Publications by authors named "Christopher Koivisto"

13 Publications

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Evaluating the efficacy of enzalutamide and the development of resistance in a preclinical mouse model of type-I endometrial carcinoma.

Neoplasia 2020 10 17;22(10):484-496. Epub 2020 Aug 17.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA; Hollings Cancer Center, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA. Electronic address:

Androgen Receptor (AR) signaling is a critical driver of hormone-dependent prostate cancer and has also been proposed to have biological activity in female hormone-dependent cancers, including type I endometrial carcinoma (EMC). In this study, we evaluated the preclinical efficacy of a third-generation AR antagonist, enzalutamide, in a genetic mouse model of EMC, Sprr2f-Cre;Pten. In this model, ablation of Pten in the uterine epithelium leads to localized and distant malignant disease as observed in human EMC. We hypothesized that administering enzalutamide through the diet would temporarily decrease the incidence of invasive and metastatic carcinoma, while prolonged administration would result in development of resistance and loss of efficacy. Short-term treatment with enzalutamide reduced overall tumor burden through increased apoptosis but failed to prevent progression of invasive and metastatic disease. These results suggest that AR signaling may have biphasic, oncogenic and tumor suppressive roles in EMC that are dependent on disease stage. Enzalutamide treatment increased Progesterone Receptor (PR) expression within both stromal and tumor cell compartments. Prolonged administration of enzalutamide decreased apoptosis, increased tumor burden and resulted in the clonal expansion of tumor cells expressing high levels of p53 protein, suggestive of acquired Trp53 mutations. In conclusion, we show that enzalutamide induces apoptosis in EMC but has limited efficacy overall as a single agent. Induction of PR, a negative regulator of endometrial proliferation, suggests that adding progestin therapy to enzalutamide administration may further decrease tumor burden and result in a prolonged response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neo.2020.07.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7452078PMC
October 2020

Ablation of the Brca1-Palb2 Interaction Phenocopies Fanconi Anemia in Mice.

Cancer Res 2020 10 30;80(19):4172-4184. Epub 2020 Jul 30.

Department of Cancer Biology and Genetics, The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, Ohio.

Heterozygous mutations in the gene predispose women to breast and ovarian cancer, while biallelic BRCA1 mutations are a cause of Fanconi anemia (FA), a rare genetic disorder characterized by developmental abnormalities, early-onset bone marrow failure, increased risk of cancers, and hypersensitivity to DNA-crosslinking agents. BRCA1 is critical for homologous recombination of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB). Through its coiled-coil domain, BRCA1 interacts with an essential partner, PALB2, recruiting BRCA2 and RAD51 to sites of DNA damage. Missense mutations within the coiled-coil domain of BRCA1 (e.g., L1407P) that affect the interaction with PALB2 have been reported in familial breast cancer. We hypothesized that if PALB2 regulates or mediates BRCA1 tumor suppressor function, ablation of the BRCA1-PALB2 interaction may also elicit genomic instability and tumor susceptibility. We generated mice defective for the Brca1-Palb2 interaction (Brca1 L1363P in mice) and established MEF cells from these mice. MEF exhibited hypersensitivity to DNA-damaging agents and failed to recruit Rad51 to DSB. mice were viable but exhibited various FA symptoms including growth retardation, hyperpigmentation, skeletal abnormalities, and male/female infertility. Furthermore, all mice exhibited macrocytosis and died due to bone marrow failure or lymphoblastic lymphoma/leukemia with activating Notch1 mutations. These phenotypes closely recapitulate clinical features observed in patients with FA. Collectively, this model effectively demonstrates the significance of the BRCA1-PALB2 interaction in genome integrity and provides an FA model to investigate hematopoietic stem cells for mechanisms underlying progressive failure of hematopoiesis and associated development of leukemia/lymphoma, and other FA phenotypes. SIGNIFICANCE: A new Brca1 mouse model for Fanconi anemia (FA) complementation group S provides a system in which to study phenotypes observed in human FA patients including bone marrow failure..
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-20-0486DOI Listing
October 2020

Stromal Platelet-Derived Growth Factor Receptor-β Signaling Promotes Breast Cancer Metastasis in the Brain.

