Publications by authors named "Christopher O"

10 Publications

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Focused Research on the Challenges and Productivity of Researchers in Nigerian Academic Institutions Without Funding.

Front Res Metr Anal 2021 28;6:727228. Epub 2021 Oct 28.

Directorate of Research and Development, Nigerian Institute of Leather and Science Technology (NILEST), Zaria, Nigeria.

The challenge of research funding constraints has brought to bear enormous pressure on researchers. Research productivity is relevant to prestige and career progression of academic staff. However, this study aimed to explore significant challenges associated with researchers' productivity and the impact of non-funding of research in Nigerian research and tertiary institutions. This study adopted a qualitative exploratory design involving academics at various research and tertiary institutions across the six geographical regions in Nigeria. A semi-structured questionnaire was distributed electronically to all participants who consented to take part in this study. Exactly 4,159 questionnaires were administered and 2,350 were completely filled and returned. Pearson correlation matrices with logistic regression were used for data analysis and are presented in frequencies and percentages. On challenges faced by respondents, 42.98% reported a lack of research funding, 17.11% mentioned brain drain challenge while 8.85% indicated a lack of motivation. Of the 23,927 publications reported, the number of those in sciences, engineering, and medical sciences averaged 9.6, 11.5, and 9.5 respectively. The average number of publications by women (10.8) was more than by men (9.7). Lecturers had the highest average research publication number (11.8) followed by researchers (10.2) and others (3.9). Men had the highest (11.9) average number of conferences compared to women (9.2). Participants in engineering had an average number of 13.8 conferences per respondents followed by those in education (11.2), sciences (11.1), and 10.9 for those in agricultural sciences. The result revealed a negative significant correlation between research publication and academic qualification at < 0.01. Positive significant correlation was observed between research productivity and discipline at < 0.05. Findings show that the combined influence of the independent variables on research productivity was significant using linear regression analysis. The failure to prioritize research has resulted in underdevelopment in Nigeria. It is therefore imperative that the federal government prioritize research and establish a functional Special Research Trust Fund to oversee research funding in Nigeria.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/frma.2021.727228DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8596491PMC
October 2021

ARNTL2 knockdown suppressed the invasion and migration of colon carcinoma: decreased SMOC2-EMT expression through inactivation of PI3K/AKT pathway.

Am J Transl Res 2020 15;12(4):1293-1308. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Department of Gastroenterology, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University Guangzhou 510280, Guangdong, P. R. China.

ARNTL2 is a transcriptional activator implicated in the molecular clock feedback system and is overexpressed in some malignant tumors. This study aimed to detect the effects of ARNTL2 knockdown by siRNA on the proliferation and invasion of colon carcinoma and clarify the molecular mechanisms of ARNTL2 in the development of colon carcinoma (CC). The CC microarray dataset GSE50760 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. The expression levels of ARNTL2 in CC tissues and cancer cells were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and western blot, respectively. The knockdown of ARNTL2 expression was induced by RNA interference in colon cancer cells. The proliferation was detected by Cell Counting Kit-8 and clonal formation assays. The invasion and migration in vitro were detected by wound healing and transwell assays. Besides, a tumorigenicity test in the nude mice was performed to confirm whether ARNTL2 expression promoted the proliferation and invasion of CC cells. Furthermore, the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and PI3K/AKT signaling pathway-related factors were analyzed by western blot. Results showed that bioinformatics analysis found that ARNTL2 was upregulated in CC tissues. ARNTL2 was highly expressed in tissues and CC cells. Knockdown of ARNTL2 inhibited CC cells viability, colony formation, migration activity and reduced the size of tumors in the nude mice. Moreover, knockdown of ARNTL2 suppressed the expression of SMOC2, which may be the target gene of ARNTL2, and simultaneously inhibited the expression of EMT and PI3K/AKT signaling pathway-related factors. Taken together, downregulation of ARNTL2 could suppress CC cell proliferation and migration via SMOC2-EMT through inactivation of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7191172PMC
April 2020

The Prognostic and Clinicopathological Roles of PD-L1 Expression in Colorectal Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Front Pharmacol 2019 28;10:139. Epub 2019 Feb 28.

Department of General Surgery, Zhujiang Hospital of Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, China.

