Oct-Dec;2(4):608-614. Epub 2017 Aug 3.

Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California.

Objectives: We reviewed testosterone changes for patients who were treated with radiation therapy (RT) alone on NRG oncology RTOG 9408.

Methods And Materials: Patients (T1b-T2b, prostate-specific antigen <20 ng/mL) were randomized between RT alone and RT plus 4 months of androgen ablation. Serum testosterone (ST) levels were investigated at enrollment, RT completion, and the first follow-up 3 months after RT. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used to compare pre- and post-treatment ST levels in patients who were randomized to the RT-alone arm.

Results: Of 2028 patients enrolled, 992 patients were randomized to receive RT alone and 917 (92.4%) had baseline ST values available and completed RT. Of these 917 patients, immediate and 3-month post-RT testosterone levels were available for 447 and 373 patients, respectively. Excluding 2 patients who received hormonal therapy off protocol after RT, 447 and 371 patients, respectively, were analyzed. For all patients, the median change in ST values at completion of RT and at 3-month follow-up were -30.0 ng/dL (p5-p95; -270.0 to 162.0;  < .001) and -34.0 ng/dL (p5-p95, -228.0 to 160.0;  < .01), respectively.

Conclusion: RT for prostate cancer was associated with a median 9.2% decline in ST at completion of RT and a median 9.3% decline 3 months after RT. These changes were statistically significant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adro.2017.07.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5707413PMC
August 2017

Development and Validation of Nomograms Predictive of Overall and Progression-Free Survival in Patients With Oropharyngeal Cancer.

J Clin Oncol 2017 Dec 4;35(36):4057-4065. Epub 2017 Aug 4.

Carole Fakhry, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD; Qiang Zhang and Jonathan Harris, NRG Oncology Statistics and Data Management Center, American College of Radiology; John A. Ridge, Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, PA; Phuc Felix Nguyen-Tân and Louise Lambert, Centre Hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal, Montreal; Eric Vigneault, L'Hotel-Dieu de Quebec, Ville de Québec, Quebec, Canada; David I. Rosenthal, Randal S. Weber, and Maura L. Gillison, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX; Andy M. Trotti III, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute, Tampa, FL; William L. Barrett, University of Cincinnati Cancer Institute, Cincinnati, OH; Wade L. Thorstad, Washington University, St Louis, MO; Christopher U. Jones, Sutter General Hospital, Sacramento; Sue S. Yom, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco; Shyam S.D. Rao, University of California Davis, Davis; Quynh-Thu Le, Stanford University, Stanford, CA; Stuart J. Wong, Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI; James A. Bonner, University of Alabama at Birmingham Medical Center, Birmingham, AL; David Raben, University of Colorado, Aurora, CO; and Mahesh R. Kudrimoti, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY.

Purpose Treatment of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) is evolving toward risk-based modification of therapeutic intensity, which requires patient-specific estimates of overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Methods To develop and validate nomograms for OS and PFS, we used a derivation cohort of 493 patients with OPSCC with known p16 tumor status (surrogate of human papillomavirus) and cigarette smoking history (pack-years) randomly assigned to clinical trials using platinum-based chemoradiotherapy (NRG Oncology Radiation Therapy Oncology Group [RTOG] 0129 and 0522). Nomograms were created from Cox models and internally validated by use of bootstrap and cross-validation. Model discrimination was measured by calibration plots and the concordance index. Nomograms were externally validated in a cohort of 153 patients with OPSCC randomly assigned to a third trial, NRG Oncology RTOG 9003. Results Both models included age, Zubrod performance status, pack-years, education, p16 status, and T and N stage; the OS model also included anemia and age × pack-years interaction; and the PFS model also included marital status, weight loss, and p16 × Zubrod interaction. Predictions correlated well with observed 2-year and 5-year outcomes. The uncorrected concordance index was 0.76 (95% CI, 0.72 to 0.80) for OS and 0.70 (95% CI, 0.66 to 0.74) for PFS, and bias-corrected indices were similar. In the validation set, OS and PFS models were well calibrated, and OS and PFS were significantly different across tertiles of nomogram scores (log-rank P = .003;< .001). Conclusion The validated nomograms provided useful prediction of OS and PFS for patients with OPSCC treated with primary radiation-based therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2016.72.0748DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5736236PMC
December 2017

ACR appropriateness criteria nasal cavity and paranasal sinus cancers.

Head Neck 2017 03 29;39(3):407-418. Epub 2016 Dec 29.

Duke University, Durham, North Carolina.