Cancer Res 2021 Feb 23;81(3):606-618. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

The Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

Platelet-derived growth factor receptor-beta (PDGFRβ) is a receptor tyrosine kinase found in cells of mesenchymal origin such as fibroblasts and pericytes. Activation of this receptor is dependent on paracrine ligand induction, and its preferred ligand PDGFB is released by neighboring epithelial and endothelial cells. While expression of both PDGFRβ and PDGFB has been noted in patient breast tumors for decades, how PDGFB-to-PDGFRβ tumor-stroma signaling mediates breast cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis remains unclear. Here we demonstrate this paracrine signaling pathway that mediates both primary tumor growth and metastasis, specifically, metastasis to the brain. Elevated levels of PDGFB accelerated orthotopic tumor growth and intracranial growth of mammary tumor cells, while mesenchymal-specific expression of an activating mutant PDGFRβ (PDGFRβ) exerted proproliferative signals on adjacent mammary tumor cells. Stromal expression of PDGFRβ also promoted brain metastases of mammary tumor cells expressing high PDGFB when injected intravenously. In the brain, expression of PDGFRβ was observed within a subset of astrocytes, and aged mice expressing PDGFRβ exhibited reactive gliosis. Importantly, the PDGFR-specific inhibitor crenolanib significantly reduced intracranial growth of mammary tumor cells. In a tissue microarray comprised of 363 primary human breast tumors, high PDGFB protein expression was prognostic for brain metastases, but not metastases to other sites. Our results advocate the use of mice expressing PDGFRβ in their stromal cells as a preclinical model of breast cancer-associated brain metastases and support continued investigation into the clinical prognostic and therapeutic use of PDGFB-to-PDGFRβ signaling in women with breast cancer. SIGNIFICANCE: These studies reveal a previously unknown role for PDGFB-to-PDGFRβ paracrine signaling in the promotion of breast cancer brain metastases and support the prognostic and therapeutic clinical utility of this pathway for patients..
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-19-3731DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7581545PMC
February 2021

Murine models for familial pancreatic cancer: Histopathology, latency and drug sensitivity among cancers of Palb2, Brca1 and Brca2 mutant mouse strains.

PLoS One 2019 26;14(12):e0226714. Epub 2019 Dec 26.

Department of Cancer Biology and Genetics, The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, Ohio, United States of America.

Alterations of the PALB2 tumor suppressor gene have been identified in familial breast, ovarian and pancreatic cancer cases. PALB2 cooperates with BRCA1/2 proteins through physical interaction in initiation of homologous recombination, in maintenance of genome integrity following DNA double-strand breaks. To determine if the role of PALB2 as a linker between BRCA1 and BRCA2 is critical for BRCA1/2-mediated tumor suppression, we generated Palb2 mouse pancreatic cancer models and compared tumor latencies, phenotypes and drug responses with previously generated Brca1/2 pancreatic cancer models. For development of Palb2 pancreatic cancer, we crossed conditional Palb2 null mouse with mice carrying the KrasG12D; p53R270H; Pdx1-Cre (KPC) constructs, and these animals were observed for pancreatic tumor development. Individual deletion of Palb2, Brca1 or Brca2 genes in pancreas per se using Pdx1-Cre was insufficient to cause tumors, but it reduced pancreata size. Concurrent expression of mutant KrasG12D and p53R270H, with tumor suppressor inactivated strains in Palb2-KPC, Brca1-KPC or Brca2-KPC, accelerated pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) development. Moreover, most Brca1-KPC and some Palb2-KPC animals developed mucinous cystic neoplasms with PDAC, while Brca2-KPC and KPC animals did not. 26% of Palb2-KPC mice developed MCNs in pancreata, which resemble closely the Brca1 deficient tumors. However, the remaining 74% of Palb2-KPC animals developed PDACs without any cysts like Brca2 deficient tumors. In addition, the number of ADM lesions and immune cells infiltrations (CD3+ and F/480+) were significantly increased in Brca1-KPC tumors, but not in Brca2-KPC tumors. Interestingly, the level of ADM lesions and infiltration of CD3+ or F/480+ cells in Palb2-KPC tumors were intermediate between Brca1-KPC and Brca2-KPC tumors. As expected, disruption of Palb2 and Brca1/2 sensitized tumor cells to DNA damaging agents in vitro and in vivo. Altogether, Palb2-KPC PDAC exhibited features observed in both Brca1-KPC and Brca2-KPC tumors, which could be due to its role, as a linker between Brca1 and Brca2.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0226714PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6932818PMC
April 2020

Abrupt involution induces inflammation, estrogenic signaling, and hyperplasia linking lack of breastfeeding with increased risk of breast cancer.

