Publications by authors named "Christopher Jones"

1,408 Publications

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Polymeric Fiber Sorbents Embedded with Porous Organic Cages.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Sep 27. Epub 2021 Sep 27.

School of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332, United States.

The synthesis and functionalization of porous organic cages (POCs) for separation have attracted growing interest over the past decade. However, the potential of solid-phase POCs for practical, large-scale separations will require incorporation into appropriate gas-solid or liquid-solid contactors. Contactors with more effective mass transfer properties and lower pressure drops than pelletized systems are preferred. Here, we prepared and characterized fiber sorbents with POCs throughout a cellulose acetate (CA) polymer matrix, which were then deployed in model separations. The POC CC3 was shown to be stable after exposure to spinning solvents, as confirmed by NMR, powder X-ray diffraction, and gas sorption experiments. CC3-CA fibers were spun using the dry-jet wet-quench spinning method. Spun fibers retained the adsorptive properties of CC3 powders, as confirmed by CO and N physisorption and TGA, reaching upward of 60 wt % adsorbent loading, whereas the pelletized CC3 counterparts suffered significant losses in textural properties. The separation capabilities of the CC3-CA fibers are tested with both simulated postcombustion flue gas and with Xe/Kr mixtures. Fixed bed breakthrough experiments performed on fibers samples show that CC3 embedded in polymeric fibers can effectively perform these proof-of-concept gas separations. The development of fiber sorbents embedded with POCs provides an alternative to traditional pelletization for the incorporation of these materials into adsorptive separation systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c12002DOI Listing
September 2021

Methamphetamine use in the United States: epidemiological update and implications for prevention, treatment, and harm reduction.

Ann N Y Acad Sci 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Rockville, Maryland.

Recent attention has focused on the growing role of psychostimulants, such as methamphetamine in overdose deaths. Methamphetamine is an addictive and potent stimulant, and its use is associated with a range of physical and mental health harms, overdose, and mortality. Adding to the complexity of this resurgent methamphetamine threat is the reality that the increases in methamphetamine availability and harms are occurring in the midst of and intertwined with the ongoing opioid overdose crisis. Opioid involvement in psychostimulant-involved overdose deaths increased from 34.5% of overdose deaths in 2010 to 53.5% in 2019-an increase of more than 50%. This latest evolution of the nation's overdose epidemic poses novel challenges for prevention, treatment, and harm reduction. This narrative review synthesizes what is known about changing patterns of methamphetamine use with and without opioids in the United States, other characteristics associated with methamphetamine use, the contributions of the changing illicit drug supply to use patterns and overdose risk, motivations for couse of methamphetamine and opioids, and awareness of exposure to opioids via the illicit methamphetamine supply. Finally, the review summarizes illustrative community and health system strategies and research opportunities to advance prevention, treatment, and harm reduction policies, programs, and practices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nyas.14688DOI Listing
September 2021

Methamphetamine Use, Methamphetamine Use Disorder, and Associated Overdose Deaths Among US Adults.

JAMA Psychiatry 2021 Sep 22. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

National Institute on Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

Importance: Mortality associated with methamphetamine use has increased markedly in the US. Understanding patterns of methamphetamine use may help inform related prevention and treatment.

Objective: To assess the national trends in and correlates of past-year methamphetamine use, methamphetamine use disorder (MUD), injection, frequent use, and associated overdose mortality from 2015 to 2019.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This cross-sectional study analyzed methamphetamine use, MUD, injection, and frequent use data from participants in the 2015 to 2019 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Mortality data were obtained from the 2015 to 2019 National Vital Statistics System Multiple Cause of Death files.

Exposures: Methamphetamine use.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Methamphetamine use, MUD, injection, frequent use, and overdose deaths.

