Publications by authors named "Christopher P Salas-Wright"

129 Publications

LSD use in the United States: Trends, correlates, and a typology of us.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2021 Jun 20;223:108715. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

School of Social Work, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA, 02467, United States.

Background: Recent years have witnessed an increased interest in LSD. This study investigates current information on the trends and correlates of LSD use from years 2002-2018 and seeks to develop an initial typology of use and misuse.

Methods: Data is taken from the NSDUH (National Survey on Drug Use and Health) collected between 2002 and 2018 and trends and correlates of LSD use were analyzed with a survey adjusted logistic regression.

Results: Our findings indicate that LSD use has increased 200 % over the study period (.23 % 2002-2005 to .72 % 2015-2018, AOR = 1.10, 95 % CI = 1.08, 1.12). Our findings also indicate several correlates of LSD use including higher levels of education (college degrees: AOR = 1.62, 95 % CI = 1.23, 2.13), not being married (divorced or separated, AOR = 2.31, 95 % CI = 1.44, 3.73, and have never been married, AOR = 5.67, f 95 % CI = 4.09, 7.86), as well as higher levels of antisocial behavior (having been arrested AOR = 3.20, 95 % CI = 2.50, 4.09) and comorbid mental health and substance abuse disorders (serious psychological distress, AOR = 2.39, 95 % CI = 2.05, 2.80). Further, four distinct subclasses were also discovered within LSD users and two of these subtypes of LSD users contained comorbid mental health disturbances and heavy involvement in the criminal justice system.

Conclusion: LSD use has been on the rise within the last decades, particularly among those who are well educated. Two subclasses of LSD use (those with severe comorbid mental health disorders and those with criminal justice involvement) may require further interventions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2021.108715DOI Listing
June 2021

Prevalence and Correlates of Driving Under the Influence of Cannabis in the U.S.

Am J Prev Med 2021 Jun 13;60(6):e251-e260. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Graduate School of Social Welfare, College of Social Sciences, Yonsei University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; School of Social Work, College for Public Health and Social Justice, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, Missouri.

Introduction: As cannabis use rises among adults in the U.S., driving under the influence of cannabis represents a public health concern.

Methods: In 2020, public-use data from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health were examined, using an analytic sample of 128,205 adults interviewed between 2016 and 2018. The annual prevalence of driving under the influence of cannabis was computed overall, by state, by demographic group, and among cannabis users. Demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral correlates of driving under the influence were tested by multivariate logistic regression.

Results: The self-reported annual prevalence of driving under the influence of cannabis was 4.5% (95% CI=4.3, 4.6) among U.S. adults, ranging from 3.0% (Texas) to 8.4% (Oregon) in individual U.S. states. Among cannabis users, 29.5% (95% CI=28.6, 30.3) reported driving under the influence of cannabis; the predicted probabilities of driving under the influence of cannabis were highest for those with more frequent use, with daily cannabis users evidencing a 57% predicted probability. Among individuals with symptoms suggestive of a cannabis use disorder, the prevalence of driving under the influence of cannabis was 63.8% (95% CI=60.8, 66.6). Among cannabis users, those reporting driving under the influence of cannabis had higher odds of driving under the influence of other illicit substances, using other illicit drugs, taking part in illegal behavior, and suffering from mental distress, after adjusting for demographic characteristics and psychosocial/behavioral correlates.

Conclusions: Findings suggest that prevention efforts should focus on frequent and problem cannabis users and should include content related to other illicit drug use and other drug-impaired driving.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2021.01.021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8154651PMC
June 2021

The family crisis migration stress framework: A framework to understand the mental health effects of crisis migration on children and families caused by disasters.

New Dir Child Adolesc Dev 2021 Mar 26;2021(176):41-59. Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Departments of Kinesiology, Health Education, and Educational Psychology, College of Education, University of Texas at Austin, Texas, USA.

Crisis migration refers to displacement of large numbers of individuals and families from their home countries due to wars, dictatorial governments, and other critical hazards (e.g., hurricanes). Although crisis migration can adversely influence direct and indirect effects on the mental health of adults and their children collectively as families, there is a deficiency in theory that addresses family level processes in this crisis migration context. We propose the Family Crisis Migration Stress Framework, which consolidates what is known about the multiple factors affecting mental health outcomes of crisis migrants into one cohesive model. In our article, we synthesize relevant theories and models of disaster, migration, and family resilience in order to create a framework in which to organize the complex processes that occur within families as a result of migration and that affect the mental health of children. We include examples from various national settings to illustrate the tenets of our framework. Future policy and intervention for crisis migrant should focus on the family as a unit, instead of parents and children as individual entities.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cad.20397DOI Listing
March 2021

Trends in Therapeutic Services Participation among U.S. Adolescents Affected by Substance Use, 2002-2017.

Subst Use Misuse 2021 24;56(4):567-570. Epub 2021 Feb 24.

School of Social Work, College for Public Health and Social Justice, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, Missouri, USA.