Breast Cancer Res 2019 07 17;21(1):80. Epub 2019 Jul 17.

The Comprehensive Cancer Center, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, 460 West 12th Avenue, Columbus, OH, 43210, USA.

Background: A large collaborative analysis of data from 47 epidemiological studies concluded that longer duration of breastfeeding reduces the risk of developing breast cancer. Despite the strong epidemiological evidence, the molecular mechanisms linking prolonged breastfeeding to decreased risk of breast cancer remain poorly understood.

Methods: We modeled two types of breastfeeding behaviors in wild type FVB/N mice: (1) normal or gradual involution of breast tissue following prolonged breastfeeding and (2) forced or abrupt involution following short-term breastfeeding. To accomplish this, pups were gradually weaned between 28 and 31 days (gradual involution) or abruptly at 7 days postpartum (abrupt involution). Mammary glands were examined for histological changes, proliferation, and inflammatory markers by immunohistochemistry. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting was used to quantify mammary epithelial subpopulations. Gene set enrichment analysis was used to analyze gene expression data from mouse mammary luminal progenitor cells. Similar analysis was done using gene expression data generated from human breast samples obtained from parous women enrolled on a tissue collection study, OSU-2011C0094, and were undergoing reduction mammoplasty without history of breast cancer.

Results: Mammary glands from mice that underwent abrupt involution exhibited denser stroma, altered collagen composition, higher inflammation and proliferation, increased estrogen receptor α and progesterone receptor expression compared to those that underwent gradual involution. Importantly, when aged to 4 months postpartum, mice that were in the abrupt involution cohort developed ductal hyperplasia and squamous metaplasia. Abrupt involution also resulted in a significant expansion of the luminal progenitor cell compartment associated with enrichment of Notch and estrogen signaling pathway genes. Breast tissues obtained from healthy women who breastfed for < 6 months vs ≥ 6 months showed significant enrichment of Notch signaling pathway genes, along with a trend for enrichment for luminal progenitor gene signature similar to what is observed in BRCA1 mutation carriers and basal-like breast tumors.

Conclusions: We report here for the first time that forced or abrupt involution of the mammary glands following pregnancy and lack of breastfeeding results in expansion of luminal progenitor cells, higher inflammation, proliferation, and ductal hyperplasia, a known risk factor for developing breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13058-019-1163-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6637535PMC
July 2019

MRI Findings of Suprasellar Germ Cell Tumors in Two Dogs.

J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2018 May/Jun;54(3):167-172. Epub 2018 Mar 20.

From the Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences (L.C., M.T., W.T.D.) and Department of Veterinary Biosciences (C.K., M.O.), The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

A 4 yr old border collie presenting for mydriasis and decreased mentation and a 7 yr old Boston terrier presenting for obtundation, head tilt, and paraparesis were both evaluated using MRI. Findings in both included mass lesions of the thalamus and brainstem that were hypo- to isointense on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on T2-weighted images with regions of hypointensity, and robust contrast enhancement and displacement of adjacent structures. Postmortem histopathology findings, tumor location, and a mixed pattern of epithelial cell differentiation were consistent with germ cell tumor in both cases. Germ cell tumor of the suprasellar region is an infrequently reported neoplasm of dogs and imaging findings in this species have not been well described in the prior literature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5326/JAAHA-MS-6354DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6052451PMC
February 2019

Dosage-dependent copy number gains in E2f1 and E2f3 drive hepatocellular carcinoma.

J Clin Invest 2017 Mar 30;127(3):830-842. Epub 2017 Jan 30.