The American College of Radiology (ACR) Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed annually by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and revision include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of well-established methodologies (RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation or GRADE) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures for specific clinical scenarios. In those instances where evidence is lacking or equivocal, expert opinion may supplement the available evidence to recommend imaging or treatment. Here, we present the Appropriateness Criteria for cancers arising in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses (maxillary, sphenoid, and ethmoid sinuses). This includes clinical presentation, prognostic factors, principles of management, and treatment outcomes. Controversies regarding management of cervical lymph nodes are discussed. Rare and unusual nasal cavity cancers, such as esthesioneuroblastoma and sinonasal undifferentiated carcinomas, are included. © 2016 American College of Radiology. Head Neck, 2016 © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 407-418, 2017.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hed.24639DOI Listing
March 2017

Quality of Life and Performance Status From a Substudy Conducted Within a Prospective Phase 3 Randomized Trial of Concurrent Accelerated Radiation Plus Cisplatin With or Without Cetuximab for Locally Advanced Head and Neck Carcinoma: NRG Oncology Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0522.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2017 03 12;97(4):687-699. Epub 2016 Aug 12.

Emory University, Atlanta, GA.

Purpose: To analyze the quality of life (QOL) and performance status (PS) (secondary outcome) in patients with stage III to IV head and neck cancer (HNC) enrolled on a prospective randomized phase 3 trial comparing radiation-cisplatin without cetuximab (CIS) or with cetuximab (CET/CIS). The QOL hypothesis proposed a between-arm difference in Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Head and Neck (FACT-HN) total score of ≥10% of the instrument range from baseline to 1 year.

Methods And Materials: Patients who gave consent to the QOL/PS study completed the FACT-HN, Performance Status Scale for HNC (PSS-HN), and EuroQol (EQ-5D) at baseline through to 5 years. The pretreatment QOL/PS scores were correlated with outcome and p16 status in patients with oropharyngeal cancer (OPC).

Results: Of 818 analyzable patients, the 1-year change from baseline score for FACT-HN total was -0.41 (CIS arm) and -5.11 (CET/CIS arm) (P=.016), representing a 3.2% between-arm change of the FACT-HN total score. The mean EQ-5D index and PSS-HN scores were not significantly different between arms. The p16-positive OPC patients had significantly higher baseline and 1-year scores for PSS-HN, FACT-HN total, physical and functional subscales, and 2-years for the EQ-5D index compared with p16-negative OPC patients. Higher pretreatment PSS-HN diet, PSS-HN eating, FACT-HN, and EQ-5D index scores were associated with better overall survival (OS) and progression-free (PFS) survival on multivariate analysis. Higher baseline FACT-HN total, functional, physical subscale, and EQ-5D index scores were associated with improved OS and PFS in p16-positive OPC patients but not in p16-negative and non-OPC patients.

Conclusion: There was no clinically meaningful difference in QOL/PS between arms. The p16-positive OPC patients had significantly higher QOL/PS than did p16-negative patients. Pretreatment QOL/PS is a significant independent predictor of outcome in locally advanced HNC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2016.08.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5303682PMC
March 2017

Quality of Life and Performance Status From a Substudy Conducted Within a Prospective Phase 3 Randomized Trial of Concurrent Standard Radiation Versus Accelerated Radiation Plus Cisplatin for Locally Advanced Head and Neck Carcinoma: NRG Oncology RTOG 0129.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2017 03 25;97(4):667-677. Epub 2016 Jul 25.

Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.

Purpose/objective(s): To analyze quality of life (QOL) and performance status (PS) for head and neck cancer (HNC) patients treated on NRG Oncology RTOG 0129 by treatment (secondary outcome) and p16 status, and to examine the association between QOL/PS and survival.

Methods And Materials: Eligible patients were randomized into either an accelerated-fractionation arm or a standard-fractionation arm, and completed the Performance Status Scale for the Head and Neck (PSS-HN), the Head and Neck Radiotherapy Questionnaire (HNRQ), and the Spitzer Quality of Life Index (SQLI) at 8 time points from before treatment to 5 years after treatment.

Results: The results from the analysis of area under the curve showed that QOL/PS was not significantly different between the 2 arms from baseline to year after treatment (P ranged from .39 to .98). The results from general linear mixed models further supported the nonsignificant treatment effects until 5 years after treatment (P=.95, .90, and .84 for PSS-HN Diet, Eating, and Speech, respectively). Before treatment and after 1 year after treatment, p16-positive oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) patients had better QOL than did p16-negative patients (P ranged from .0283 to <.0001 for all questionnaires). However, QOL/PS decreased more significantly from pretreatment to the last 2 weeks of treatment in the p16-positive group than in the p16-negative group (P ranged from .0002 to <.0001). Pretreatment QOL/PS was a significant independent predictor of overall survival, progression-free survival, and local-regional failure but not of distant metastasis (P ranged from .0063 to <.0001).

Conclusions: The results indicated that patients in both arms may have experienced similar QOL/PS. p16-positive patients had better QOL/PS at baseline and after 1 year of follow-up. Patients presenting with better baseline QOL/PS scores had better survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2016.07.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5266672PMC
March 2017

Acute and late urinary toxicity following radiation in men with an intact prostate gland or after a radical prostatectomy: A secondary analysis of RTOG 94-08 and 96-01.