Substance use continues to pose threats to adolescent health and development in the United States (U.S.). Despite evidence of effectiveness, little is known about adolescent participation in self-help groups (e.g., Alcoholic Anonymous, Alateen) and individual/group counseling for coping with own and another family member's substance use. This study provides new information on the prevalence and trends of adolescent participation in self-help groups and counseling for substance use using a nationally-representative sample. Data was derived from the 2002-2017 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, which include cross-sectional samples of U.S. adolescents aged 12-17 (n=243,618). Specifically, year-by-year prevalence of program participation was estimated, and then the trends were tested using logistic regression analyses while controlling for sociodemographic factors. We found that U.S. adolescents' participation in self-help groups and counseling for substance use decreased from 5.6% in 2002 to 3.4% in 2017, a 39 percent decline that was significant while controlling for sociodemographic confounds (AOR = 0.969, 95% CI = 0.963-0.974). The decreases were most notable among low-income (-39%) and Hispanic (-49%) adolescents. Findings suggest that barriers to therapeutic service use and potential unmet needs among U.S. adolescents, especially low-income and Hispanic adolescents affected by own and family member's substance use, need to be alleviated to promote healthy recovery.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10826084.2021.1887245DOI Listing
February 2021

Margin for error: examining racial and ethnic trends in adolescent risk propensity.

Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2021 Jun 19;56(6):993-1002. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

School of Social Work, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599, USA.

Background: Relatively little research has accrued examining risk propensity across racial and ethnic groups, especially across time and at the population level.

Aims: Using a margin for error framework to conceptualize risk variation among major racial and ethnic groups, we hypothesize that African American and Hispanic adolescents will be less likely to report engaging in dangerous risk taking acts compared to White adolescents.

Methods: This study examines public-use data collected on risk propensity and risky behaviors among adolescents 12-17 between 2002 and 2018 as part of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH).

Results: While we observed decreased trends in risk propensity, controlling for demographic factors, we see significantly greater odds of reporting "never" engaging in risk for fun among NH Black (AOR 2.01, 95% CI 1.85-2.18) and Hispanic youth (AOR 1.47, 95% CI 1.37-1.58) as compared to NH White youth. NH Black (AOR 0.74, 95% CI 0.61-0.89) and Hispanic (AOR 0.83, 95% CI 0.71-0.98) youth are also less likely than NH White youth to report "always" taking risks for fun. Moreover, the risk propensity-risky behaviors link was weaker among African American and Hispanic adolescents.

Conclusions: We find compelling evidence that African American and Hispanic adolescents are less likely to endorse deriving positive reinforcement from potentially dangerous risk taking acts compared to White adolescents. These findings suggest that African American and Hispanic youth may perceive less "margin for error" when navigating their environments.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00127-021-02026-8DOI Listing
June 2021

Trends in cannabis views and use among American adults: Intersections with alcohol consumption, 2002-2018.

Addict Behav 2021 05 7;116:106818. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Graduate School of Social Welfare, Yonsei University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; School of Social Work, College for Public Health and Social Justice, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO, United States.

Purpose: The present study aims to examine trends in cannabis views and use among US adults who are alcohol abstainers, non-binge drinkers, and binge drinkers.

Methods: We used data from the 2002-2018 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (US adults ages 18 and older, n = 664,152). Consistent with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines, we conducted survey-adjusted logistic regression analyses to examine the significance of survey year in relation to cannabis views/use while controlling for demographic factors.

Results: Between 2002 and 2018, the proportion of adults reporting strong disapproval of cannabis use initiation decreased significantly (AOR = 0.947, CI = 0.945-948). While the prevalence of cannabis use increased significantly for non-binge (AOR = 1.070, CI = 1.065-1.076) and binge drinkers (AOR = 1.039, CI = 1.035-1.042), the trend increase was greatest among abstainers (OR = 1.099, CI = 1.088-1.111). The association between disapproval and cannabis use did not change between 2003 and 2018 among alcohol abstainers, but weakened among both non-binge (2003-2006: AOR = 0.154, CI = 0.135-0.176; 2014-2018: AOR = 0.221, CI = 0.200-0.246) and binge drinkers (2003-2006: AOR = 0.297, CI = 0.275-0.321; 2014-2018: AOR = 0.361, CI = 0.333-0.391).

Conclusion: Cannabis disapproval has decreased and cannabis use increased among alcohol abstainers, non-binge drinkers, and binge drinkers between 2002 and 2018. The impact of cannabis disapproval on use attenuated during the study period among drinkers but not among abstainers, suggesting that the effect of anti-cannabis attitudes may be weakening among those most likely to use cannabis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2021.106818DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7887096PMC
May 2021

Substance Misuse Profiles of Women in Families Receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) Benefits: Findings from a National Sample.

J Stud Alcohol Drugs 2020 11;81(6):798-807

College of Social Work, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

Objective: Women in families receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) cash assistance are twice as likely to have a substance use disorder (SUD) than their non-TANF counterparts in the past year. However, evidence is limited about substance misuse patterns and comorbid mental health problems among women in TANF families.

Method: Data from the 2015-2018 National Survey on Drug Use and Health were used to examine the prevalence of substance misuse and use disorders among women age 18 or older in TANF families. We used latent class analysis to identify subgroups of distinctive substance misuse behaviors and tested the associations between SUD/serious psychological distress (SPD) and the group classification.