Results: Of 195 711 NSDUH respondents aged 18 to 64 years, 104 408 were women (weighted percentage, 50.9%), 35 686 were Hispanic individuals (weighted percentage, 18.0%), 25 389 were non-Hispanic Black (hereafter, Black) individuals (weighted percentage, 12.6%), and 114 248 were non-Hispanic White (hereafter, White) individuals (weighted percentage, 60.6%). From 2015 to 2019, overdose deaths involving psychostimulants other than cocaine (largely methamphetamine) increased 180% (from 5526 to 15 489; P for trend <.001); methamphetamine use increased 43% (from 1.4 million [95% CI, 1.2-1.6 million] to 2.0 million [95% CI, 1.7-2.3 million]; P for trend = .002); frequent methamphetamine use increased 66% (from 615 000 [95% CI, 512 000-717 000] to 1 021 000 [95% CI, 860 000-1 183 000]; P for trend = .002); methamphetamine and cocaine use increased 60% (from 402 000 [95% CI, 306 000-499 000] to 645 000 [95% CI, 477 000-813 000]; P for trend = .001); and MUD without injection increased 105% (from 397 000 [95% CI, 299 000-496 000] to 815 000 [95% CI, 598 000-1 033 000]; P for trend = .006). The prevalence of MUD or injection surpassed the prevalence of methamphetamine use without MUD or injection in each year from 2017 to 2019 (60% to 67% vs 37% to 40%; P for trend ≤.001). Adults with MUD or using injection were more likely to use methamphetamine frequently (52.68%-53.84% vs 32.59%; adjusted risk ratio, 1.62-1.65; 95% CI, 1.35-1.94). From 2015 to 2019, the adjusted prevalence of MUD without injection more than tripled among heterosexual women (from 0.24% to 0.74%; P < .001) and lesbian or bisexual women (from 0.21% to 0.71%; P < .001) and more than doubled among heterosexual men (from 0.29% to 0.79%; P < .001) and homosexual or bisexual men (from 0.29% to 0.80%; P = .007). It increased over 10-fold among Black individuals (from 0.06% to 0.64%; P < .001), nearly tripled among White individuals (from 0.28% to 0.78%; P < .001), and more than doubled among Hispanic individuals (from 0.39% to 0.82%; P < .001). Risk factors for methamphetamine use, MUD, injection, and frequent use included lower educational attainment, lower annual household income, lack of insurance, housing instability, criminal justice involvement, comorbidities (eg, HIV/AIDS, hepatitis B or C virus, depression), suicidal ideation, and polysubstance use.

Conclusions And Relevance: This cross-sectional study found consistent upward trends in overdose mortality, greater risk patterns of methamphetamine use, and populations at higher risk for MUD diversifying rapidly, particularly those with socioeconomic risk factors and comorbidities. Evidence-based prevention and treatment interventions are needed to address surges in methamphetamine use and MUD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2021.2588DOI Listing
September 2021

The prevalence and profile of autism in individuals born preterm: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Neurodev Disord 2021 Sep 21;13(1):41. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK.

Introduction: Preterm birth (<37 weeks) adversely affects development in behavioural, cognitive and mental health domains. Heightened rates of autism are identified in preterm populations, indicating that prematurity may confer an increased likelihood of adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. The present meta-analysis aims to synthesise existing literature and calculate pooled prevalence estimates for rates of autism characteristics in preterm populations.

Methods: Search terms were generated from inspection of relevant high-impact papers and a recent meta-analysis. Five databases were searched from database creation until December 2020 with PRISMA guidelines followed throughout.

Results: 10,900 papers were retrieved, with 52 papers included in the final analyses, further classified by assessment method (screening tools N=30, diagnostic assessment N=29). Pooled prevalence estimates for autism in preterm samples was 20% when using screening tools and 6% when using diagnostic assessments. The odds of an autism diagnosis were 3.3 times higher in individuals born preterm than in the general population.

Conclusions: The pooled prevalence estimate of autism characteristics in individuals born preterm is considerably higher than in the general population. Findings highlight the clinical need to provide further monitoring and support for individuals born preterm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s11689-021-09382-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8454175PMC
September 2021

The prevalence and profile of autism in individuals born preterm: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Neurodev Disord 2021 Sep 21;13(1):41. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

School of Psychology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK.

Introduction: Preterm birth (<37 weeks) adversely affects development in behavioural, cognitive and mental health domains. Heightened rates of autism are identified in preterm populations, indicating that prematurity may confer an increased likelihood of adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. The present meta-analysis aims to synthesise existing literature and calculate pooled prevalence estimates for rates of autism characteristics in preterm populations.

Methods: Search terms were generated from inspection of relevant high-impact papers and a recent meta-analysis. Five databases were searched from database creation until December 2020 with PRISMA guidelines followed throughout.

Results: 10,900 papers were retrieved, with 52 papers included in the final analyses, further classified by assessment method (screening tools N=30, diagnostic assessment N=29). Pooled prevalence estimates for autism in preterm samples was 20% when using screening tools and 6% when using diagnostic assessments. The odds of an autism diagnosis were 3.3 times higher in individuals born preterm than in the general population.