Urol Oncol 2016 10 2;34(10):430.e1-7. Epub 2016 Jul 2.

Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA. Electronic address:

Introduction: To estimate the contribution of the prostate gland and prostatic urethral inflammation to urinary symptoms after radiation therapy for prostate cancer, we performed a secondary analysis of urinary toxicity after primary radiation to an intact prostate vs. postprostatectomy radiation to the prostatic fossa in protocols RTOG 94-08 and 96-01, respectively.

Materials And Methods: Patients randomized to the radiation-alone arms (without hormone therapy) of the 2 trials were evaluated, including 104 men receiving primary prostate radiation to 68.4Gy on RTOG 94-08 and 371 men receiving 64.8Gy to the prostatic fossa on RTOG 96-01. Acute and late urinary toxicity were scored prospectively by RTOG scales. Chi-square test/logistic regression and cumulative incidence approach/Fine-Gray regression model were used for analyses of acute and late toxicity, respectively.

Results: Grade≥2 acute urinary toxicity was significantly higher after primary prostatic radiation compared with postprostatectomy radiation (30.8% vs. 14.0%; P<0.001), but acute grade≥3 toxicity did not differ (3.8% vs. 2.7%; P = 0.54). After adjusting for age, primary radiation resulted in significantly higher grade≥2 acute urinary toxicity (odds ratio = 3.72; 95% CI: 1.65-8.37; P = 0.02). With median follow-up of 7.1 years, late urinary toxicity was not significantly different with primary vs. postprostatectomy radiation (5-year grade≥2: 16.7% vs. 18.3%; P = 0.65; grade≥3: 6.0% vs. 3.3%; P = 0.24).

Conclusions: Primary radiation to an intact prostate resulted in higher grade≥2 acute urinary toxicity than radiation to the prostatic fossa, with no difference in late urinary toxicity. Thus, a proportion of acute urinary toxicity in men with an intact prostate may be attributable to inflammation of the prostatic gland or urethra.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.urolonc.2016.04.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5035191PMC
October 2016

ACR Appropriateness Criteria(®) Locoregional therapy for resectable oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas.

Head Neck 2016 09 22;38(9):1299-309. Epub 2016 Jun 22.

University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California.

Background: There are no level I studies to guide treatment for resectable oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Treatment toxicities influence management recommendations. Ongoing investigations are examining deintensified treatments for human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated oropharyngeal SCC.

Methods: The Appropriateness Criteria panel, using modified Delphi methodology, produced a literature summary, an assessment of treatment recommendations, and cases to illustrate their use.

Results: A multidisciplinary team produces optimum results. Based on HPV status, smoking history, and staging, patients are divided into groups at low, intermediate, and high-risk of death. In the future, treatment recommendations may be influenced by HPV status, which has changed the epidemiology of oropharyngeal SCC.

Conclusion: T1 to T2N0M0 resectable oropharyngeal SCC can be treated with surgery or radiation without chemotherapy. Patients with T1-2N1-2aM0 disease can receive radiation, chemoradiation, or transoral surgery with neck dissection and appropriate adjuvant therapy. Patients with T1-2N2b-3M0 disease should receive chemoradiation or transoral surgery with neck dissection and appropriate adjuvant therapy. Concurrent chemoradiation is preferred for T3 to T4 disease. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: 1299-1309, 2016.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hed.24447DOI Listing
September 2016

Correlation Between the Severity of Cetuximab-Induced Skin Rash and Clinical Outcome for Head and Neck Cancer Patients: The RTOG Experience.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2016 08 26;95(5):1346-1354. Epub 2016 Mar 26.

Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, California.

Purpose: To evaluate the severity of cetuximab-induced skin rash and its correlation with clinical outcome and late skin toxicity in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma treated with chemoradiation therapy and cetuximab.

Methods And Materials: Analysis included patients who received loading dose and ≥1 cetuximab dose concurrent with definitive chemoradiation therapy (70 Gy + cisplatin) or postoperative chemoradiation therapy (60-66 Gy + docetaxel or cisplatin).