Disruption of the retinoblastoma (RB) tumor suppressor pathway, either through genetic mutation of upstream regulatory components or mutation of RB1 itself, is believed to be a required event in cancer. However, genetic alterations in the RB-regulated E2F family of transcription factors are infrequent, casting doubt on a direct role for E2Fs in driving cancer. In this work, a mutation analysis of human cancer revealed subtle but impactful copy number gains in E2F1 and E2F3 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Using a series of loss- and gain-of-function alleles to dial E2F transcriptional output, we have shown that copy number gains in E2f1 or E2f3b resulted in dosage-dependent spontaneous HCC in mice without the involvement of additional organs. Conversely, germ-line loss of E2f1 or E2f3b, but not E2f3a, protected mice against HCC. Combinatorial mapping of chromatin occupancy and transcriptome profiling identified an E2F1- and E2F3B-driven transcriptional program that was associated with development and progression of HCC. These findings demonstrate a direct and cell-autonomous role for E2F activators in human cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI87583DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5330731PMC
March 2017

E2f8 mediates tumor suppression in postnatal liver development.

J Clin Invest 2016 08 25;126(8):2955-69. Epub 2016 Jul 25.

E2F-mediated transcriptional repression of cell cycle-dependent gene expression is critical for the control of cellular proliferation, survival, and development. E2F signaling also interacts with transcriptional programs that are downstream of genetic predictors for cancer development, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we evaluated the function of the atypical repressor genes E2f7 and E2f8 in adult liver physiology. Using several loss-of-function alleles in mice, we determined that combined deletion of E2f7 and E2f8 in hepatocytes leads to HCC. Temporal-specific ablation strategies revealed that E2f8's tumor suppressor role is critical during the first 2 weeks of life, which correspond to a highly proliferative stage of postnatal liver development. Disruption of E2F8's DNA binding activity phenocopied the effects of an E2f8 null allele and led to HCC. Finally, a profile of chromatin occupancy and gene expression in young and tumor-bearing mice identified a set of shared targets for E2F7 and E2F8 whose increased expression during early postnatal liver development is associated with HCC progression in mice. Increased expression of E2F8-specific target genes was also observed in human liver biopsies from HCC patients compared to healthy patients. In summary, these studies suggest that E2F8-mediated transcriptional repression is a critical tumor suppressor mechanism during postnatal liver development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI85506DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4966321PMC
August 2016

WWP2 and its association with PTEN in endometrial cancer.

Gynecol Oncol Rep 2015 Aug 3;13:26-9. Epub 2015 Jun 3.

Human Cancer Genetics, The Ohio State University College of Medicine, United States.

We wished to determine if WWP2 gene expression and PTEN protein levels inversely correlate in human endometrial cancer tissues. Fifty-one endometrioid endometrial tumors and five normal endometrial controls were available for analysis. PTEN protein levels were assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC). WWP2 and PTEN gene expression were quantitated by RT PCR. Clinical and pathologic information was collected by chart review. We found that in tumors with low PTEN protein but normal mRNA expression there were significantly higher levels of WWP2 expression (p = 0.0017). Increased WWP2 expression was not associated with clinical prognostic factors including lymphovascular space invasion, ≥ 50% myometrial invasion, grade, stage or recurrence. WWP2 expression was not different statistically between tumors and normal controls (p = NS). Therefore, in this cohort, tumors with low PTEN protein but normal mRNA expression had elevated levels of WWP2 expression. This suggests that WWP2 may be playing a role in PTEN degradation in endometrial cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gore.2015.05.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4563582PMC
August 2015

Noncatalytic PTEN missense mutation predisposes to organ-selective cancer development in vivo.

Genes Dev 2015 Aug;29(16):1707-20

Solid Tumor Biology Program, James Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA; Department of Molecular Genetics, College of Arts and Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA; Department of Molecular Virology, Immunology, and Medical Genetics, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA;

Inactivation of phosphatase and tensin homology deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is linked to increased PI3K-AKT signaling, enhanced organismal growth, and cancer development. Here we generated and analyzed Pten knock-in mice harboring a C2 domain missense mutation at phenylalanine 341 (Pten(FV)), found in human cancer. Despite having reduced levels of PTEN protein, homozygous Pten(FV/FV) embryos have intact AKT signaling, develop normally, and are carried to term. Heterozygous Pten(FV/+) mice develop carcinoma in the thymus, stomach, adrenal medulla, and mammary gland but not in other organs typically sensitive to Pten deficiency, including the thyroid, prostate, and uterus. Progression to carcinoma in sensitive organs ensues in the absence of overt AKT activation. Carcinoma in the uterus, a cancer-resistant organ, requires a second clonal event associated with the spontaneous activation of AKT and downstream signaling. In summary, this PTEN noncatalytic missense mutation exposes a core tumor suppressor function distinct from inhibition of canonical AKT signaling that predisposes to organ-selective cancer development in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/gad.262568.115DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4561480PMC
August 2015

Redeployment of Myc and E2f1-3 drives Rb-deficient cell cycles.