Results: Despite higher odds of having an SUD in all substance categories than their non-TANF counterparts, more than 84% of the women in TANF families were considered to have low substance misuse risks. Of the three identified at-risk groups, the polysubstance and the prescription pain reliever and alcohol misuse groups reported higher risks of having an SUD and SPD than the low-risk group. Individuals at risk of marijuana and alcohol misuse, represented by young, Black mothers, reported the lowest rates of treatment receipt despite having past-year SUD, SPD, or both.

Conclusions: Although special attention needs to be paid to integrated care for those at risk of multiple substance misuse, additional efforts are required to increase substance abuse and mental health treatment among women at risk of marijuana and alcohol misuse.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
November 2020

Discrimination Trends and Mental Health Among Native- and Foreign-Born Latinos: Results from National Surveys in 2004 and 2013.

Prev Sci 2021 Apr 24;22(3):397-407. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Florida International University, 11200 SW 8th Street AHC5, Miami, FL, 33199, USA.

We examined national trends and mental health correlates of discrimination among Latinos in the USA. We used data from two nationally representative surveys based on the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions collected in 2004 and 2013. Results indicated that perceived discrimination, both any and recurrent, increased for Latinos across nearly every demographic, with the greatest increases occurring for Latinos who were ages 65 and older, had household incomes less than $35,000, were less educated, were immigrants, and who lived in the Midwest. Findings also indicated that any and recurrent discrimination were associated with increased odds of a mood, anxiety, or substance use disorder and this association was observed for nearly all manifestations of discrimination. We also observed a dose-response association where experiencing discrimination in a greater number of domains was associated with increased likelihood of mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders. Results suggest that discrimination is a social stressor that has increased for Latino populations in recent years and may represent a serious risk factor for the psychological and behavioral health of Latinos. Findings are discussed in terms of prior research and the potential implications for prevention scientists working with Latino populations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11121-020-01186-4DOI Listing
April 2021

Trends and correlates of Internet support group participation for mental health problems in the United States, 2004-2018.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 01 16;132:136-143. Epub 2020 Oct 16.

School of Social Work, Boston College, Boston, MA, 02467, United States.

Purpose: This study sought to examine the trends in Internet support group (ISG) participation among U.S. adults and to investigate the sociodemographic and behavioral health profiles of ISG participants.

Methods: Data was derived from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (2004-2018, n = 625,883). Logistic regression was used to examine significance of trend year and correlates of ISG participation. Latent class analysis was conducted to identify subtypes of ISG participants.

Results: The proportion of U.S. adults participating in ISG increased significantly from 2.29% (2004-2007) to 3.55% (2016-2018). ISG participants were less likely to be male, 35 or older, be part of an ethnic/racial minority group, or have household incomes between $20,000 and $49,999. Black/African American participants and those classified as "other" race showed the largest percent increases, while Hispanics showed no change. ISG participants were more likely to have experienced a depressive episode and to have used cannabis. Three subtypes of ISG participants were identified, including the Lower Behavioral Health Risk group (62%), the Elevated Behavioral Health Risk group (24%), and the Depression, Cigarettes, and Cannabis group (14%).

Conclusion: Overall, we found an increasing trend in seeking mental health care through ISG among US adults since the early 2000s. While disparities among some disadvantaged groups such as Blacks/African Americans and individuals with lower household income were diminishing, continuing efforts to engage men, older adults, and Hispanics in ISG are needed. This investigation also identified distinct subtypes of ISG participants and provides important implications for future research on ISG.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2020.10.012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7566800PMC
January 2021

Toward a Typology of Transnational Communication among Venezuelan Immigrant Youth: Implications for Behavioral Health.

J Immigr Minor Health 2020 Oct 8. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Prevention Science & Community Health, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.

We identify subtypes of Venezuelan youth based on patterns of technology-based communication with friends in their receiving (US) and sending (Venezuela) countries and, in turn, examine the behavioral health characteristics among different "subtypes" of youth. Using data from 402 recently-arrived Venezuelan immigrant youth (ages 10-17), latent profile analysis and multinomial regression are employed to examine the relationships between technology-based communication and key outcomes. We identified a four-class solution: [#1] "Daily Contact in US, In Touch with Venezuela" (32%), [#2] "Daily Communication in Both Countries" (19%), [#3] "Weekly Contact: More Voice/Text Than Social Media" (35%), and [#4] "Infrequent Communication with US and Venezuela" (14%). Compared to Class #1, youth in Classes #2 and #3 report elevated depressive symptomatology and more permissive substance use views. Findings suggest that how youth navigate and maintain transnational connections varies substantially, and that technology-based communication is related to key post-migration outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10903-020-01099-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8026776PMC
October 2020

Exposure to ethnic discrimination in social media and symptoms of anxiety and depression among Hispanic emerging adults: Examining the moderating role of gender.

J Clin Psychol 2021 Mar 1;77(3):571-586. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Department of Psychological, Health, and Learning Sciences, University of Houston, Houston, Texas, USA.

Method: Two hundred Hispanic emerging adults from Arizona (n = 99) and Florida (n = 101) completed a cross-sectional survey, and data were analyzed using hierarchical multiple regression and moderation analyses.

Results: Higher social media discrimination was associated with higher symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety. Moderation analyses indicated that higher social media discrimination was only associated with symptoms of depression and generalized anxiety among men, but not women.

