Publications by authors named "Christopher S Klifto"

38 Publications

Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty for Oncologic Reconstruction of the Proximal Humerus: A Systematic Review.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2021 Jul 14. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.

Background: In recent years, there has been growing interest in the use of reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (rTSA) for reconstruction of the proximal humerus after oncologic resection. However, the indications and outcomes of oncologic rTSA remain unclear.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review to identify studies that reported outcomes of patients who underwent rTSA for oncologic reconstruction of the proximal humerus. Extracted data included demographics, indications, operative techniques, outcomes, and complications. Weighted means were calculated according to sample size.

Results: Twelve studies were included, containing 194 patients who underwent rTSA for oncologic reconstruction of the proximal humerus. Mean patient age was 48 years, and 52% were male. Primary malignancies were present in 55% of patients, metastatic disease 30%, and benign tumors 9%. Mean humeral resection length was 12cm. Mean postoperative MSTS score was 78%, Constant score 60, and TESS score 77%. Mean complication rate was 28%, with shoulder instability accounting for 63% of complications. Revisions were performed in 16% of patients, and mean implant survival was 89% at a mean follow-up across studies of 53 months.

Conclusions: Although the existing literature is of poor study quality, with a high level of heterogeneity and risk of bias, rTSA appears to be a suitable option in appropriately selected patients undergoing oncologic resection and reconstruction of the proximal humerus. The most common complication is instability. Higher quality evidence is needed to help guide decision making on appropriate implant utilization for patients undergoing oncologic resection of the proximal humerus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2021.06.004DOI Listing
July 2021

Legislation Only Limiting Opioid Prescription Length Has Minimal Impact on Prescribing in Orthopaedic Trauma.

J Surg Orthop Adv 2021 ;30(2):101-107

Duke University Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Durham, North Carolina.

This study evaluates the efficacy of North Carolina's Strengthen Opioid Misuse Prevention (STOP) Act in reducing the volume and rate of 90-day perioperative opioid prescribing to patients ages 18 and older after orthopaedic trauma surgery. Patients undergoing fracture surgery from January 2017 to June 2017 (pre-STOP) were compared with patients undergoing fracture surgery from January 2018 to June 2018 (post-STOP). Adjusted analyses demonstrated that patients undergoing surgery after the STOP Act (n = 730) were prescribed significantly lower volume of opioids in the discharge to 2-week time frame and at the first postoperative prescription (7.3 and 5.8 fewer oxycodone, respectively). Otherwise, there were no significant differences between the two cohorts in adjusted volume or rates of 90-day opioid prescribing. The STOP act has had only a minor impact on early post-discharge opioid prescribing in patients undergoing fracture surgery. These findings question the efficacy of this type of legislation in combating opioid overprescribing in orthopaedic trauma. (Journal of Surgical Orthopaedic Advances 30(2):101-107, 2021).
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June 2021

Short stay after shoulder arthroplasty does not increase 90-day readmissions in Medicare patients compared with privately insured patients.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2021 Jun 9. Epub 2021 Jun 9.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.

Background: As of January 1, 2021, total shoulder arthroplasty was removed from the Medicare inpatient-only list, reflecting a growing belief in the potential merits of same-day discharge regardless of insurance type. It is yet unknown whether Medicare populations, which frequently have more severe comorbidity burdens, would experience higher complication rates relative to privately insured patients, who are often younger with fewer comorbidities. Given the limited number of true outpatient cohorts available to study, discharge at least by postoperative day 1 may serve as a useful proxy for true same-day discharge, and we hypothesized that these Medicare patients would have increased 90-day readmission rates compared with their privately insured counterparts.

Methods: Data on 4723 total shoulder arthroplasties (anatomic in 2459 and reverse in 2264) from 2 large, geographically diverse health systems in patients having either Medicare or private insurance were collected. The unplanned 90-day readmission rate was the primary outcome, and patients were stratified into those who were discharged at least by postoperative day 1 (short inpatient stay) and those who were not. Patients with private insurance (n = 1845) were directly compared with those with Medicare (n = 2878), whereas cohorts of workers' compensation (n = 198) and Medicaid (n = 58) patients were analyzed separately. Forty preoperative variables were examined to compare overall health burden, with the χ and Wilcoxon rank sum tests used to test for statistical significance.

Results: Medicare patients undergoing short-stay shoulder arthroplasty were not significantly more likely than those with private insurance to experience an unplanned 90-day readmission (3.6% vs. 2.5%, P = .14). This similarity existed despite a substantially worse comorbidity burden in the Medicare population (P < .05 for 26 of 40 factors). Furthermore, a short inpatient stay did not result in an increased 90-day readmission rate in either Medicare patients (3.6% vs. 3.4%, P = .77) or their privately insured counterparts (2.5% vs. 2.4%, P = .92). Notably, when the analysis was restricted to a single insurance type, readmission rates were significantly higher for reverse shoulder arthroplasty compared with total shoulder arthroplasty (P < .001 for both), but when the analysis was restricted to a single procedure (anatomic or reverse), readmission rates were similar between Medicare and privately insured patients, whether undergoing a short or extended length of stay.

Conclusions: Despite a substantially more severe comorbidity profile, Medicare patients undergoing short-stay shoulder arthroplasty did not experience a significantly higher rate of unplanned 90-day readmission relative to privately insured patients. A higher incidence of reverse shoulder arthroplasty in Medicare patients does increase their overall readmission rate, but a similar increase also appears in privately-insured patients undergoing a reverse indicating that Medicare populations may be similarly appropriate for accelerated-care pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2021.05.013DOI Listing
June 2021

Fracture location impacts opioid demand in upper extremity fracture surgery.

Injury 2021 May 20. Epub 2021 May 20.

Duke University Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, 200 Trent Drive, Durham, NC 27710. Electronic address:

Introduction: Opioid sparing protocols should be formulated with appropriate demand. Specific fracture location has been hypothesized as an important predictor of post-operative pain. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of fracture location on perioperative opioid demand after surgery with the hypothesis that this factor would be significantly associated with perioperative opioid demand in upper extremity fracture surgery.