Results: Six hundred two patients were analyzed; 383 (63.6%) developed grade 2 to 4 cetuximab rash. Patients manifesting grade 2 to 4 rash had younger age (P<.001), fewer pack-years smoking history (P<.001), were more likely to be males (P=.04), and had p16-negative (P=.04) oropharyngeal tumors (P=.003). In univariate analysis, grade 2 to 4 rash was associated with better overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] 0.58, P<.001) and progression-free survival (HR 0.75, P=.02), and reduced distant metastasis rate (HR 0.61, P=.03), but not local-regional failure (HR 0.79, P=.16) relative to grade 0 to 1 rash. In multivariable analysis, HRs for overall survival, progression-free survival, distant metastasis, and local-regional failure were, respectively, 0.68 (P=.008), 0.85 (P=.21), 0.64 (P=.06), and 0.89 (P=.48). Grade ≥2 rash was associated with improved survival in p16-negative patients (HR 0.28 [95% confidence interval 0.11-0.74]) but not in p16-positive patients (HR 1.10 [0.42-2.89]) (P=.05 for interaction). Twenty-five percent of patients with grade 2 to 4 acute in-field radiation dermatitis experienced grade 2 to 4 late skin fibrosis, versus 14% of patients with grade 0 to 1 acute in-field radiation dermatitis (P=.002).

Conclusion: Grade 2 to 4 cetuximab rash was associated with better survival, possibly due to reduction of distant metastasis. This observation was noted mainly in p16-negative patients. Grade 2 to 4 acute in-field radiation dermatitis was associated with higher rate of late grade 2 to 4 skin fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2016.03.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5199017PMC
August 2016

ACR Appropriateness criteria® for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

Head Neck 2016 07 30;38(7):979-86. Epub 2016 Apr 30.

University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California.

Background: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) presents mostly with locally advanced disease and is treated with multimodal therapy; however, consensus is lacking for different clinical scenarios.

Methods: The American College of Radiology (ACR) Appropriateness Criteria® are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 3 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment.

Results: The ACR Expert Panel on Radiation Oncology - Head and Neck Cancer developed consensus recommendations for guiding management of nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

Conclusion: Multidisciplinary evaluation is essential to guiding the optimal use of surgery, radiation, and systemic therapy in this disease. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: 979-986, 2016.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hed.24423DOI Listing
July 2016

ACR Appropriateness Criteria(®) Aggressive Nonmelanomatous Skin Cancer of the Head and Neck.

Head Neck 2016 Feb;38(2):175-82

University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California.

Background: Aggressive nonmelanomatous skin cancer (NMSC) of the head and neck presents an increasingly common therapeutic challenge for which prospective clinical trials are lacking.

Methods: The American College of Radiology Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 3 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances in which evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment.

Results: The American College of Radiology Expert Panel on Radiation Oncology - Head and Neck Cancer developed consensus recommendations for guiding management of aggressive NMSC.

Conclusion: Multidisciplinary assessment is vital to guiding the ideal use of surgery, radiation, and systemic therapy in this disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hed.24171DOI Listing
February 2016

Cardiovascular Mortality Following Short-term Androgen Deprivation in Clinically Localized Prostate Cancer: An Analysis of RTOG 94-08.

Eur Urol 2016 Feb 9;69(2):204-10. Epub 2015 Sep 9.

Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is associated with coronary heart disease and diabetes in men with prostate cancer (PCa); however, controversy exists regarding ADT and cardiovascular mortality (CVM) with limited data for lower risk disease.

Objective: We conducted a hypothesis-generating retrospective analysis to evaluate the relationship between short-course ADT and CVM in patients with clinically localized PCa enrolled in a phase III trial.

Design, Setting, And Participants: A total of 1979 men with clinically localized (T1b-2b, prostate-specific antigen [PSA] <20 ng/ml) PCa enrolled in Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 94-08 from 1994 to 2001. Patients were randomized to radiation therapy (RT) with or without short-course ADT (4 mo of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist therapy and antiandrogen). Median follow-up was 9.1 yr for survivors.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: The Cox proportional hazards model assessed overall survival. The Fine-Gray proportional hazards model assessed disease-specific survival (DSS) and CVM. Covariates included age, race, weight, baseline cardiovascular disease, baseline diabetes, baseline hypertension, Gleason score, T stage, and PSA.

Results And Limitations: Short-course ADT improved overall survival and DSS and was not associated with an increased risk of CVM. Overall, 191 cardiovascular-related deaths were observed. At 10 yr, 83 patients (cumulative incidence rate: 10%) receiving RT and ADT versus 95 patients (cumulative incidence rate: 11%) receiving RT alone experienced CVM. The treatment arm was not associated with increased CVM (unadjusted hazard ratio: 1.07; confidence interval, 0.81-1.42; p=0.62). Increased CVM was not observed in patients at low risk of PCa death or at high risk of cardiac-related death.

Conclusions: Data from patients enrolled in RTOG 94-08 support the hypothesis that ADT does not increase CVM risk in men with clinically localized PCa treated with short-course GnRH agonist therapy. These data support ADT use in settings with proven survival benefit.