Conclusion: This is likely the first study on social media discrimination and mental health among emerging adults; thus, expanding this emerging field of research to a distinct developmental period.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jclp.23050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7878314PMC
March 2021

Cultural Stress and Substance Use Risk among Venezuelan Migrant Youth in the United States.

Subst Use Misuse 2020 24;55(13):2175-2183. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

Raices Venezolanas, Doral, Florida, USA.

Background: Since 2015, more than four million Venezuelans have fled their once prosperous nation, prompting an ever-intensifying refugee crisis. Recent research with Venezuelan parents suggests that many are exposed to elevated migration-related stress, experience behavioral health problems, and express profound concern for their children's post-migration wellbeing. We examine the relationships between stress, family functioning, and substance use risk with a cultural stress theoretical lens. Survey data were collected between November 2018 and June 2019 from 402 recently-arrived Venezuelan immigrant youth ages 10-17. Outcomes include perceived discrimination, negative context of reception, family support/communication, and substance use intentions and normative beliefs. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the relationships between variables. : Structural equation modeling results indicated that negative context of reception was associated with permissive substance use norms ( family communication;  = 0.070,  < .01) and intentions to use ( family support;  = 0.051,  < .01). Discrimination was not mediated by family functioning, rather it exerted a direct effect on substance use norms ( = 0.20,  < .01) and intentions ( = 0.33,  < .001). : We see clear evidence that negative context of reception and discrimination are related to substance use risk, both directly (in the case of discrimination) and indirectly (in the case of negative context of reception). Given the manifold stressors faced by Venezuelan immigrants both prior to migration and in the process of resettling in the US, it is critical that practitioners and policymakers support this rapidly-growing population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10826084.2020.1795684DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7487208PMC
July 2020

Cocaine use and overdose mortality in the United States: Evidence from two national data sources, 2002-2018.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2020 09 15;214:108148. Epub 2020 Jul 15.

School of Social Work, St. Louis University, 3550 Lindell Blvd., St. Louis, MO, 63103, USA; Graduate School of Social Welfare and College of Social Science, Yonsei University, Republic of Korea.

Background: Cocaine-involved overdose mortality has recently risen in the United States (US), yet it is unclear to what extent patterns in cocaine-involved overdose mortality parallel patterns in cocaine use. This study: examined time trends (2002-2018) in past-year cocaine use and cocaine-involved overdose mortality in the US; and compared demographics and drug involvement of adults who reported past-year cocaine use versus adults who died of a cocaine-involved overdose.

Methods: Data from two sources were utilized: (1) the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (n = 1,334 adults self-reporting cocaine use in 2018); and (2) the Multiple Cause of Death dataset of the National Center for Health Statistics (N = 14,630 adults who died of a cocaine-involved overdose in 2018). The study examined prevalence of past-year cocaine use, mortality rates for cocaine-involved overdose, 2002-2018 trends, demographic characteristics, and involvement of other drugs.

Results: Results of Joinpoint Regression indicated that the prevalence of past-year cocaine use increased after 2011, with an annual percent change of 5.13, while age-adjusted cocaine-involved overdose mortality rates escalated after 2012, with an annual percent change of 26.54. In 2018, prevalence of past-year cocaine use did not significantly differ (p = 0.09) by racial/ethnic group, yet Non-Hispanic Blacks had an age-adjusted cocaine-involved overdose mortality rate more than double the rate in Non-Hispanic Whites and significantly higher (p < 0.001) than in any other group.

Conclusions: While the prevalence of cocaine use has increased modestly, cocaine-involved overdose mortality has risen dramatically. Cocaine-involved overdose mortality is disproportionately affecting individuals who are Black, older, or with lower educational attainment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2020.108148DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7423708PMC
September 2020

Faculty education in addiction training (FEAT): Evaluating an online training program for multidisciplinary health professions educators.

Subst Abus 2020 ;41(3):292-296

School of Medicine and Boston Medical Center, Boston University, Boston, Massachusettes, USA.

Many health professionals lack adequate training needed to effectively address alcohol and other drug (AOD)-related problems. Building upon our previously successful in-person faculty training programs, we designed and pilot tested the brief online Faculty Education in Addiction Training (FEAT) Program for social work and internal medicine residency faculty. The present study examines baseline and post-FEAT Program AOD knowledge and teaching confidence and preparedness among faculty participants. The FEAT Program curriculum included didactic videos, online engagement with content experts, recommended readings, and a live virtual classroom experience. Participants completed self-assessments of knowledge and teaching confidence and preparedness pre- and post-FEAT program. In this pilot test, thirty faculty completed the FEAT program: 15 social work and 15 internal medical residency program faculty. Both groups showed significant improvement ( < 0.001) in overall AOD-related knowledge with medium-to-large effects (Cohen's  = 1.83 [social work], 0.72 [medicine]). Both groups showed significant increases in teaching confidence ( < 0.001) for all items with large effects (Cohen's values range from 1.08 to 1.92) and significant increases and large effects for all teaching preparedness items for social work (at least  < 0.01 | Cohen's range = 1.03-1.56) and internal medical residency faculty ( < 0.001 | Cohen's range = 1.08-1.69). Multidisciplinary health professions educators' AOD knowledge and teaching confidence and preparedness can be improved by participation in a brief online program designed to circumvent the logistical and fiscal challenges presented by in-person programs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08897077.2020.1783739DOI Listing
January 2020

Toward a micro-level perspective on acculturation among U.S. Hispanic college students: A daily diary study.