Methods: A national database was used to identify1-month pre-operative to 1-year postdischarge opioid demand in oxycodone 5-mg equivalents in 336,493 patients undergoing fracture fixation of the clavicle through distal radius between 2010 and 2020. Three timeframes were evaluated: 1-month pre-op to 90-days post-discharge, 3 months post-discharge to 1-year post-discharge, and 1-month pre-op to 1-year postdischarge. Multivariable main effects linear and logistic regression models were constructed to evaluate the changes in opioids filled, opioid prescriptions, and odds of two or more opioid prescriptions in these timeframes based on fracture location with adjustment for age, sex, obesity, pre-operative opioid usage, and polytrauma.

Results: Compared to distal radius fracture fixation, fixation of elbow, distal humerus, humeral shaft, and proximal humerus fractures were associated with large, significant increases in 1-month pre-op to 1-year post-discharge opioid filling (33.5 - 63.4 additional oxycodone 5-mg equivalents, all p<0.05) and number of filled prescriptions (0.33 - 0.92 additional prescriptions, all p<0.05) compared to patients with other operatively treated upper extremity injuries.

Discussion: Fracture location was a significant predictor of perioperative opioid demand. Elbow, distal humerus, humeral shaft, and proximal humerus fracture fixation was associated with the largest increases in opioid demand after upper extremity fracture fixation. Patients with these injuries may be at highest risk of extensive opioid consumption.

Level Of Evidence: Level III, retrospective, observational cohort study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.injury.2021.05.026DOI Listing
May 2021

The Value of an Orthoplastic Approach to Management of Lower Extremity Trauma: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2021 Mar 22;9(3):e3494. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pa.

Background: Management of traumatic lower extremity injuries requires a skill set of orthopedic surgery and plastic surgery to optimize the return of form and function. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed comparing demographics, injuries, and surgical outcomes of patients sustaining lower extremity traumatic injuries receiving either orthoplastic management or nonorthoplastic management.

Methods: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis, Cochrane, and GRADE certainty evidence guidelines were implemented for the structure and synthesis of the review. PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Scopus, and CINAHL databases were systematically and independently searched. Nine studies published from 2013 through 2019 compared 1663 orthoplastic managed patients to 692 nonorthoplastic managed patients with traumatic lower extremity injuries.

Results: Orthoplastic management, compared to nonorthoplastic management likely decreases time to bone fixation [standard mean differences: -0.35, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.46 to -0.25, < 0.0001; participants = 1777; studies = 3; I = 0%; moderate certainty evidence], use of negative pressure wound therapy [risk ratios (RR): 0.03, 95% CI: 0.00-0.24, = 0.0007; participants = 189; studies = 2; I = 0%; moderate certainty evidence] with reliance on healing by secondary intention (RR: 0.02, 95% CI: 0.00-0.10, < 0.0001; participants = 189; studies = 2; I = 0%; moderate certainty evidence), and risk of wound/osteomyelitis infections (RR: 0.37, 95% CI: 0.23-0.61, < 0.0001; participants = 224; studies = 3; I = 0%; moderate certainty evidence). Orthoplastic management likely results in more free flaps compared to nonorthoplastic management (RR: 3.46, 95% CI: 1.28-9.33, = 0.01; participants = 592; studies = 5; I = 75%; moderate certainty evidence).

Conclusion: Orthoplastic management of traumatic lower extremity injuries provides a synergistic model to optimize and expedite definitive skeletal fixation and free flap-based soft-tissue coverage for return of extremity form and function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/GOX.0000000000003494DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8099387PMC
March 2021

Malnutrition in elective shoulder arthroplasty: a multi-institutional retrospective study of preoperative albumin and adverse outcomes.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Malnutrition is associated with poor postoperative outcomes after knee, hip, and spine surgery. However, whether albumin labs should be part of the routine preoperative workup for shoulder arthroplasty remains understudied. This study investigated the role of preoperative albumin levels in predicting common postoperative adverse outcomes in patients undergoing shoulder arthroplasty.

Methods: All shoulder arthroplasty cases performed at 2 tertiary referral centers between July 2013 and May 2019 (institution 1) and between June 2007 and Feb 2020 (institution 2) were reviewed. A total of 421 primary and 71 revision elective shoulder arthroplasty cases had preoperative albumin levels recorded. Common demographic variables and relevant Elixhauser comorbidities were pulled. Outcomes gathered included extended (>3 days) postoperative inpatient length of stay (eLOS), 90-day readmission, and discharge to rehab or skilled nursing facility (SNF).

Results: The prevalence of malnutrition (albumin <3.5 g/dL) was higher in the revision group compared with the primary group (36.6% vs. 19.5%, P = .001). Reverse shoulder arthroplasty (P = .013) and increasing American Society of Anesthesiologists score (P = .016) were identified as independent risk factors for malnutrition in the primary group. In the revision group, liver disease was associated with malnutrition (P = .046). Malnourished primary shoulder arthroplasty patients had an increased incidence of eLOS (26.8% vs. 13.6%, P = .003) and discharge to rehab/SNF (18.3% vs. 10.3%, P = .045). On univariable analysis, low albumin had an odds ratio (OR) of 2.34 for eLOS (P = .004), which retained significance in a multivariable model including age, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, sex, and body mass index (OR 2.11, P = .03). On univariable analysis, low albumin had an OR of 1.94 for discharge to SNF/rehab (P = .048), but this did not reach significance in the multivariable model. Among revisions, malnourished patients had an increased incidence of eLOS (30.8% vs. 6.7%, P = .014) and discharge to rehab/SNF (26.9% vs. 4.4%, P = .010). In both the primary and revision groups, there was no difference in 90-day readmission rate between patients with low or normal albumin.

Conclusion: Malnutrition is more prevalent among revision shoulder arthroplasty patients compared with those undergoing a primary procedure. Primary shoulder arthroplasty patients with low preoperative albumin levels have an increased risk of eLOS and may have an increased need for postacute care. Low albumin was not associated with a risk of 90-day readmissions. Albumin level merits further investigation in large, prospective cohorts to clearly define its role in preoperative risk stratification.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2021.03.143DOI Listing
April 2021

Isolated Scaphoid Dislocation With Radial-Axial Instability: A Treatment Strategy Utilizing Spanning Wrist Plates.

J Hand Surg Am 2021 Mar 20. Epub 2021 Mar 20.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.