Studies evaluating the prognostic significance of programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in colorectal cancer (CRC) are limited and remain controversial. This meta-analysis was conducted in order to evaluate the clinicopathological and prognostic significance of PD-L1 expression in CRC patients. A comprehensive search was performed against the Medline/PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science (WoS) and Scopus databases. Data were extracted with name of the first author, year of publication, country of origin, tumor type, number of cases, staining method, cut-off values, PD-L1 positive expression, clinicopathological parameters, outcome, and quality assessment score, and statistical analysis was conducted using Review Manager Version 5.3 (Revman the Cochrane Collaboration; Oxford, England) and STATA version 14 (Stata Corporation; College Station, TX, USA). Ten studies were included in this meta-analysis, in which the pooled hazard ratio (HR) showed that PD-L1 expression in tumor cells was significantly associated with a poor overall survival (HR = 1.50, 95% CI 1.05-2.13, = 0.03). The pooled HR for disease-free survival (DFS) indicated that PD-L1 expression was significantly associated with shorter DFS (HR = 2.57, 95% CI 1.40-4.75, = 0.002). The pooled odds ratios (ORs) showed that PD-L1 expression was associated with poor differentiation (OR = 3.47, 95% CI 1.37-8.77, = 0.008) and right colon cancer (OR = 2.38, 95% CI 1.57-3.60, < 0.0001). However, the expression of PD-L1 was independent of gender, age, tumor size, tumor stage, lymph node metastasis, and tumor-node metastasis stage. This meta-analysis indicated that a high level of PD-L1 expression might be a biomarker for a poor prognosis in CRC patients. This information may be helpful for clinicians to stratify CRC patients for anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy, particularly patients with microsatellite instability high (MSI-H).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2019.00139DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6403169PMC
February 2019

Ameliorative Potentials of Methanol Fractions of on Some Hematological and Biochemical Parameters in Streptozotocin Diabetic Rats.

Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets 2018 ;18(6):637-645

Department of Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences, Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike, Nigeria.

Background: There is a paucity of information in the literature on the effect of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius on the hematological, coagulation activities, electrolyte balance and antioxidant activities of humans or animals.

Objectives: To determine the ameliorative potentials of methanol fractions of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius on hematological, coagulation, electrolyte, hepatic and renal antioxidant activities of streptozotocininduced diabetic rats using standard techniques.

Method: Thirty rats, distributed into five groups of six rats each were used for this study. Groups 1 and 2 (normal and diabetic controls) received 1 ml/kg normal saline. Groups 3 and 4 received methanol fractions of Cnidoscolus aconitifolius (at 250 and 500 mg/kg). Group 5 was administered glibenclamide (2.5 mg/kg).

Results: The diabetic control had decreased (P<0.05) white blood cells, red blood cells, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean cell hemoglobin, mean cell hemoglobin concentration, lymphocytes, eosinophils, thrombin time, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, sodium, potassium, bicarbonate ions, hepatic and renal superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities; increased (P<0.05) neutrophils, fibrinogen and platelets counts, chloride ion levels compared with the normal control while their monocytes were not different (P>0.05) from that of the normal control. Basophils were not detected in all the groups that were studied. The methanol fraction at 500 mg/kg was more potent than the methanol fraction at 250 mg/kg or glibenclamide (at 2.5 mg/kg) in ameliorating the hematological parameters, serum electrolytes and oxidative stress in the hepatic and kidney tissues of the diabetic rats suggesting its potentials in the management of diabetic complications.

Conclusion: Finally, the biological properties demonstrated by the methanol fraction could be attributed to the presence of octadecanoic acid, n-hexadecanoic acid, eicosanoic acid, tetradecanoic acid and n-hexadecanoic acid in it as previously reported.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871530318666180328112904DOI Listing
January 2019

The enigmatic nodding syndrome outbreak in northern Uganda: an analysis of the disease burden and national response strategies.

Health Policy Plan 2016 Apr 27;31(3):285-92. Epub 2015 Jun 27.

Department of Community Health and Behavioral Sciences, School of Public Health, College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.

To date, the cause of nodding syndrome (NS) remains unknown; however, efforts continue to establish risk factors and optimal symptomatic treatments. We documented the burden and national response strategies including involvement of key stakeholders in the management of the NS epidemic in order to inform future interventions against epidemics of undetermined aetiology. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with selected leaders in the affected districts and at the Ministry of Health, and through review of documents. We participated in and analysed the proceedings of the first international scientific conference on NS held in Kampala in August 2012. We then analysed the chronology of the NS notification and the steps undertaken in the response plan. Over 3000 children have been affected by NS in northern Uganda; with an estimated case fatality of 6.7%. The first cases of NS were reported in 1997 in internally displaced people's camps in Kitgum district; however, response efforts by the Ministry of Health and partners towards understanding the disorder and establish management only commenced in 2009. Key strategies in response to the NS epidemic have included formation of a national and district task forces, development of training manual on NS and training of primary healthcare professionals on case diagnosis and clinical management, establishment of treatment and rehabilitation centres, surveillance and promotion of researches to further inform management of the syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/heapol/czv056DOI Listing
April 2016

Determining an anthropometric surrogate measure for identifying low birth weight babies in Uganda: a hospital-based cross sectional study.

BMC Pediatr 2013 Apr 12;13:54. Epub 2013 Apr 12.

School of Public Health, Makerere University College of Health Sciences, P.O. Box 7072, Kampala, Uganda.

Background: Achieving Millennium Development Goal 4 is dependent on significantly reducing neonatal mortality. Low birth weight is an underlying factor in most neonatal deaths. In developing countries the missed opportunity for providing life saving care is mainly a result of failure to identify low birth weight newborns. This study aimed at identifying a reliable anthropometric measurement for screening low birth weight and determining an operational cut-off point in the Uganda setting. This simple measurement is required because of lack of weighing scales in the community, and sometimes in the health facilities.