J Clin Psychol 2021 Jan 6;77(1):121-144. Epub 2020 Jul 6.

Department of Public Health Sciences, Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USA.

Objective: The present study introduces a daily, micro-level perspective on acculturation using a sample of Hispanic college students in Miami.

Methods: We conducted a 12-day diary study with a sample of first- and second-generation Hispanic college students in Miami. Outcome variables were measured on Days 1 and 12, and acculturation components (practices, identities, and values) were measured on Days 2-11. Daily fluctuations in acculturation components between Days 2 and 11 were examined as predictors of well-being, internalizing symptoms, and externalizing problems on Day 12.

Results: Fluctuations in comfort with speaking English negatively predicted three of the four well-being outcomes and positively predicted all of the internalizing and externalizing indicators. Fluctuations in collectivist values predicted two of the well-being outcomes and both anxiety and depressive symptoms, and fluctuations in ethnic identity predicted anxiety and depressive symptoms.

Conclusion: Daily volatility in comfort with English, collectivist values, and ethnic identity appear to be most distressing.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jclp.23009DOI Listing
January 2021

Alcohol use severity, depressive symptoms, and optimism among Hispanics: Examining the immigrant paradox in a serial mediation model.

J Clin Psychol 2020 12 27;76(12):2329-2344. Epub 2020 Jun 27.

Department of Epidemiology, Florida International University, Miami, Florida, USA.

Objective: Hispanic immigrants exhibit more positive outcomes than U.S.-born Hispanics across educational, psychological, and physical health indices, a phenomenon called the immigrant paradox. We examined the immigrant paradox in relation to alcohol use severity among Hispanic young adults while considering both positive (optimism) and negative (depressive symptoms) processes.

Method: Among 200 immigrant and U.S.-born Hispanic young adults (M  = 21.30; 49% male) in Arizona and Florida, we tested whether optimism and depressive symptoms statistically mediated the relationship between nativity and alcohol use severity. Specifically, we examined whether Hispanic immigrants reported greater optimism than their U.S.-born counterparts, and whether such optimism was, in turn, associated with less depressive symptoms and thus lower alcohol use severity.

Results: Indirect effects were significant in hypothesized directions (nativity → optimism → depressive symptoms → alcohol use severity).

Conclusions: Both positive and negative psychological processes are important to consider when accounting for the immigrant paradox vis-à-vis alcohol use severity among Hispanic young adults.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jclp.23014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7777419PMC
December 2020

Health risk behavior and cultural stress among Venezuelan youth: a person centered approach.

Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2021 Feb 23;56(2):219-228. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Division of Prevention Science and Community Health, Department of Public Health Sciences, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.

Background: In recent years, more than 5 million Venezuelans have left their once prosperous country, with several hundred thousand settling in the United States (US). At present, our understanding of the health risk behavior profiles of Venezuelan émigré youth, and their links with cultural stress, remains limited.

Objectives: Drawing from a sample of recently-immigrated Venezuelan youth in the US, we aim to identify subtypes of youth according to their involvement in health risk behaviors (i.e., substance use, sexual risk behavior, violence) and assess the associations between class membership and key constructs related to cultural stress theory (i.e., negative context of reception, family communication/support).

Method: Latent profile analysis and multinomial regression were performed using data from a community-based convenience sample of 402 recently-arrived Venezuelan immigrant youth (ages 10-17; 56% male).

Results: We identified five subtype classes: (1) "Abstainer" (36%), (2) "Alcohol Only" (24%), (3) "Alcohol/Tobacco" (24%), (4) "Aggression" (8%), and (5) "Multidimensional Risk" (8%). Compared to Class #1, youth in Classes #3 and #5 reported significantly higher levels of negative context of reception and lower levels of family functioning while controlling for demographic factors. Youth in Class #5 reported the lowest levels of family economic hardship and the longest duration in the US.

Conclusion: It is vital that we support both Venezuelan youth who abstain from risk behavior and, at the same time, develop and implement programs that target the needs of those who are at elevated risk for serious consequences related to substance use, sexual risk behavior, and violence.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00127-020-01905-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7755753PMC
February 2021

Trends in cannabis use among justice-involved youth in the United States, 2002-2017.

Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 2020 07 9;46(4):462-471. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Graduate School of Social Welfare, Yonsei University , Seoul, Korea (The Republic Of).

Background: Little is known regarding trends in cannabis use among justice-involved youth. We hypothesize that cannabis use will be higher over time among justice-involved youth who, on average, are more likely to be exposed to and seek out cannabis.

Objectives: The present study compares trends in cannabis use among justice-involved youth (past year) with youth in the general population age 12-17 who have not been arrested in the past year.

Methods: Public-use data as part of the 2002-2017 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), which does not include state-level identifiers, was used. Males constitute 51% of the total sample. Among justice-involved youth, 66.4% were males. We employed logistic regression analyses with survey year as an independent variable and past-year cannabis use as the dependent variable. A series of logistic regressions examined the association between cannabis use and psychosocial and behavioral factors.