Patient Summary: We investigated the controversial relationship between hormone therapy and cardiovascular mortality in men with prostate cancer (PCa) treated with radiation in a large randomized trial. Our data suggest that hormone therapy does not increase the risk of cardiovascular death in patients with clinically localized PCa and support the use of such therapy in settings with proven survival benefit.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.eururo.2015.08.027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4784682PMC
February 2016

A Phase 3 Trial of 2 Years of Androgen Suppression and Radiation Therapy With or Without Adjuvant Chemotherapy for High-Risk Prostate Cancer: Final Results of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Phase 3 Randomized Trial NRG Oncology RTOG 9902.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2015 Oct 21;93(2):294-302. Epub 2015 Jul 21.

Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, California.

Purpose: Long-term (LT) androgen suppression (AS) with radiation therapy (RT) is a standard treatment of high-risk, localized prostate cancer (PCa). Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 9902 was a randomized trial testing the hypothesis that adjuvant combination chemotherapy (CT) with paclitaxel, estramustine, and oral etoposide plus LT AS plus RT would improve overall survival (OS).

Methods And Materials: Patients with high-risk PCa (prostate-specific antigen 20-100 ng/mL and Gleason score [GS] ≥ 7 or clinical stage ≥ T2 and GS ≥ 8) were randomized to RT and AS (AS + RT) alone or with adjuvant CT (AS + RT + CT). CT was given as four 21-day cycles, delivered beginning 28 days after 70.2 Gy of RT. AS was given as luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone for 24 months, beginning 2 months before RT plus an oral antiandrogen for 4 months before and during RT. The study was designed based on a 6% improvement in OS from 79% to 85% at 5 years, with 90% power and a 2-sided alpha of 0.05.

Results: A total of 397 patients (380 eligible) were randomized. The patients had high-risk PCa, 68% with GS 8 to 10 and 34% T3 to T4 tumors, and median prostate-specific antigen of 22.6 ng/mL. The median follow-up period was 9.2 years. The trial closed early because of excess thromboembolic toxicity in the CT arm. The 10-year results for all randomized patients revealed no significant difference between the AS + RT and AS + RT + CT arms in OS (65% vs 63%; P=.81), biochemical failure (58% vs 54%; P=.82), local progression (11% vs 7%; P=.09), distant metastases (16% vs 14%; P=.42), or disease-free survival (22% vs 26%; P=.61).

Conclusions: NRG Oncology RTOG 9902 showed no significant differences in OS, biochemical failure, local progression, distant metastases, or disease-free survival with the addition of adjuvant CT to LT AS + RT. The trial results provide valuable data regarding the natural history of high-risk PCa treated with LT AS + RT and have implications for the feasibility of clinical trial accrual and tolerability using CT for PCa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2015.05.024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4719152PMC
October 2015

Importance of Local Control in Early-Stage Prostate Cancer: Outcomes of Patients With Positive Post-Radiation Therapy Biopsy Results Treated in RTOG 9408.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2015 Jul 25;92(4):863-73. Epub 2015 Mar 25.

Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, Massachusetts.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the association between positive post-radiation therapy (RT) biopsy results and subsequent clinical outcomes in males with localized prostate cancer.

Methods And Materials: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group study 94-08 analyzed 1979 males with prostate cancer, stage T1b-T2b and prostate-specific antigen concentrations of ≤ 20 ng/dL, to investigate whether 4 months of total androgen suppression (TAS) added to RT improved survival compared to RT alone. Patients randomized to receive TAS received flutamide with luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist. According to protocol, patients without evidence of clinical recurrence or initiation of additional endocrine therapy underwent repeat prostate biopsy 2 years after RT completion. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the impact of positive post-RT biopsy results on clinical outcomes.

Results: A total of 831 patients underwent post-RT biopsy, 398 were treated with RT alone and 433 with RT plus TAS. Patients with positive post-RT biopsy results had higher rates of biochemical failure (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.3-2.1) and distant metastasis (HR = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.3-4.4) and inferior disease-specific survival (HR = 3.8; 95% CI = 1.9-7.5). Positive biopsy results remained predictive of such outcomes after correction for potential confounders such as Gleason score, tumor stage, and TAS administration. Prior TAS therapy did not prevent elevated risk of adverse outcome in the setting of post-RT positive biopsy results. Patients with Gleason score ≥ 7 with a positive biopsy result additionally had inferior overall survival compared to those with a negative biopsy result (HR = 1.56; 95% CI = 1.04-2.35).

Conclusions: Positive post-RT biopsy is associated with increased rates of distant metastases and inferior disease-specific survival in patients treated with definitive RT and was associated with inferior overall survival in patients with high-grade tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2015.03.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4480595PMC
July 2015

Metabolic tumor volume as a prognostic imaging-based biomarker for head-and-neck cancer: pilot results from Radiation Therapy Oncology Group protocol 0522.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2015 Mar;91(4):721-9

Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, California.

Purpose: To evaluate candidate fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) imaging biomarkers for head-and-neck chemoradiotherapy outcomes in the cooperative group trial setting.