Isolated dislocation of the scaphoid is a rare injury with only a few case reports in the literature. We report on 2 complex scaphoid dislocations demonstrating concomitant axial instability with disruption of the capitohamate articulation as well as the long-ring metacarpal relationship. Both of these patients underwent reduction and fixation using a wrist spanning plate, which was removed approximately 2 months after injury. Follow-up of these patients demonstrated maintenance of reduction, axial stability, and return of painless range of motion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhsa.2021.01.010DOI Listing
March 2021

Direct admission versus transfer to a tertiary hospital for definitive management of lower extremity injuries: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Trauma Acute Care Surg 2021 04;90(4):756-765

From the Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery (K.M.K., S.C.A., S.O., L.S.L., S.J.K.), Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Department of Orthopaedic Surgery (C.S.K.), Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina; Department of Orthopaedic Surgery (L.S.L., S.J.K.), Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.

Background: Delays in definitive management for traumatic lower extremity injuries may result in morbidity. We compared patients with lower extremity injuries directly admitted to a tertiary hospital for definitive care with patients transferred to that hospital following initial treatment elsewhere.

Methods: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Scopus databases were searched. Participants sustained lower extremity injuries, definitively treated at a tertiary hospital. Interventions were direct admission to a tertiary hospital for definitive care and patients transferred to that hospital for definitive care after initial management at another location. PRISMA, Cochrane, and grading of recommendations assessment, development and evaluation certainty-evidence guidelines were implemented.

Results: Nineteen studies published from 1991 to 2020 compared 3,367 patients directly admitted with 1,046 patients transferred to a hospital for definitive management of lower extremity injuries. Direct admission to a tertiary center, compared with transfer, decreased time to first definitive surgical procedure (standard mean difference, -0.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.57 to -0.16; p = 0.0006; participants, 788; studies, 6; I2 = 34%; high-certainty evidence) and wound infections (risk ratio [RR], 0.38; 95% CI, 0.19-0.77; p = 0.007; participants, 475; studies, 7; I2 = 27%; high-certainty evidence). Risks for diabetic patients (RR, 0.87; 95%CI, 0.77-0.98; p = 0.03; participants, 2,973; studies, 4; I2 = 0%; moderate-certainty evidence), total number of surgeries (standard mean difference, -0.69; 95% CI, -1.02 to -0.36; p < 0.0001; participants, 259; studies, 4; I2 = 35%; moderate-certainty evidence), osteomyelitis (RR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.28-0.80; p = 0.006; participants, 212; studies, 2; I2 = 0%; moderate-certainty evidence), and total complications (RR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.32-0.67; p < 0.0001; participants, 729; studies, 5; I2 = 32%; moderate-certainty evidence) are likely lower for direct admits compared with transfers. Direct admission may reduce risks for systemic infections (RR, 0.08; 95% CI, 0.01-0.51; p = 0.007; participants, 198; studies, 2; I2 = 0%; low-certainty evidence), venous thromboembolism (RR, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.01-0.73; p = 0.02; participants, 94; studies, 1; low-certainty evidence), and postoperative bleeding (RR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.59-0.93; p = 0.01; participants, 2,725; studies, 3; I2 = 0%; low-certainty evidence), compared with transfer.

Conclusion: Earlier admission to a definitive tertiary center avoids morbidity associated with transfer delays.

Level Of Evidence: Systematic Review/meta-analysis, level III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/TA.0000000000003072DOI Listing
April 2021

Use of a 5-item modified Fragility Index for risk stratification in patients undergoing surgical management of proximal humerus fractures.

JSES Int 2021 Mar 16;5(2):212-219. Epub 2020 Dec 16.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.

Hypothesis: We hypothesized that the modified Fragility Index (mFI) would predict complications in patients older than 50 years who underwent operative intervention for a proximal humerus fracture.

Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the American College of Surgeons National Surgery Quality Improvement Program database, including patients older than 50 years who underwent open reduction and internal fixation of a proximal humerus fracture. A 5-item mFI score was then calculated for each patient. Postoperative complications, readmission and reoperation rates as well as length of stay (LOS) were recorded. Univariate as well as multivariable statistical analyses were performed, controlling for age, sex, body mass index, LOS, and operative time.

Results: We identified 2,004 patients (median age, 66 years; interquartile range: 59-74), of which 76.2% were female. As mFI increased from 0 to 2 or greater, 30-day readmission rate increased from 2.8% to 6.7% (-value = .005), rate of discharge to rehabilitation facility increased from 7.1% to 25.3% (-value < .001), and rates of any complication increased from 6.5% to 13.9% (-value < .001). Specifically, the rates of renal and hematologic complications increased significantly in patients with mFI of 2 or greater (-value = .042 and -value < .001, respectively). Compared with patients with mFI of 0, patients with mFI of 2 or greater were 2 times more likely to be readmitted within 30 days (odds ratio = 2.2, -value .026). In addition, patients with mFI of 2 or greater had an increased odds of discharge to a rehabilitation center (odds ratio = 2.3, -value < .001). However, increased fragility was not significantly associated with an increased odds of 30-day reoperation or any complication after controlling for demographic data, LOS, and operative time.

Conclusion: An increasing level of fragility is predictive of readmission and discharge to a rehabilitation center after open reduction and internal fixation of proximal humerus fractures. Our data suggest that a simple fragility evaluation can help inform surgical decision-making and counseling in patients older than 50 years with proximal humerus fractures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jseint.2020.10.017DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7910730PMC
March 2021

Arthroscopic surgical management of shoulder secondary to shoulder injury related to vaccine administration (SIRVA): a case report.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2021 Jun 18;30(6):e334-e337. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2021.01.027DOI Listing
June 2021

Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty clinical and patient-reported outcomes and complications stratified by preoperative diagnosis: a systematic review.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2021 Apr 22;30(4):929-941. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Nuffield Department of Orthopaedics, Rheumatology, and Musculoskeletal Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Objective: This systematic review aimed to investigate differences in clinical outcomes, patient-reported outcomes (PROs), and complication types and rates among preoperative diagnoses following reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA): rotator cuff tear arthropathy, primary osteoarthritis, massive irreparable rotator cuff tear, proximal humeral fracture, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and revision of anatomic arthroplasty (Rev).

Literature Search: Three electronic databases were searched from inception to January 2020.