Results: The prevalence of past-year cannabis use among justice-involved youth (3.09% of the sample) steadily increased from 54% in 2002 to 58% in 2017 (AOR = 1.018, 95% CI = 1.004-1.034), while the concurrent prevalence of cannabis use among youth with no past year arrests decreased from a high of 14% in 2002 to 12% in 2017 (AOR = 0.993, 95% CI = 0.990-0.997).

Conclusion: Study findings suggest that cannabis use is increasing among justice-involved youth.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00952990.2020.1732398DOI Listing
July 2020

Driving under the influence of Alcohol: Findings from the NSDUH, 2002-2017.

Addict Behav 2020 09 10;108:106439. Epub 2020 Apr 10.

Robert Stempel College of Public Health and Social Work, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199, United States.

Purpose: Based on a nationally representative adult sample, the present study examined the prevalence and trends of driving under the influence (DUI) of alcohol in the United States from 2002 to 2017.

Methods: Using data from the 2002-2017 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, the prevalence of DUI of alcohol in 2012-2017 were estimated to test for changes in trend and to identify populations at elevated risks of alcohol-involved driving.

Results: Since 2002, the prevalence of DUI of alcohol has gradually decreased from a high of 15.1% in 2002-2004 to 11.8% in 2012-2014 and 8.5% in 2016-2017, indicating percent decreases by 21.6% and 43.7%, respectively. While decreasing trends were observed across all major sociodemographic and criminal justice subgroups (except older adults), men, young adults, Whites, and those with higher household income continued to be associated with greater risks of alcohol-involved driving. Nevertheless, DUI arrests continued to increase among women, narrowing the gender gap.

Discussion: Despite the decreased alcohol-involved driving over the past decade, there remains worrisome levels among young adult males. This underscores the need for alcohol policies and public awareness campaigns targeting young adult males. Moreover, further research is needed to elucidate the potential differences in the populations who reported driving under any influence of alcohol and who were involved in fatal crashes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2020.106439DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7282977PMC
September 2020

Crime and Violence in Older Adults: Findings From the 2002 to 2017 National Survey on Drug Use and Health.

J Interpers Violence 2020 Apr 20:886260520913652. Epub 2020 Apr 20.

The Ohio State University, Columbus, USA.

Studies on criminal behaviors largely focus on youth and younger adults. While criminal engagement declines with age, the aging population and significant costs associated with older offenders warrant their increased clinical and research attention. The present study utilizes data from the 2002 to 2017 National Survey on Drug Use and Health to estimate the prevalence and explore the sociodemographic and psychosocial correlates of criminal behavior in adults aged 50 years and older. The overall prevalence of older adults engaging in criminal behaviors during this time was approximately 1.20%. There was no significant difference in crime involvement between adults aged 50 to 64 years and 65 years and older. Older individuals who committed crimes were more likely to be male and Black and earning low income. Criminality was also associated with use of illicit substances and depression as well as receipt of mental health treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0886260520913652DOI Listing
April 2020

Disconcerting levels of alcohol use among Venezuelan immigrant adolescents in the United States.

Addict Behav 2020 05 24;104:106269. Epub 2019 Dec 24.

Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Prevention Science & Community Health, University of Miami, Miami, FL, United States.

Background: It is estimated that more than 4 million Venezuelans have left their country as a direct result of their nation's widespread social and economic challenges. Although recent research identifies Venezuela as one of the nations with the highest rates of harmful alcohol consumption in the Americas, no research has been conducted on alcohol use among Venezuelan youth in diaspora.

Methods: Data was collected between November 2018 and June 2019 from 373 Venezuelan immigrant youth ages 12-17 in the United States. The prevalence of past-month and lifetime alcohol use among Venezuelan youth is compared to that of other Hispanic and immigrant youth from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), and the Construyendo Oportunidades Para Adolecentes Latinos (COPAL) study using independent sample t tests.

Results: The prevalence of past-month and lifetime alcohol use was significantly higher among Venezuelan immigrant youth (15% and 52%, respectively) compared to other Hispanic (9% and 28%) and immigrant (4.5% and 28%) youth in the NSDUH, and youth ages 14-17 in the COPAL study (4.0% and 22%). Among Venezuelan youth reporting alcohol use initiation, 1.5% of youth ages 12-14 and 19% ages 15-17 report lifetime alcohol intoxication.

Discussion: Although preliminary, results indicate that a disconcerting proportion of Venezuelan crisis migrant youth in the US report lifetime alcohol initiation and past-month use. These findings suggest the importance of future research to examine the prevalence and correlates of alcohol use in this population using recruitment and sampling methods that will allow for population-level estimates.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2019.106269DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7024036PMC
May 2020

Depressive Symptoms and Resilience among Hispanic Emerging Adults: Examining the Moderating Effects of Mindfulness, Distress Tolerance, Emotion Regulation, Family Cohesion, and Social Support.

Behav Med 2020 Jul-Sep;46(3-4):245-257. Epub 2020 Jan 14.

Department of Psychological, Health, and Learning Sciences, University of Houston.