Methods And Materials: Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocol 0522 patients consenting to a secondary FDG-PET/CT substudy were serially imaged at baseline and 8 weeks after radiation. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), SUV peak (mean SUV within a 1-cm sphere centered on SUVmax), and metabolic tumor volume (MTV) using 40% of SUVmax as threshold were obtained from primary tumor and involved nodes.

Results: Of 940 patients entered onto RTOG 0522, 74 were analyzable for this substudy. Neither high baseline SUVmax nor SUVpeak from primary or nodal disease were associated with poor treatment outcomes. However, primary tumor MTV above the cohort median was associated with worse local-regional control (hazard ratio 4.01, 95% confidence interval 1.28-12.52, P=.02) and progression-free survival (hazard ratio 2.34, 95% confidence interval 1.02-5.37, P=.05). Although MTV and T stage seemed to correlate (mean MTV 6.4, 13.2, and 26.8 for T2, T3, and T4 tumors, respectively), MTV remained a strong independent prognostic factor for progression-free survival in bivariate analysis that included T stage. Primary MTV remained prognostic in p16-associated oropharyngeal cancer cases, although sample size was limited.

Conclusion: High baseline primary tumor MTV was associated with worse treatment outcomes in this limited patient subset of RTOG 0522. Additional confirmatory work will be required to validate primary tumor MTV as a prognostic imaging biomarker for patient stratification in future trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2014.12.023DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4672942PMC
March 2015

Randomized trial of hyperfractionation versus conventional fractionation in T2 squamous cell carcinoma of the vocal cord (RTOG 9512).

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2014 Aug 8;89(5):958-963. Epub 2014 Jul 8.

Department of Radiotherapy, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas.

Purpose: To compare hyperfractionation versus standard fractionation for T2N0 vocal cord carcinoma in a randomized controlled trial.

Methods And Materials: Patients with T2 vocal cord cancer were stratified by substage (T2a vs T2b) and randomly assigned to receive either hyperfractionation (HFX) to 79.2 Gy in 66 fractions of 1.2 Gy given twice a day, or standard fractionation (SFX) to 70 Gy in 35 fractions given once a day. The trial was designed to detect a 55% reduction in the local failure hazard rate with 80% statistical power.

Results: Between April 1996 and July 2003, a total of 250 patients were enrolled. Of 239 patients analyzable for outcomes, 94% were male, 83% had a Karnofsky performance status of 90-100, and 62% had T2a tumor. Median follow-up for all surviving patients was 7.9 years (range, 0.6-13.1 years). The 5-year local control (LC) rate was 8 points higher but not statistically significant (P=.14 for HFX [78%] vs SFX [70%]), corresponding to a 30% hazard rate reduction. The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) was 49% versus 40% (P=.13) and overall survival (OS) was 72% versus 63% (P=.29). HFX was associated with higher rates of acute skin, mucosal, and laryngeal toxicity. Grade 3-4 late effects were similar with a 5-year cumulative incidence of 8.5% (3.4%-13.6%) after SFX and 8.5% (3.4%-13.5%) after HFX.

Conclusions: The 5-year local control was modestly higher with HFX compared to SFX for T2 glottic carcinoma, but the difference was not statistically significant. These results are consistent with prior studies of hyperfractionation showing a benefit in local control. Substaging by T2a versus T2b carries prognostic value for DFS and OS. For cost and convenience reasons other altered fractionation schedules have been adopted in routine practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2014.04.041DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4709016PMC
August 2014

Final results of local-regional control and late toxicity of RTOG 9003: a randomized trial of altered fractionation radiation for locally advanced head and neck cancer.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2014 May 7;89(1):13-20. Epub 2014 Mar 7.

MD Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston, Texas.

Purpose: To test whether altered radiation fractionation schemes (hyperfractionation [HFX], accelerated fractionation, continuous [AFX-C], and accelerated fractionation with split [AFX-S]) improved local-regional control (LRC) rates for patients with squamous cell cancers (SCC) of the head and neck when compared with standard fractionation (SFX) of 70 Gy.

Methods And Materials: Patients with stage III or IV (or stage II base of tongue) SCC (n=1076) were randomized to 4 treatment arms: (1) SFX, 70 Gy/35 daily fractions/7 weeks; (2) HFX, 81.6 Gy/68 twice-daily fractions/7 weeks; (3) AFX-S, 67.2 Gy/42 fractions/6 weeks with a 2-week rest after 38.4 Gy; and (4) AFX-C, 72 Gy/42 fractions/6 weeks. The 3 experimental arms were to be compared with SFX.