Study Selection Criteria: The inclusion criteria were (1) patients with a minimum age of 60 years who underwent RTSA for the stated preoperative diagnoses, (2) a minimum of 2 years' follow-up, and (3) preoperative and postoperative values for clinical outcomes and PROs.

Data Synthesis: Risk of bias was determined by the Methodological Index for Non-randomized Studies tool and the modified Downs and Black tool. Weighted means for clinical outcomes and PROs were calculated for each preoperative diagnosis.

Results: A total of 53 studies were included, of which 36 (68%) were level IV retrospective case series. According to the Methodological Index for Non-randomized Studies tool, 33 studies (62%) showed a high risk of bias; the 3 randomized controlled trials showed a low risk of bias on the modified Downs and Black tool. RTSA improved clinical outcomes and PROs for all preoperative diagnoses. The Rev group had poorer final outcomes as noted by a lower American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score (69) and lower pain score (1.8) compared with the other preoperative diagnoses (78-82 and 0.4-1.4, respectively). The RA group showed the highest complication rate (28%), whereas the osteoarthritis group showed the lowest rate (1.4%).

Conclusion: Studies in the RTSA literature predominantly showed a high risk of bias. All preoperative diagnoses showed improvements; Rev patients showed the worse clinical outcomes and PROs, and RA patients showed higher complication rates. The preoperative diagnosis in RTSA patients can impact outcomes and complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2020.09.028DOI Listing
April 2021

Utility of postoperative hemoglobin testing following total shoulder arthroplasty.

JSES Int 2021 Jan 8;5(1):149-153. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.

Background: Identifying areas of excess cost for shoulder arthroplasty patients can play a role in effective health care spending. The purpose of this study was to assess the utility of postoperative complete blood count (CBC) testing after total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) and identify which patients benefit from routine CBC testing.

Methods: We performed a retrospective review of a cohort of patients who underwent primary TSA from January 2018 through January 2019. All patients in this cohort received tranexamic acid. Patient demographic characteristics and patient-specific risk factors such as American Society of Anesthesiologists score, Elixhauser index, body mass index, smoking status, and coagulopathy history were obtained. Perioperative values including length of surgery, preoperative and postoperative hemoglobin (Hgb) levels, and need for transfusion were also obtained.

Results: This study included 387 TSA patients in the final analysis. Comparison between the cohort requiring transfusion and the cohort undergoing no intervention revealed no statistically significant differences in age, sex, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, or Elixhauser index. The group receiving transfusions was found to have significantly lower levels of preoperative Hgb (11.3 g/dL) and postoperative Hgb (8.1 g/dL) ( < .0001). Additionally, the percentages of patients with abnormal preoperative Hgb levels (<12 g/dL) (72.3%) and postoperative day 1 Hgb levels < 9 g/dL (81.8%) were significantly higher in the group receiving transfusions ( < .0001). A multivariate regression model identified an abnormal preoperative Hgb level (<12 g/dL), with an odds ratio of 3.8 (95% confidence interval, 1.5-6.2; < .001), and postoperative day 1 Hgb level < 9 g/dL, with an odds ratio of 3.3 (95% confidence interval, 0.4-6.1; < .03), as significant predictors of the risk of transfusion with a sensitivity of 64% and specificity of 96.2% with an area under the curve of 0.87.

Conclusion: Routine CBC testing may not be necessary for patients who receive tranexamic acid and have preoperative Hgb levels > 12 mg/dL and first postoperative Hgb levels > 9 mg/dL. This translates to potential health care cost savings and improves current evidence-based perioperative management in shoulder arthroplasty.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jseint.2020.07.020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7846688PMC
January 2021

Malpractice trends in shoulder and elbow surgery.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2021 Feb 3. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.

Background: Medical malpractice is a very common occurrence that many medical providers will have to face; approximately 17,000 medical malpractice cases are filed in the United States each year, and more than 99% of all surgeons are faced with at least 1 instance of malpractice litigation throughout their careers. Malpractice litigation also carries a major economic weight, with medical malpractice spending resulting in an aggregate expenditure of nearly $60 billion annually in the United States. Orthopedic surgery is one of the most common subspecialties involved in malpractice claims. Currently, there are no comprehensive studies examining malpractice lawsuits within shoulder and elbow surgery. Therefore, the purpose of this work is to examine trends in malpractice claims in shoulder and elbow surgery.

Methods: The Westlaw online legal database was queried in order to identify state and federal jury verdicts and settlements pertaining to shoulder and elbow surgery from 2010-2020. Only cases involving medical malpractice in which an orthopedic shoulder and elbow surgeon was a named defendant were included for analysis. All available details pertaining to the cases were collected. This included plaintiff demographic and geographic data. Details regarding the cases were also collected, such as anatomic location, pathology, complications, and case outcomes.

Results: Twenty-five malpractice lawsuits pertaining to orthopedic shoulder and elbow surgery were identified. Most plaintiffs in these cases were adult men, and the majority of cases were filed in the Southwest (28%) and Midwest (28%) regions of the United States. The most common anatomic region involved in claims was the rotator cuff (32%), followed by the glenohumeral joint (20%). The majority of these claims involved surgery (56%). Pain of mechanical nature was the most common complication seen in claims (56%). The jury ruled in favor of the defendant surgeon in most cases (80%).

Discussion: This is the first study that comprehensively examines the full scope of orthopedic shoulder and elbow malpractice claims across the United States. The most common complaint that plaintiffs reported at the time of litigation was residual pain after treatment due to a mechanical etiology, followed by complaints of nerve damage. A large portion of claims resulted after nonoperative treatment. A better understanding of the trends within malpractice claims is crucial to developing strategies for prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2020.12.018DOI Listing
February 2021

Outcomes Associated With Scapholunate Ligament Injury Following Intra-Articular Distal Radius Fractures.

J Hand Surg Am 2021 Apr 30;46(4):309-318. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Division of Hand Surgery, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC. Electronic address:

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate a series of intra-articular distal radius fractures (DRFs) to determine whether patients without radiographic evidence of scapholunate (SL) ligament injury have a difference in outcomes in comparison with patients with radiographic evidence of SL ligament injury and no ligament repair or reconstruction. Our hypothesis is that there are no significant differences in outcomes between patients after treatment of their intra-articular DRF.