Emerging adulthood has been described as a difficult stage in life and may be particularly stressful for Hispanic emerging adults who are disproportionately exposed to adversity and chronic sociocultural stressors. To better prevent and treat depressive disorders among Hispanic emerging adults, more research is needed to identify and understand modifiable determinants that can help this population enhance their capacity to offset and recover from adversity and sociocultural stressors. As such, this study aimed to (1) examine the association between resilience and depressive symptoms among Hispanic emerging adults, and (2) examine the extent to which intrapersonal resources (e.g., mindfulness, distress tolerance, emotion regulation strategies) and interpersonal resources (e.g., family cohesion, social support) moderate the association between resilience and depressive symptoms. To examine these aims, 200 Hispanic emerging adults (ages 18-25) from Arizona ( = 99) and Florida ( = 101) completed a cross-sectional survey, and data were analyzed using hierarchical multiple regression and moderation analyses. Findings from the hierarchical multiple regression indicate that higher resilience was associated with lower depressive symptoms. Findings from the moderation analyses indicate that family cohesion, social support, and emotion regulation strategies (e.g., cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression) functioned as moderators; however, mindfulness and distress tolerance were not significant moderators. Findings from this study add to the limited literature on resilience among Hispanics that have used validated measures of resilience. Furthermore, we advance our understanding of who may benefit most from higher resilience based on levels of intrapersonal and interpersonal resources.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08964289.2020.1712646DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7358125PMC
January 2020

The Sequelae of Premigration Hunger Among Venezuelan Immigrant Children in the U.S.

Am J Prev Med 2020 03 12;58(3):467-469. Epub 2019 Dec 12.

Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Prevention Science & Community Health, University of Miami, Miami, Florida.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2019.10.010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7039741PMC
March 2020

Trends and mental health correlates of discrimination among Latin American and Asian immigrants in the United States.

Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 2020 Apr 6;55(4):477-486. Epub 2019 Dec 6.

Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of Prevention Science and Community Health, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA.

Purpose: To examine the national trends and mental health correlates of discrimination among Latin American and Asian immigrants in the United States.

Methods: We examine data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions collected between 2004 and 2013. Recurrent discrimination was measured by respondent reports of adverse experiences such as receiving poor treatment in restaurants or being called a racist name.

Results: Rates of perceived discrimination increased by more than 80 percent among immigrants from Latin America (from 14% in 2004 to 25% in 2013), but remained unchanged among Asian immigrants (20-22%). Large percentage point (pp) increases were observed among Latin American immigrants with less than a high school education (pp increase = 13.5) and residing in households earning $20-35,000 annually (pp increase = 14.0).

Conclusions: Findings raise concern both because of the inherent iniquitousness of discrimination and because identity-based mistreatment is linked with mental health problems.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00127-019-01811-wDOI Listing
April 2020

Recent trends in cooperativeness among participants in the national survey of drug use and health 2002-2015.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2019 12 7;205:107613. Epub 2019 Oct 7.

School of Social Work, College for Public Health and Social Justice, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO, United States. Electronic address:

Background: An important issue in alcohol and drug use research is the degree to which study participants cooperate with survey interviewers and provide accurate information. We examine the year-by-year trends in the perceived cooperativeness of participants in a large national survey focused on alcohol and drug use in the United States between 2002 and 2015.

Methods: We examine fourteen years of cross-sectional data (2002-2015) from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) using the NSDUH's Restricted Data Analysis System. The main variable of interest was field interviewer reported participant cooperativeness (i.e., "How cooperative was the respondent?"). We present estimates of proportional rates of cooperation and examine the degree to which the estimated proportions for cooperativeness vary from 2002 to 2003 estimates based on non-overlapping 95% confidence intervals as a proxy for secular trend tests.

Results: The proportion of respondents classified as "very cooperative" was consistently elevated in all survey years, increasing significantly from 95.6% (CI = 95.4-95.8) in 2002-2003 to 96.7% (CI = 96.5-96.8) in 2014-2015. Elevated levels of cooperation were observed for participants reporting no/any past-year alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and heroin use. Rates were elevated-96 to 98% in 2014-2015-among respondents of all sociodemographic backgrounds (i.e., age, gender, race/ethnicity, income, nativity). Only a fraction of participants were classified as "not very cooperative" (0.2-0.4%) or "openly hostile" (0.1%).

Conclusions: Cooperativeness with NSDUH survey research has been very high since the early 2000s with perceived participant cooperativeness increasing in recent years and consistently low rates of non-cooperativeness across all years.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2019.107613DOI Listing
December 2019

Trends in cannabis use among immigrants in the United States, 2002-2017: Evidence from two national surveys.

Addict Behav 2019 12 19;99:106029. Epub 2019 Jun 19.

School of Social Work, Boston University, Boston, MA, 02215, United States.

Background And Aims: Findings from recent studies suggest that, among the general population of adults, the prevalence of cannabis use has increased over the last decade in the United States (US). And yet, there is much we do not know regarding the trends in cannabis use among immigrants. We address this important shortcoming by examining data on immigrants vis-à-vis US-born individuals using two national surveys.

Methods: We examine trend data from the National Epidemiologic Study on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC, 2001-2013) and the National Survey on Drug Use and Health's Restricted Data Analysis System (NSDUH, 2002-2017). Main outcomes were past year cannabis use and cannabis use disorder with survey adjusted prevalence estimates generated for immigrants and US-born individuals.

