Publications by authors named "Christopher L Jenks"

7 Publications

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Pediatric Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Anticoagulation Protocol Associated with a Decrease in Complications.

ASAIO J 2021 Apr 19. Epub 2021 Apr 19.

From the Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care, Studer Family Children's Hospital at Sacred Heart, Pensacola, Florida School of Medicine, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi.

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in pediatrics has rapidly progressed in recent years; however, there continues to be considerable variation in anticoagulation practices. In 2016, we implemented a standardized anticoagulation protocol in effort to reduce clotting and bleeding complications. A single-center retrospective analysis of pediatric patients requiring ECMO between 2014 and 2018 was performed. One hundred one ECMO cases in 94 pediatric patients met eligibility criteria (preprotocol = 64 cases; postprotocol = 37 cases). Demographics, ECMO parameters, complications, laboratories, and blood product requirements were analyzed for differences between the two groups. There was a significant decrease in the incidence of hematologic (p < 0.022), neurologic (p < 0.001), and renal complications (p < 0.001) in the postprotocol era. Incidence of bleeding, cardiac/pulmonary complications, and circuit changes were similar between the groups. The postprotocol group required fewer transfusions of red blood cells and cryoprecipitate. Additionally, platelet counts and fibrinogen levels were maintained higher in the postprotocol era. In conclusion, implementation of a standardized anticoagulation protocol was associated with improved anticoagulation parameters and a decrease in hematologic and neurologic complications, coagulopathy, renal injury, and blood product administration. We attribute these findings to transitioning to anti-Xa as a measure of heparinization and maintaining higher platelet counts.
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April 2021

Outcomes of Pediatric Extracorporeal Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Crit Care Med 2021 04;49(4):682-692

University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX.

Objective: The goal of this work is to provide insight into survival and neurologic outcomes of pediatric patients supported with extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

Data Sources: A systematic search of Embase, PubMed, Cochrane, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Web of Science was performed from January 1990 to May 2020.

Study Selection: A comprehensive list of nonregistry studies with pediatric patients managed with extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation was included.

Data Extraction: Study characteristics and outcome estimates were extracted from each article.

Data Synthesis: Estimates were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. Differences were estimated using subgroup meta-analysis and meta-regression. The Meta-analyses Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guideline was followed and the certainty of evidence was assessed using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. Twenty-eight studies (1,348 patients) were included. There was a steady increase in extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation occurrence rate from the 1990s until 2020. There were 32, 338, and 1,094 patients' articles published between 1990 and 2000, 2001 and 2010, and 2010 and 2020, respectively. More than 70% were cannulated for a primary cardiac arrest. Pediatric extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation patients had a 46% (CI 95% = 43-48%; p < 0.01) overall survival rate. The rate of survival with favorable neurologic outcome was 30% (CI 95% = 27-33%; p < 0.01).

Conclusions: The use of extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation is rapidly expanding, particularly for children with underlying cardiac disease. An overall survival of 46% and favorable neurologic outcomes add credence to this emerging therapy.
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April 2021

EEG is A Predictor of Neuroimaging Abnormalities in Pediatric Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

J Clin Med 2020 Aug 4;9(8). Epub 2020 Aug 4.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX 75390, USA.

The goal of this project was to evaluate if severity of electroencephalogram (EEG) during or shortly after being placed on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) would correlate with neuroimaging abnormalities, and if that could be used as an early indicator of neurologic injury. This was a retrospective chart review spanning November 2009 to May 2018. Patients who had an EEG recording during ECMO or within 48 hours after being decannulated (early group) or within 3 months of being on ECMO (late group) were included if they also had ECMO-related neuroimaging. In the early EEG group, severity of the EEG findings of mild, moderate, and severe EEG correlated to mild, moderate, and severe neuroimaging scores. Patients on venoarterial (VA) ECMO were noted to have higher EEG and neuroimaging severity; this was statistically significant. There was no association in the late EEG group to neuroimaging abnormalities. Our study highlights that EEG severity can be an early predictor for neuroimaging abnormalities that can be identified by computed tomography (CT) and or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This can provide guidance for both the medical team and families, allowing for a better understanding of overall prognosis.
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August 2020

An International Survey on Ventilator Practices Among Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Centers.

ASAIO J 2017 Nov/Dec;63(6):787-792

From the *Department of Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas; †Department of Pediatrics, Texas Children's Hospital, Houston, Texas; ‡Children's Medical Center at Dallas part of Children's Health (SM), Dallas, Texas; §Department of Accounting, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, Texas; and ¶Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, Texas.