Methods: A retrospective analysis of patients from a single institution who sustained an intra-articular DRF from January 2006 through January 2019 with minimum 12-month (n = 192) and 24-month (n = 100) follow-up was performed. Patient demographic, clinical, and outcome variables were compared between SL angles less than 70° (cohort 1) and SL angles 70° or greater (cohort 2). Radiographic parameters were measured and recorded at 3 time points: baseline in the contralateral wrist, following closed reduction but prior to surgical intervention, and at final follow-up. Outcomes collected included Quick Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (QuickDASH), Modified Global Assessment of Function (mGAF), and a visual analog scale (VAS) for pain.

Results: One hundred ninety-two patients were included. Of these 192 patients, cohort 1 (n = 110) was observed to have median (range) SL angles of 58° (42°-68°) and cohort 2 (n = 82) median (range) SL angles of 74.5° (70°-87°) after closed reduction. Cohort 2 had statistically significant increases in median SL angles from closed reduction to final follow-up (74.5° [range, 70°-87°) to 78.5° (range, 71°-107°). There were no statistically significant differences in QuickDASH disability scores, mGAF scores, and VAS pain scores between the cohorts at initial and final follow-ups.

Conclusions: Patient-reported outcomes at 12 and 24 months do not differ between patients without radiographically apparent SL ligament injury (SL angles < 70°) and patients with radiographically apparent SL ligament injury(SL angles ≥ 70°) who do not undergo ligament repair or reconstruction following treatment of their intra-articular DRF.

Type Of Study/level Of Evidence: Therapeutic IV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhsa.2020.12.005DOI Listing
April 2021

Opioid Prescription After Carpal Tunnel Release Is Declining Independent of State Laws.

J Am Acad Orthop Surg 2021 Jun;29(11):486-497

From the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.

Background: The opioid misuse crisis focused attention on opioid overprescribing prompting legislation, limiting prescribing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate of opioid filling surrounding carpal tunnel release (CTR) with the hypothesis that filling has decreased in response to state legislation.

Methods: This is a retrospective, observational study of initial discharge, 30-day, 90-day, and 1-year cumulative opioid filling after CTR in a commercial insurance database between 2010 and 2018. All patients aged 18 and older undergoing CTR and with active insurance status for 6 months preoperative through 30 days, 90 days, and 1 year postoperative were considered for inclusion. Patients undergoing same-day distal radius fracture fixation were excluded. Initial and cumulative perioperative patient, state, and year-level opioid filling rates and volumes in oxycodone 5 mg equivalents (oxycodone 5-mg pills) were evaluated.

Results: Patients filled mean volumes of 33, 72, and 144 oxycodone 5-mg pills in the initial prescription, by 90 days post-op and by 1 year post-op, respectively. First prescription opioid filling volume (35 oxycodone 5-mg pills 2010 and 27 oxycodone 5-mg pills 2018, P < 0.001) and cumulative 90-day filling (96 oxycodone 5-mg pills 2010 and 56 oxycodone 5-mg pills 2018, P < 0.001) have decreased significantly from 2010 to 2018. Ten of 24 (41.7%) of states with opioid-limiting legislation had large (>5 oxycodone 5-mg pills), significant reductions in initial opioid filling volume after legislation. Five of 13 (38.5%) states without opioid-limiting legislation had similar reductions during the study period. Thirteen of 24 (54.2%) states with opioid-limiting legislation had large, notable reductions in 90-day opioid filling volume after legislation. Six of 13 (46.2%) states without opioid-limiting legislation had similar reductions during the study period.

Conclusion: Initial and cumulative opioid filling surrounding CTR has decreased significantly since 2010. However, opioid legislation did not result in substantial changes in rates of large, significant reductions in state-specific opioid prescribing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5435/JAAOS-D-20-00955DOI Listing
June 2021

Revision total elbow arthroplasty with the ulnar component implanted into the radius for management of large ulna defects.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2021 Apr 2;30(4):913-917. Epub 2020 Sep 2.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Total elbow arthroplasty (TEA) has a higher rate of revision and complications than other total joint arthroplasties. Salvage options for failed TEAs are limited, especially when patients have poor ulna bone stock. The purpose of this study is to describe a surgical technique and report outcomes of patients who underwent revision TEA with implantation of the ulnar component into the radius to address ulna bony defects.

Methods: A retrospective review of 5 patients at a single institution from 2014 to 2019 in which the ulnar component was implanted into the radius to address large bony defects in the setting of revision TEA was performed.

Results: At follow-up of 2.1 ± 1.9 years, patients experienced an increase in total arc of motion from 86 ± 17° to 112 ± 8°, with infection eradication and no instances of distal component loosening.

Conclusion: This salvage technique was effective at providing a stable elbow in patients with large ulna bony defects as a result of prosthetic joint infection or periprosthetic fracture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2020.08.018DOI Listing
April 2021

Humeral intramedullary nail placement through the rotator interval: an anatomic and radiographic analysis.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2021 Apr 19;30(4):747-755. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.

Background: Antegrade humeral intramedullary nails are an effective fixation method for certain proximal humeral fractures and humeral shaft fractures. However, owing to potential rotator cuff damage during nail insertion, shoulder pain remains a common postoperative complaint. The purpose of this study was to provide quantitative data characterizing the anatomic and radiographic location of the rotator interval (RI) for an antegrade humeral intramedullary nail using a mini-deltopectoral approach.

Methods: Six consecutive fresh-frozen intact cadaveric specimens (mean age, 69 ± 12.8 years) were obtained for our study. Demographic data were collected on each specimen. A mini-deltopectoral approach was used, followed by placement of a guidewire in the RI. Quantitative anatomic relationships were calculated using a fractional carbon fiber digital caliper. Radiographic measurements were performed by 2 orthopedic residents and 1 practicing fellowship-trained orthopedic surgeon. In addition to re-measurement of similar anatomic relationships on radiographs, the ratio of the distance from the lateral humeral edge to the starting point relative to the width of the humeral head on the anteroposterior (AP) view was calculated. Similarly, on the lateral view, the ratio of the distance from the anterior humeral edge to the starting point relative to the humeral head width was calculated.

Results: In all cases, the described approach allowed for preservation of the biceps tendon and access to the RI for guidewire insertion, with no subsequent rotator cuff or humeral articular cartilage damage identified following nail insertion. The ratio of the distance from the lateral humeral edge to the starting point relative to the humeral head width on the AP view was 0.4 ± 0.0. The ratio of the distance from the anterior humeral edge to the starting point relative to the humeral head width on the lateral view was 0.3 ± 0.0.