Results: In the NESARC, significant increases in the past year prevalence of cannabis use were observed both among US-born (2001-2002: 4.53%, 2012-2013: 10.74%) and immigrant participants (2001-2002: 1.67%, 2012-2013: 3.32%). We also found significant increases among immigrants arriving before age 12 and among immigrants from Latin America and Europe. In the NSDUH, we observed a significantly higher prevalence of cannabis use in 2016-2017 (6.3%) when compared to 2002-2003 (4.4%).

Conclusions: Findings make clear that cannabis use among US-born individuals has consistently been higher than that of immigrants since the early 2000s. However, while rates of cannabis use have declined among US-born adolescents in recent years, the prevalence of cannabis use has remained stable among immigrant adolescents. At the same time, cannabis use increased two-fold among both US-born and immigrant adults.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2019.106029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6886711PMC
December 2019

Prevalence and correlates of cannabis poisoning diagnosis in a national emergency department sample.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2019 11 18;204:107564. Epub 2019 Sep 18.

School of Social Work, College for Public Health and Social Justice, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO, 63103, United States; Graduate School of Social Welfare, Yonsei University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Background: One of the primary cannabis-related reasons individuals seek emergency medical care is accidental cannabis poisoning. However, our understanding of the incidence and characteristics of those who receive emergency medical care due to cannabis poisoning remains limited. We address this gap by examining up-to-date information from a national study of emergency department (ED) data.

Methods: The data source used for this study is the Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS). An International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10-CM) diagnostic code was used to identify accidental poisoning by cannabis (T40.7 × 1A) as specified by healthcare providers. Logistic regression was employed to examine the relationship between ED admission for cannabis poisoning, sociodemographic factors, and mental health disorders.

Results: In 2016, an estimated 16,884 individuals were admitted into EDs in the United States due to cannabis poisoning, representing 0.014% of the total ED visits for individuals ages 12 and older. Individuals who sought care for cannabis poisoning were more likely to be young, male, uninsured, experience economic hardship, reside in urban central cities, and experience mental health disorders as compared to individuals admitted for other causes. Among cases that included the cannabis-poisoning code, many also had codes for accidental poisoning due to other substances such as heroin (4.7%), amphetamine (10.8%), cocaine (12.9%), and benzodiazepine (21.3%).

Conclusions: Despite the limitations of ICD-10 data, findings provide new evidence suggesting that practitioners be attuned to the prevention and treatment needs of high-risk subgroups, and that screening for mental health problems should be standard practice for individuals diagnosed with cannabis poisoning.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2019.107564DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6887107PMC
November 2019

Arthropod Bites and Stings Treated in Emergency Departments: Recent Trends and Correlates.

Wilderness Environ Med 2019 Dec 10;30(4):394-400. Epub 2019 Aug 10.

School of Social Work, Boston University, Boston, MA.

Introduction: Despite increasing health effects of arthropod bites and associated costs, research on their frequency is limited, especially at the population level. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence, correlates, and recent trends in visits to US emergency departments related to arthropod bites and stings.

Methods: The prevalence of arthropod bites, including information regarding location of the bite, was calculated for years 2010 through 2014 using data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Emergency Department Sample. Sex- and age-stratified multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted with "arthropod bite" as the dependent variable and patient and hospital characteristics as independent variables.

Results: Overall, there were significant increases in bites over the study period with higher rates of bites in the summer months (June-August), especially among children. Individuals who seek treatment for arthropod bites in the emergency department are more likely to reside in zip codes with lower median household income and to be without insurance coverage or with Medicaid rather than private insurance. The cost of care related to arthropod bites increased approximately 40% over the study period.

Conclusions: These results provide updated surveillance on the prevalence and correlates of arthropod bites and stings in the US population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wem.2019.05.010DOI Listing
December 2019

National Trends in Parental Communication With Their Teenage Children About the Dangers of Substance Use, 2002-2016.

J Prim Prev 2019 08;40(4):483-490

School of Social Work, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, 27599, USA.

Parental engagement is critical to adolescent substance use prevention. However, our understanding of the degree to which parents are actually talking to their children about tobacco, alcohol, and drugs remains limited. The present study provides new evidence on the prevalence and trends of parental substance use communication (PSC) in the United States between 2002 and 2016. Trend analyses were conducted using 15 years of cross-sectional survey data from non-Hispanic White (n = 153,087), Black/African American (n = 35,216), and Hispanic (n = 45,780) adolescents aged 12-17 from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health. Since the early-to-mid 2000s, the rate of past-year PSC declined significantly, even when accounting for sociodemographic factors. We observed particularly noteworthy declines among adolescents residing in households earning less than $20,000 per year, declining by 19% (in relative terms) from a high of 58% PSC in 2003 and 2008 to a low of 47% in 2016. Teens reporting PSC reported higher levels of perceived parental warmth/engagement and consistent discipline/limit setting. Findings underscore the importance of engaging parents, particularly those less likely to talk to their children about substance use, and providing caregivers instruction and encouragement to talk to teens about the very real dangers of substance use.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10935-019-00559-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6693659PMC
August 2019