Nat Cell Biol 2015 Aug 20;17(8):1036-48. Epub 2015 Jul 20.

1] Department of Molecular Virology, Immunology and Medical Genetics, College of Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA [2] Department of Molecular Genetics, College of Biological Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA [3] Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA.

Robust mechanisms to control cell proliferation have evolved to maintain the integrity of organ architecture. Here, we investigated how two critical proliferative pathways, Myc and E2f, are integrated to control cell cycles in normal and Rb-deficient cells using a murine intestinal model. We show that Myc and E2f1-3 have little impact on normal G1-S transitions. Instead, they synergistically control an S-G2 transcriptional program required for normal cell divisions and maintaining crypt-villus integrity. Surprisingly, Rb deficiency results in the Myc-dependent accumulation of E2f3 protein and chromatin repositioning of both Myc and E2f3, leading to the 'super activation' of a G1-S transcriptional program, ectopic S phase entry and rampant cell proliferation. These findings reveal that Rb-deficient cells hijack and redeploy Myc and E2f3 from an S-G2 program essential for normal cell cycles to a G1-S program that re-engages ectopic cell cycles, exposing an unanticipated addiction of Rb-null cells on Myc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncb3210DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4526313PMC
August 2015

Viral oncogene expression in the stem/progenitor cell compartment of the mouse intestine induces adenomatous polyps.

Mol Cancer Res 2014 Oct 3;12(10):1355-64. Epub 2014 Jul 3.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh. Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

Unlabelled: Genetic and epigenetic events that alter gene expression and/or protein function or localization are thought to be the primary mechanism that drives tumorigenesis and governs the clinical behavior of cancers. Yet, a number of studies have shown that the effects of oncogene expression or tumor suppressor ablation are highly dependent on cell type. The molecular basis for this cell-type specificity and how it contributes to tumorigenesis are unknown. Here, expression of a truncated SV40 large T antigen in murine intestinal crypts promoted the formation of numerous adenomatous polyps in the colon and small intestine. In contrast, when the same T-antigen construct is expressed in villous enterocytes, the consequences are limited to hyperplasia and dysplasia. The T-antigen-induced polyps show high levels of the proto-oncogene c-Myc protein even though there is no transport of β-catenin to the nucleus. Targeting the expression of viral oncogenes to intestinal crypts or villi provides a murine model system for studying cell-type specific effects in tumorigenesis, and is particularly relevant to the study of APC/β-catenin-independent pathways contributing to the generation of intestinal polyps.

Implications: This mouse model system describes the formation of colon polyps in the absence of Wnt/β-catenin signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-14-0166DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4201981PMC
October 2014

Immunohistochemical investigation of F344/N rat islet cell tumors from national toxicology program studies.

Toxicol Pathol 2012 Jul 3;40(5):751-63. Epub 2012 Apr 3.

Cellular and Molecular Pathology Branch, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA.

In this study, we have investigated the immunoexpression of peptide hormones and mediators associated with human islet cell tumors in a group of proliferative islet cell lesions in F344 rats including islet cell hyperplasias, adenomas, and carcinomas, as defined by conventional histopathologic criteria. All proliferative islets expressed synaptophysin, although decreased expression intensity was observed in hyperplasias and adenomas. Most of the proliferative lesions expressed insulin, which generally decreased as lesions progressed toward malignancy. The distribution of glucagon, somatostatin, and gastrin-expressing cells was altered in proliferative islet lesions but did not comprise a large proportion of cells. Islet cell tumors were associated with increased nuclear expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 4 as well as increased proliferating cell nuclear antigen and decreased β-catenin expression. c-Myelocytomatosis oncogene expression was variable. This is the first study to describe the immunophenotype of islet cell tumors in the F344 rat and to show that islet cell tumors in the F344 rat exhibit similarities in protein expression to the human counterpart.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0192623312441407DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3565473PMC
July 2012