Conclusion: This study demonstrates the clinical feasibility of a mini-deltopectoral approach and shows that the ideal starting point through the RI radiographically lies along the medial aspect of the lateral third of the humeral head on the AP view and along the posterior aspect of the anterior third of the humeral head on the lateral view.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2020.07.044DOI Listing
April 2021

A Reliability Study of Multiplanar Radiographs for the Evaluation of SNAC Wrist Arthritis.

Hand (N Y) 2020 Jul 16:1558944720937359. Epub 2020 Jul 16.

Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.

Scaphoid nonunion advanced collapse (SNAC) is a common form of wrist arthritis, the treatment of which depends on the arthritic stage. The Vender classification serves to describe SNAC arthritis based on a single posteroanterior (PA) radiograph. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intraobserver and interobserver agreement of the Vender classification, comparing multi versus single radiographic views. A retrospective review of patients with SNAC arthritis who underwent a proximal row carpectomy or a 4-corner fusion was performed. The included patients had 3 radiographic views of the pathologic wrist. Fifteen patients were analyzed by 5 blinded reviewers. Wrists were graded using the Vender classification first on the PA view and then using multiview radiographs. The intraobserver and interobserver agreement was determined using weighted kappa analysis. χ tests were calculated comparing the evaluation between single- versus multiview radiographs and determining a higher Vender stage. Multiview radiographs demonstrated a higher intraobserver κ compared with single-view radiographs (0.72 vs 0.66), both representing substantial agreement. The average interobserver agreement was moderate (κ of 0.48) for single view and slight (κ of 0.30) for multiview evaluation. Evaluating multiview radiographs was 6.37 times more likely to demonstrate Vender stage 3 arthritis compared with single view (odds ratio = 6.37 [confidence interval, 3.81-10.64], < .0001). Reviewing multiview radiographs more commonly yielded Vender stage 3 osteoarthritis classification. The decreased interrater reliability in the multiview analysis is likely related to the increased number of articular surfaces evaluated. Using a single PA view may underestimate the severity of arthritis present.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1558944720937359DOI Listing
July 2020

Mental health and substance use affect perioperative opioid demand in upper extremity trauma surgery.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2021 Mar 7;30(3):e114-e120. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.

Background: Patients undergoing upper extremity fracture surgery often have postoperative pain that can be mitigated with opioid pain medications. Opioid misuse and abuse are growing concerns regarding the liberal use of opioids in the perioperative setting. The impact of mental health disorders and substance abuse on perioperative opioid demand is largely unknown. The purpose of this study is to describe perioperative opioid filling and risk factors for increased filling after upper extremity fractures. The study hypothesis is that poor mental health and substance abuse will be associated with increased opioid demand.

Methods: This is a retrospective, cohort study of 26,283 patients undergoing operative fixation of upper extremity fractures involving the proximal humerus through distal radius using a commercially available insurance database. Opioid prescription filling in oxycodone 5-mg equivalents and refills were tabulated from 1 month preoperation to 1 year postoperation. Multivariable linear and logistic regression models were constructed in R (Statistical Analysis Software) to evaluate associations between mental health and substance use disorders and opioid-related outcomes with adjustment for baseline patient and treatment factors such as age, sex, comorbidities, and fracture location.

Results: Of the 26,283 patients in the cohort, 79.9%, 32.6%, and 83.1% filled at least 1 opioid prescription in the 1-month preoperative to 90-day postoperative, 3-month postoperative to 1-year postoperative, and 1-month preoperative to 1-year postoperative time frames, respectively. Mean opioid volume prescribed during those time frames was 103.7, 53.5, and 156.9 oxycodone 5-mg equivalents, respectively. Drug abuse, psychoses, and preoperative opioid filling were significant mental health-related drivers of increased postoperative opioid demand.

Discussion: This study reports the rate and volume of opioid prescription filling in patients undergoing upper extremity fracture surgery. Mental health and substance use disorders were significant drivers of perioperative opioid demand. These study findings can guide surgeons to anticipate expected perioperative opioid demand and identify patients who may benefit from collaboration with pain management specialists during the perioperative period.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2020.06.024DOI Listing
March 2021

Trends in reimbursement for primary and revision total elbow arthroplasty.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2021 Jan 28;30(1):146-150. Epub 2020 Jun 28.

Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.

Background: Relative value units (RVUs) are an essential component of reimbursement calculations from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. RVUs are calculated based on physician work, practice expense, and professional liability insurance. Procedures that are more complex, such as revision arthroplasty, require greater levels of physician work and should therefore be assigned a greater RVU. The purpose of this study is to compare RVUs assigned for primary and revision total elbow arthroplasty (TEA).

Methods: The National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was used to collect all primary and revision total elbow arthroplasties performed between January 2015 and December 2017. Variables collected included age at time of surgery, RVUs assigned for the procedure, and operative time.

Results: A total of 359 cases (282 primary TEA, 77 revision TEA) were included in this study. Mean RVUs for primary TEA was 21.4 (2.0 standard deviation [SD]) vs. 24.4 (1.7 SD) for revision arthroplasty (P < .001). Mean operative time for primary TEA was 137.9 minutes (24.4 SD) vs. 185.5 minutes (99.7 SD) for revision TEA (P < .001). The RVU per minute for primary TEA was 0.16 and revision TEA was 0.13 (P < .001). This amounts to a yearly reimbursement difference of $71,024 in favor of primary TEA over revision TEA.

Conclusion: The current reimbursement model does not adequately account for increased operative time, technical demand, and pre- and postoperative care associated with revision elbow arthroplasty compared with primary TEA. This leads to a financial advantage on performing primary TEA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2020.06.004DOI Listing
January 2021

Intravenous tranexamic acid vs. topical thrombin in total shoulder arthroplasty: a comparative study.

J Shoulder Elbow Surg 2021 Feb 24;30(2):312-316. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, USA.

Background: Blood loss and transfusions have been highlighted as a significant predictor of postoperative morbidity. Tranexamic acid (TXA) has been shown to decrease blood loss and transfusion in shoulder arthroplasty. However, the utility of topical thrombin in total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) is unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess the utility of topical thrombin in TSA and compare the effectiveness of topical thrombin to intravenous (IV) TXA.