Results: With patients censored for LRC at 5 years, only the comparison of HFX with SFX was significantly different: HFX, hazard ratio (HR) 0.79 (95% confidence interval 0.62-1.00), P=.05; AFX-C, 0.82 (95% confidence interval 0.65-1.05), P=.11. With patients censored at 5 years, HFX improved overall survival (HR 0.81, P=.05). Prevalence of any grade 3, 4, or 5 toxicity at 5 years; any feeding tube use after 180 days; or feeding tube use at 1 year did not differ significantly when the experimental arms were compared with SFX. When 7-week treatments were compared with 6-week treatments, accelerated fractionation appeared to increase grade 3, 4 or 5 toxicity at 5 years (P=.06). When the worst toxicity per patient was considered by treatment only, the AFX-C arm seemed to trend worse than the SFX arm when grade 0-2 was compared with grade 3-5 toxicity (P=.09).

Conclusions: At 5 years, only HFX improved LRC and overall survival for patients with locally advanced SCC without increasing late toxicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2013.12.027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4664465PMC
May 2014

Radiotherapy and short-term androgen deprivation for localized prostate cancer.

N Engl J Med 2011 Jul;365(2):107-18

Radiological Associates of Sacramento, Sacramento, CA 95816, USA.

Background: It is not known whether short-term androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) before and during radiotherapy improves cancer control and overall survival among patients with early, localized prostate adenocarcinoma.

Methods: From 1994 through 2001, we randomly assigned 1979 eligible patients with stage T1b, T1c, T2a, or T2b prostate adenocarcinoma and a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of 20 ng per milliliter or less to radiotherapy alone (992 patients) or radiotherapy with 4 months of total androgen suppression starting 2 months before radiotherapy (radiotherapy plus short-term ADT, 987 patients). The primary end point was overall survival. Secondary end points included disease-specific mortality, distant metastases, biochemical failure (an increasing level of PSA), and the rate of positive findings on repeat prostate biopsy at 2 years.

Results: The median follow-up period was 9.1 years. The 10-year rate of overall survival was 62% among patients receiving radiotherapy plus short-term ADT (the combined-therapy group), as compared with 57% among patients receiving radiotherapy alone (hazard ratio for death with radiotherapy alone, 1.17; P=0.03). The addition of short-term ADT was associated with a decrease in the 10-year disease-specific mortality from 8% to 4% (hazard ratio for radiotherapy alone, 1.87; P=0.001). Biochemical failure, distant metastases, and the rate of positive findings on repeat prostate biopsy at 2 years were significantly improved with radiotherapy plus short-term ADT. Acute and late radiation-induced toxic effects were similar in the two groups. The incidence of grade 3 or higher hormone-related toxic effects was less than 5%. Reanalysis according to risk showed reductions in overall and disease-specific mortality primarily among intermediate-risk patients, with no significant reductions among low-risk patients.

Conclusions: Among patients with stage T1b, T1c, T2a, or T2b prostate adenocarcinoma and a PSA level of 20 ng per milliliter or less, the use of short-term ADT for 4 months before and during radiotherapy was associated with significantly decreased disease-specific mortality and increased overall survival. According to post hoc risk analysis, the benefit was mainly seen in intermediate-risk, but not low-risk, men. (Funded by the National Cancer Institute; RTOG 94-08 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00002597.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa1012348DOI Listing
July 2011

Radiotherapy plus cetuximab for locoregionally advanced head and neck cancer: 5-year survival data from a phase 3 randomised trial, and relation between cetuximab-induced rash and survival.

Lancet Oncol 2010 Jan 10;11(1):21-8. Epub 2009 Nov 10.

University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL, USA.

Background: Previous results from our phase 3 randomised trial showed that adding cetuximab to primary radiotherapy increased overall survival in patients with locoregionally advanced squamous-cell carcinoma of the head and neck (LASCCHN) at 3 years. Here we report the 5-year survival data, and investigate the relation between cetuximab-induced rash and survival.

Methods: Patients with LASCCHN of the oropharynx, hypopharynx, or larynx with measurable disease were randomly allocated in a 1:1 ratio to receive either comprehensive head and neck radiotherapy alone for 6-7 weeks or radiotherapy plus weekly doses of cetuximab: 400 mg/m(2) initial dose, followed by seven weekly doses at 250 mg/m(2). Randomisation was done with an adaptive minimisation technique to balance assignments across stratification factors of Karnofsky performance score, T stage, N stage, and radiation fractionation. The trial was un-blinded. The primary endpoint was locoregional control, with a secondary endpoint of survival. Following discussions with the US Food and Drug Administration, the dataset was locked, except for queries to the sites about overall survival, before our previous report in 2006, so that an independent review could be done. Analyses were done on an intention-to-treat basis. Following completion of treatment, patients underwent physical examination and radiographic imaging every 4 months for 2 years, and then every 6 months thereafter. The trial is registered at www.ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00004227.