Although the optimal ventilation strategy is unknown for patients placed on extracorporeal support, there are increasing reports of extubation being used. Our objective was to describe the change in ventilation strategies and use of tracheostomy and bronchoscopy practices among extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) centers across the world. A descriptive, cross-sectional 22 item survey of neonatal, pediatric, and adult ECMO centers was used to evaluate ventilator strategies, extubation, bronchoscopy, and tracheostomy practices. Extubation practices are increasing among all types of ECMO centers, representing 27% of all patients in pediatric centers, 41% of all patients in mixed centers, and 52% of all patients in adult centers. The most common mode of ventilation during ECMO is pressure control. There is a trend toward increased use of bilevel ventilation particularly for lung recruitment. Additionally, there is a trend toward increase in performance of bronchoscopy (pediatrics: 69%, mixed centers: 81%, adults: 76%) and tracheostomy. Among the centers performing tracheostomies, 45% reported the percutaneous method (pediatric: 31%, mixed: 46%, adult: 57%), 19% reported the open method (pediatric: 9%, mixed: 27%, adult: 24%), and 10% reported using both types of tracheostomies (pediatric: 2%, mixed: 8%, adult: 16%). Our study shows that ECMO centers are extubating their patients, performing tracheostomies and bronchoscopies on their patients more than in the previous years. There remains significant variation in ECMO ventilator strategies and management internationally. Future studies are needed to correlate these changes in practices to outcome benefits.
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May 2018

Elevated cranial ultrasound resistive indices are associated with improved neurodevelopmental outcomes one year after pediatric cardiac surgery: A single center pilot study.

Heart Lung 2017 Jul - Aug;46(4):251-257. Epub 2017 May 13.

Department of Pediatrics, Division of Critical Care Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Children's Health Children's Medical Center at Dallas, USA.

Objective: To determine if a non-invasive, repeatable test can be used to predict neurodevelopmental outcomes in patients with congenital heart disease.

Methods: This was a prospective study of pediatric patients less than two months of age undergoing congenital heart surgery at the Children's Health Children's Medical Center at Dallas. Multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was utilized during the surgery, and ultrasound (US) resistive indices (RI) of the major cranial vessels were obtained prior to surgery, immediately post-operatively, and prior to discharge. Pearson's correlation, Fischer exact t test, and Fischer r to z transformation were used where appropriate.

Results: A total of 16 patients were enrolled. All had US data. Of the sixteen patients, two died prior to the neurodevelopmental testing, six did not return for the neurodevelopmental testing, and eight patients completed the neurodevelopmental testing. There were no significant correlations between the prior to surgery and prior to discharge US RI and neurodevelopmental outcomes. The immediate post-operative US RI demonstrated a strong positive correlation with standardized neurodevelopmental outcome measures. We were able to demonstrate qualitative differences using multichannel NIRS during surgery, but experienced significant technical difficulties implementing consistent monitoring.

Conclusions: A higher resistive index in the major cerebral blood vessels following cardiac surgery in the neonatal period is associated with improved neurological outcomes one year after surgery. Obtaining an ultrasound with resistive indices of the major cerebral vessels prior to and after surgery may yield information that is predictive of neurodevelopmental outcomes.
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August 2017

High Hemoglobin Is an Independent Risk Factor for the Development of Hemolysis During Pediatric Extracorporeal Life Support.

J Intensive Care Med 2019 Mar 10;34(3):259-264. Epub 2017 May 10.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Dallas, TX, USA.

Objective: To evaluate risk factors for hemolysis in pediatric extracorporeal life support.

Design: Retrospective, single-center study.

Setting: Pediatric intensive care unit.

Patients: Two hundred thirty-six children who received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

Interventions: None.

Measurements And Main Results: Risk factors for hemolysis were retrospectively analyzed from a single center in a total of 236 neonatal and pediatric patients who received extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support (ECMO). There was no difference in the incidence of hemolysis between centrifugal (127 patients) and roller head (109 patients) pump type or between venoarterial and venovenous ECMO. High hemoglobin (Hb) was found to be an independent risk factor for hemolysis in both pump types. The Hb level >12 g/dL was significant in the roller group and the Hb level >13 g/dL was significant in the centrifugal group for the development of hemolysis for the cumulative ECMO run. The presence of high Hb levels on any given day increased the risk of hemolysis for that day of the ECMO run regardless of ECMO pump type. Higher revolutions per minute (RPMs) and higher inlet pressures on any given day increased the risk for the development of hemolysis in the centrifugal pump. Lower inlet venous pressures and RPMs were not associated with hemolysis in the roller group.

Conclusions: An Hb level greater than 13 g/dL was associated with an increased risk of hemolysis, and a high Hb on a given day was associated with a significantly higher risk of hemolysis on the same day. Higher RPMs and lower inlet venous pressures were associated with an increased risk of hemolysis in the centrifugal pump only.
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March 2019

Drug hypersensitivity causing organizing eosinophilic pneumonia in a pediatric patient.

Heart Lung 2015 May-Jun;44(3):243-5. Epub 2015 Mar 17.

Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, USA.

Objective: To describe a relatively rare hypersentivity reaction with pulmonary manifestations in a pediatric patient.

Data Sources: Electronic medical records.

Study Selection: Patient treatment in the pediatric critical care unit.

Data Extraction And Synthesis: Electronic medical records.

Conclusions: Eosinophilic pneumonias are rare in the pediatric population. Peripheral eosinophilia is not necessary to make the diagnosis. Bronchoalveolar lavage is the diagnostic study of choice. Lung biopsies are rarely needed to make the diagnosis. The treatment of choice is steroids. If steroids fail to improve the patient's condition, consider IVIG, and cyclosporine A.
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November 2015