Methods: An institutional database was used to query shoulder arthroplasty patients from January 2017 to July 2019. Patients undergoing TSA were identified with CPT (Current Procedural Terminology) code (23742). After excluding reverse shoulder arthroplasty, arthroplasty for fracture or revision, the study groups were stratified based on intervention with IV TXA, topical thrombin, or neither. Patient demographics, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class, baseline coagulopathy, preoperative and postoperative hemoglobin levels, operative time, transfusion, length of stay, and 90-day readmission for each treatment group was obtained.

Results: A total of 283 TSA cases were included for final analysis. There was no statistically significant difference in the baseline characteristics with age, body mass index, or ASA class. The postoperative hemoglobin level (mg/dL) was higher in the group that received either IV TXA or thrombin compared with no hemostatic agents (P = .001). Calculated blood loss in TSA was significantly higher in the group without hemostatic agents, 369.8 mL (standard deviation [SD] 59.5), compared with IV TXA or topical thrombin, 344.3 mL (SD 67.1) and 342.9 mL (SD 65.6) (P = .03). Operative time was highest in the group that received no hemostatic agents, 2.3 hours (SD 0.6) (P = .01). The transfusion rate for TSA treated with IV TXA or topical thrombin was equivalent (2.2%) but significantly lower than the no intervention group (12%) (P = .01). The odds ratio for transfusion with IV TXA was 0.16 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.07-0.40, P = .001) and for topical thrombin, 0.1 (95% CI 0.02-0.42, P = .02).

Conclusion: Topical thrombin is an effective adjunct to reduce blood loss and transfusion risk after TSA and a reasonable intraoperative alternative for TXA for patients with contraindication to IV TXA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jse.2020.05.039DOI Listing
February 2021

Hand transplantation in the United States: A review of the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network/United Network for Organ Sharing Database.

Am J Transplant 2020 05 21;20(5):1417-1423. Epub 2019 Dec 21.

Division of Hand Surgery, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina.

Hand transplantation is the most common application of vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA). Since July 3, 2014, VCAs were added to the definition of organs covered by federal regulation (the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) Final Rule) and legislation (the National Organ Transplant Act). As such, VCA is subject to requirements including data submission. We performed an analysis of recipients reported to the OPTN to have received hand transplantation between 1999 and 2018. Forty-three patients were identified as having been listed for upper extremity transplantation in the United States. Of these, 22 received transplantation prior to July 3, 2014 and 10 from then to December 31, 2018. Of patients transplanted after 2014, posttransplant functional scores included a decrease in Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire in 3 of 10 patients, Carroll test scores ranging from 9 to 60 of 99, and monofilament testing with protective sensation achieved in 4 of 6 patients. Complications included rejection in nine recipients with Banff scores from II-IV. One patient experienced graft failure 5 days after transplantation. Of the remaining patients, two were reported as receiving monotherapy and seven receiving dual or triple immunosuppression therapy. The inclusion of VCA in the OPTN Final Rule standardized parameters for safe implementation and data collection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ajt.15704DOI Listing
May 2020

Musculoskeletal Injuries in Yoga.

Bull Hosp Jt Dis (2013) 2018 Sep;76(3):192-197

While yoga has been widely studied for its benefits to many health conditions, little research has been performed on the nature of musculoskeletal injuries occurring during yoga practice. Yoga is considered to be generally safe, however, injury can occur in nearly any part of the body-especially the neck, shoulders, lumbar spine, hamstrings, and knees. As broad interest in yoga grows, so will the number of patients presenting with yoga-related injuries. In this literature review, the prevalence, types of injuries, forms of yoga related with injury, specific poses (asanas) associated with injury, and preventive measures are discussed in order to familiarize practitioners with yoga-related injuries.
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September 2018

Postsurgical Rehabilitation of Flexor Tendon Injuries.

J Hand Surg Am 2019 Aug 18;44(8):680-686. Epub 2019 May 18.

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, NYU School of Medicine, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY.

Rehabilitation after surgical repair of flexor injuries is a controversial topic. Motion at the repair site decreases risk for adhesions but increases risk for rupture. We review the current concepts behind various rehabilitation protocols based on zone of injury and the evidence behind each.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhsa.2019.02.010DOI Listing
August 2019

Relationships Between Vein Repairs, Postoperative Transfusions, and Survival in Single Digit Replantation.

Hand (N Y) 2020 07 14;15(4):488-494. Epub 2019 Feb 14.

New York University Langone Orthopedic Hospital, New York City, USA.

The general teaching is that increased number of vein repairs in digit replantation leads to improved venous outflow, resulting in lower need for iatrogenic bleeding, lower postoperative transfusion requirements, and better survival rates. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the traditional teaching that emphasizes the repair of multiple veins per arterial anastomosis results in superior survival rates. A retrospective review of a single urban replant center's single-digit replants distal to the mid-metacarpal level in adult patients from 2007 to 2017 was performed. Data on patient demographics, mechanism and level of injury, veins repaired, iatrogenic bleeding, postoperative transfusions, and replant survival were obtained. There were a total of 54 single-digit replants. The most common mechanism was lacerations (N = 38), and the most common injury level was at the proximal phalanx (N = 21). All digits were replanted with a single arterial anastomosis-44% via grafting. In all, 0 to 3 veins were repaired per digit (mean = 1.5 veins). The mean transfusion requirement was 1.7 units. The survival rate was 50%. Digits with 1 or 2 veins repaired had lower transfusion requirements (1.1-1.3 units) and higher survival rates (56%-61%) compared with those replanted with 0 or 3 veins repaired (2.9-3.5 transfused units, 25%-29% survival). There were no differences between those digits replanted with either 1 or 2 veins repaired for transfusion requirements or survival. More veins repaired do not necessarily improve survival or possibly venous outflow, calling into question the traditional teaching that 2 veins should be repaired for every arterial anastomosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1558944719828002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7370399PMC
July 2020

Survival after Digit Replantation and Revascularization Is Not Affected by the Use of Interpositional Grafts during Arterial Repair.

Plast Reconstr Surg 2019 03;143(3):551e-557e

From the Hansjörg Wyss Department of Plastic Surgery, and the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Hospital for Joint Diseases, New York University Langone Health.