Findings: Patients were randomly assigned to receive radiotherapy with (n=211) or without (n=213) cetuximab, and all patients were followed for survival. Updated median overall survival for patients treated with cetuximab and radiotherapy was 49.0 months (95% CI 32.8-69.5) versus 29.3 months (20.6-41.4) in the radiotherapy-alone group (hazard ratio [HR] 0.73, 95% CI 0.56-0.95; p=0.018). 5-year overall survival was 45.6% in the cetuximab-plus-radiotherapy group and 36.4% in the radiotherapy-alone group. Additionally, for the patients treated with cetuximab, overall survival was significantly improved in those who experienced an acneiform rash of at least grade 2 severity compared with patients with no rash or grade 1 rash (HR 0.49, 0.34-0.72; p=0.002).

Interpretation: For patients with LASCCHN, cetuximab plus radiotherapy significantly improves overall survival at 5 years compared with radiotherapy alone, confirming cetuximab plus radiotherapy as an important treatment option in this group of patients. Cetuximab-treated patients with prominent cetuximab-induced rash (grade 2 or above) have better survival than patients with no or grade 1 rash.

Funding: ImClone Systems, Merck KGaA, and Bristol-Myers Squibb.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(09)70311-0DOI Listing
January 2010

Multi-institutional trial of accelerated hypofractionated intensity-modulated radiation therapy for early-stage oropharyngeal cancer (RTOG 00-22).

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2010 Apr 18;76(5):1333-8. Epub 2009 Jun 18.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.

Purpose: To assess the results of a multi-institutional study of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for early oropharyngeal cancer.

Patients And Methods: Patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma Stage T1-2, N0-1, M0 requiring treatment of the bilateral neck were eligible. Chemotherapy was not permitted. Prescribed planning target volumes (PTVs) doses to primary tumor and involved nodes was 66 Gy at 2.2 Gy/fraction over 6 weeks. Subclinical PTVs received simultaneously 54-60 Gy at 1.8-2.0 Gy/fraction. Participating institutions were preapproved for IMRT, and quality assurance review was performed by the Image-Guided Therapy Center.

Results: 69 patients were accrued from 14 institutions. At median follow-up for surviving patients (2.8 years), the 2-year estimated local-regional failure (LRF) rate was 9%. 2/4 patients (50%) with major underdose deviations had LRF compared with 3/49 (6%) without such deviations (p = 0.04). All cases of LRF, metastasis, or second primary cancer occurred among patients who were current/former smokers, and none among patients who never smoked. Maximal late toxicities Grade >or=2 were skin 12%, mucosa 24%, salivary 67%, esophagus 19%, osteoradionecrosis 6%. Longer follow-up revealed reduced late toxicity in all categories. Xerostomia Grade >or=2 was observed in 55% of patients at 6 months but reduced to 25% and 16% at 12 and 24 months, respectively. In contrast, salivary output did not recover over time.

Conclusions: Moderately accelerated hypofractionatd IMRT without chemotherapy for early oropharyngeal cancer is feasible, achieving high tumor control rates and reduced salivary toxicity compared with similar patients in previous Radiation Therapy Oncology Group studies. Major target underdose deviations were associated with higher LRF rate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2009.04.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2846217PMC
April 2010

Long-term results of concomitant boost radiation plus concurrent cisplatin for advanced head and neck carcinomas: a phase II trial of the radiation therapy oncology group (RTOG 99-14).

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2008 Aug;71(5):1351-5

Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, TX 77030, USA.

Purpose: The feasibility of combining concomitant boost-accelerated radiation regimen (AFX-C) with cisplatin was previously demonstrated in this Phase II trial. This article reports the long-term toxicity, relapse patterns, and survival in patients with advanced head and neck carcinoma.

Methods And Materials: Between April and November 2000, 84 patients with Stage III-IV HNC were enrolled, and 76 patients were analyzable. Radiation consisted of 72 Gy over 6 weeks. Cisplatin dose was 100 mg/m(2) on Days 1 and 22. Tumor and clinical status were assessed, and acute-late toxicities were graded.

Results: The median follow-up for surviving patients is 4.3 years. The 2- and 4-year locoregional failure rates were 33% and 36%, respectively, and the 2- and 4-year survival rates were 70% and 54%, respectively. The worst overall late Grade 3 or 4 toxicity rate was 42%. The prevalence rates of a gastrostomy at any time during follow-up, at 12 months, and at 48 months were 83%, 41%, and 17%, respectively. Five of 36 patients (14%) alive and without disease at last follow-up were gastrostomy-tube dependent.

Conclusion: These data of long-term follow-up of patients treated with AFX-C with cisplatin show encouraging results with regard to locoregional disease control and survival, with few recurrences after 2 years. The late toxicity rates are relatively high. However, although prolonged dysphagia was noted in our preliminary report, its prevalence does decreased over time. A Phase III trial comparing AFX-C plus cisplatin against standard radiation plus cisplatin has completed accrual.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2008.04.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2582390PMC
August 2008