Methods: This was a hospital-based cross-sectional study. Two midwives weighed 706 newborns and measured their foot length, head, chest, thigh and mid-upper arm circumferences within 24 hours after birth.Data was analysed using STATA version 10.0. Correlation with birth weight using Pearson's correlation coefficient and Receiver Operating Characteristics curve analysis were done to determine the measure that best predicts birth weight. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for a range of measures to obtain operational cut-off points; and Likelihood Ratios and Diagnostic Odds Ratio were determined for each cut-off point.

Results: Birth weights ranged from 1370-5350 grams with a mean of 3050 grams (SD 0.53) and 85 (12%) babies weighed less than 2500 grams. All anthropometric measurements had a positive correlation with birth weight, with foot length showing the strongest (r = 0.76) and thigh circumference the weakest (r = 0.62) correlations. Foot length had the highest predictive value for low birth weight (AUC = 0.97) followed by mid-upper arm circumference (AUC = 0.94). Foot length and chest circumference had the highest sensitivity (94%) and specificity (90%) respectively for screening low birth weight babies at the selected cut-off points. Chest circumference had a significantly higher positive likelihood ratio (8.7) than any other measure, and foot length had the lowest negative likelihood ratio. Chest circumference and foot length had diagnostic odds ratios of 97% and 77% respectively. Foot length was easier to measure and it involved minimal exposure of the baby to cold. A cut-off of foot length 7.9 cm had sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 83% for predicting low birth weight.

Conclusions: This study suggests foot length as the most appropriate predictor for low birth weight in comparison to chest, head, mid-upper arm and thigh circumference in the Uganda setting. Use of low cost and easy to use tools to identify low birth weight babies by village health teams could support community efforts to save newborns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2431-13-54DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3639798PMC
April 2013

Improving community-based mental health care for children: a commentary.

Adm Policy Ment Health 2013 Jan;40(1):33-8

Division of Behavioral Health and Intellectual Disabilities Policy, Office on Disability, Aging, and Long-Term Care Policy, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, US Department of Health and Human Services, 200 Independence Avenue SW, Room 424E. 15, Washington, DC 20009, USA.

In their article, "Improving Community-Based Mental Health Care for Children," Garland and colleagues explore and confront quality issues that are endemic to outpatient specialty mental health care for children in the United States. Their article presents evidence supporting the lack of effectiveness of usual care and draws on implementation science to explore areas for improving the quality of outpatient mental health care for young people. This commentary accepts these basic arguments and strategies, explores policy options that support the suggested reforms, and examines evidence-based programs in a broader context that draws on the systems of care approach. Specific issues addressed in this commentary include workforce capacity, policy options for improving care quality, provider incentives, systematic implementation supports, strategies to incorporate evidence-based approaches into practice, youth-guided and family-driven care, and the need to expand the definition of evidence-based practice to include the concepts of community-defined evidence and practice-based evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10488-012-0457-1DOI Listing
January 2013

Sustaining and expanding systems of care to provide mental health services for children, youth and families across America.

Am J Community Psychol 2012 Jun;49(3-4):566-79

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Rockville, MD 20857, USA.

The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration has been instrumental in supporting the development and implementation of systems of care to provide services to children and youth with serious mental health conditions and their families. Since 1993, 173 grants have been awarded to communities in all 50 states, Puerto Rico, Guam, the District of Columbia, and 21 American Indian/Alaska Native communities. The system of care principles of creating comprehensive, individualized services, family-driven and youth-guided care and cultural and linguistic competence, supported by a well-trained and competent workforce, have been successful in transforming the field of children's mental health and facilitating the integration of child-serving systems. This approach has achieved positive outcomes at the child and family, practice and system levels, and numerous articles have been published using data collected from system of care communities, demonstrating the effectiveness of this framework. This article will describe lessons learned from implementing the system of care approach, and will discuss the importance of expanding and sustaining systems of care across the country.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10464-012-9517-7DOI Listing
June 2012

Severe malignancy-associated hypercalcemia in dysgerminoma.

Pediatr Blood Cancer 2006 Oct;47(5):621-3

Department of Pediatrics, Section of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Baystate Medical Center Children's Hospital, Springfield, Massachusetts 01107, USA.

Hypercalcemia is a rare complication of pediatric malignant germ cell tumors. The problem may be missed because of unawareness among pediatric oncologists. We describe a 16-year-old girl with an ovarian dysgerminoma associated with severe hypercalcemia, a metabolic abnormality infrequently reported with this disease. We review some of the potential causes of malignancy-associated hypercalcemia and current treatment strategies. It is our recommendation that calcium levels should be monitored in all children with solid ovarian masses. Hypercalcemia seen in these situations may not improve until the tumor is removed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pbc.20476DOI Listing
October 2006
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