Background: Interpositional grafts can be used to reconstruct the digital artery during revascularization and replantation when primary repair is not possible. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of using interpositional grafts on the rate of digit survival.

Methods: A retrospective review of all patients from 2007 to 2016 that required revascularization and/or replantation of one or more digits was performed.

Results: One hundred twenty-seven patients were identified with 171 affected digits (118 digital revascularizations and 53 digital replantations). A graft was used to repair the digital artery in 50 percent of revascularizations (59 of 118) and in 49 percent of replantations (26 of 53). There was no difference in digit survival with use of an interpositional graft for arterial repair versus primary repair in revascularization (91.5 percent in both groups) or replantation (48.1 percent versus 46.2 percent; p = 0.88). Regression analysis demonstrated no association between the use of interpositional grafts and digit survival. Interpositional grafting was more likely to be used in crush (62.5 percent) and avulsion injuries (72.2 percent) compared with sharp laceration injuries (11.1 percent), with a relative risk of 5.6 (p = 0.01) and 6.5 (p = 0.006), respectively.

Conclusions: There was no difference in the survival rate of amputated digits that required interpositional grafting for arterial repair. The need for an interpositional graft in a large zone of injury should not be considered a contraindication to performing revascularization or replantation. Furthermore, hand surgeons should have a low threshold for using interpositional grafts, especially in crush or avulsion injuries.

Clinical Question/level Of Evidence: Therapeutic, III.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PRS.0000000000005343DOI Listing
March 2019

Trends and Demographics in the Utilization of Total Wrist Arthroplasty.

J Hand Surg Asian Pac Vol 2018 Dec;23(4):501-505

* Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, NYU Langone Medical Center, Hospital for Joint Diseases, New York, NY, USA.

Background: Health disparities exist among many patient populations, with race, payer status, hospital size and access to teaching versus non-teaching hospitals potentially affecting whether certain patients have access to the benefits of total wrist arthroplasty (TWA).

Methods: The National Inpatient Sample Database (NIS) was queried from 2001 to 2013 for TWA using the ICD-9 code 81.73. Patient-level data included age, sex, race, payer status, and year of discharge. Hospital-level data included hospital bed size, location, teaching status, and region.

Results: There were 1,213 patients identified who underwent TWA between 2001 and 2013. Total number of procedures decreased from 88 TWAs in 2001 to 65 in 2013. The yearly volume ranged from 33 in 2005 to 128 in 2007. The male-female ratio was 2.5 to 1. The majority of TWA procedures were performed at urban teaching hospitals (60.8%).

Conclusions: The NIS database shows a downward trend of total wrist arthroplasty utilization. The majority of total wrist arthroplasties were performed at urban teaching hospitals indicating treatment occurs most often at academic centers of excellence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S2424835518500492DOI Listing
December 2018

Prosthetic Arthroplasty of Proximal Interphalangeal Joints for Treatment of Osteoarthritis and Posttraumatic Arthritis: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Comparing the Three Ulnar Digits With the Index Finger.

Hand (N Y) 2019 09 2;14(5):658-663. Epub 2018 Aug 2.

New York University, Langone Orthopedic Hospital, New York City, USA.

It is common teaching that treatment of index finger alone is a relative contraindication for arthroplasty of the proximal interphalangeal joint (PIPJ). However, limited data exist reporting the digit-specific complication of PIPJ arthroplasty for the treatment of osteoarthritis or posttraumatic arthritis. The purpose of this article is to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature to assess whether the 3 ulnar digits may bear a similar instability and complication profile. Systematic searches of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane computerized literature databases were performed for PIPJ arthroplasty specifying by digit. We reviewed both descriptive and quantitative data to: (1) report aggregate instability and instability-related complications after non-index digit PIPJ arthroplasty; and (2) perform statistical testing to assess relative rates by digit and compared with index digits. Computerized search generated 385 original articles. Five studies reporting digit-specific instability-related outcomes of silicone, pyrocarbon, or metal surface arthroplasty on 177 digits were included in the review. Meta-analysis demonstrated a 29% instability rate for long digits (n = 65), 6% for ring digits (n = 53), and 6% for small digits (n = 17), compared with 33% for index digits (n = 42). There was no difference in the overall deformity, instability, and complication rates of long versus index fingers ( = .65). Instability-related deformity and complication rates of long finger PIPJ arthroplasty may not be different from that of the index finger. Treatment of the long finger may be a relative contraindication to PIPJ arthroplasty. Future biomechanical and clinical studies are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1558944718791186DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6759965PMC
September 2019

Bone Graft Options in Upper-Extremity Surgery.

J Hand Surg Am 2018 08 3;43(8):755-761.e2. Epub 2018 Jul 3.

Department of Orthopaedics, Hospital for Joint Diseases, NYU School of Medicine, New York, NY.

Bone grafting in the upper extremity is an important consideration in patients with injuries or conditions resulting in missing bone stock. A variety of indications can necessitate bone grafting in the upper extremity, including fractures with acute bone loss, nonunions, malunions, bony lesions, and bone loss after osteomyelitis. Selecting the appropriate bone graft option for the specific consideration is important to ensure optimal patient outcomes. Considerations such as donor site morbidity and the amount and characteristics of bone graft needed all weigh in the decision making regarding which type of bone graft to use. This article reviews the options available for bone grafting in the upper extremity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhsa.2018.03.055DOI Listing
August 2018

Scaphoid Nonunions.

Bull Hosp Jt Dis (2013) 2018 Mar;76(1):27-32

Scaphoid nonunions are challenging injuries to manage and the optimal treatment algorithm continues to be debated. Most scaphoid fractures heal when appropriately treated; however, when nonunions occur, they require acute treatment to prevent future complications like scaphoid nonunion advanced collapse. Acute nonunion treatment technique depends on nonunion location, vascular status of the proximal pole, fracture malalignment, and pre-existing evidence of arthrosis. Bone grafting and vascular grafts are common in nonunion management. Chronic nonunions that have progressed to scaphoid nonunion advanced collapse often require a salvage procedure such as four corner fusions, proximal row carpectomy, or wrist fusion. Herein, we review the current literature regarding scaphoid nonunions with regards to their anatomy, natural history, classification, diagnostic imaging, surgical management, and clinical outcomes.
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March 2018
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