Conclusions: The pooled prevalence estimate of autism characteristics in individuals born preterm is considerably higher than in the general population. Findings highlight the clinical need to provide further monitoring and support for individuals born preterm.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s11689-021-09382-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8454175PMC
September 2021

Exploiting Polyploidy for Markerless and Plasmid-Free Genome Engineering in Cyanobacteria.

ACS Synth Biol 2021 09 17;10(9):2371-2382. Epub 2021 Aug 17.

Chemical Engineering, School for Engineering Matter, Transport, and Energy, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287, United States.

Here we describe a universal approach for plasmid-free genome engineering in cyanobacteria that exploits the polyploidy of their chromosomes as a natural counterselection system. Rather than being delivered replicating plasmids, genes encoding for DNA modifying enzymes are instead integrated into essential genes on the chromosome by allelic exchange, as facilitated by antibiotic selection, a process that occurs readily and with only minor fitness defects. By virtue of the essentiality of these integration sites, full segregation is never achieved, with the strain instead remaining as a merodiploid so long as antibiotic selection is maintained. As a result, once the desired genome modification is complete, removal of antibiotic selection results in the gene encoding for the DNA modifying enzyme to then be promptly eliminated from the population. Proof of concept of this new and generalizable strategy is provided using two different site-specific recombination systems, CRE-lox and DRE-rox, in the fast-growing cyanobacterium sp. PCC 7002, as well as CRE-lox in the model cyanobacterium sp. PCC 6803. Reusability of the method, meanwhile, is demonstrated by constructing a high-CO requiring and markerless Δ Δ Δ Δ mutant of sp. PCC 7002. Overall, this method enables the simple and efficient construction of stable and unmarked mutants in cyanobacteria without the need to develop additional shuttle vectors nor counterselection systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acssynbio.1c00269DOI Listing
September 2021

Nutrient capture in an Iowa farm pond: Insights from high-frequency observations.

J Environ Manage 2021 Sep 6;299:113647. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Grinnell College Department of Chemistry, USA. Electronic address:

Shallow constructed ponds are abundant landscape features in the midwestern United States, suggested as an edge of field best management practice (BMP) in voluntary nutrient reduction strategies. The efficacy of such features is highly uncertain, however, and previous studies have lacked sufficient temporal resolution to determine N and P removals during critical periods of transport. We utilized high-frequency in-situ measurements and flow-weighted grab sampling to determine water and nutrient budgets for a typical constructed "farm pond" in central Iowa situated within the Iowa Southern Drift Plain. Our monitoring approach yielded insight into in-stream nitrogen processing and the relative importance of transport-vs. supply-limited N delivery. Diel patterns in NO-N observed during early Spring, prior to canopy closure, revealed that in-stream primary production and NO-N assimilation can influence downstream N delivery in a stream with nitrate pollution (mean annual NO-N of nearly 5 mg/L). Analysis of discharge-concentration hysteresis for NO-N showed a shift from transport to supply limitation for NO-N delivery over the growing season, influenced by antecedent moisture, with wet antecedent conditions leading to supply limitation. Significant NO-N removal (64% of 19.8 kg/ha inputs) occurred within the 4.2 ha pond (230 ha watershed), but total N removal was much lower (36% removal of 22.3 kg/ha inputs). The lower total N removal highlights the importance of both particulate N and dissolved organic N and ammonia export to the N budgets of hypereutrophic small ponds. Total P removal in the pond was only 8% of 2.3 kg/ha inputs, likely due to internal loading of recent and legacy sedimentary P within the pond. High-flow events dominated N and P inputs, during which removal efficacy of the pond was significantly diminished. Poor process performance during critical moments may partially explain lower than expected water quality improvements post-BMP implementation. Accordingly, shifting hydroclimatic regimes (e.g., frequency of intense rainfall events) will impact the efficacy of small ponds and other edge of field BMPs for nutrient reduction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.113647DOI Listing
September 2021

Pentosan associated retinal pigmentary changes: FDA's perspective on an emerging postmarketing safety finding.

Int Urogynecol J 2021 Sep 10. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Division of Epidemiology, Office of Surveillance and Epidemiology, FDA, Silver Spring, MD, USA.

Introduction And Hypothesis: Recent publications describe pigmentary changes in the retina associated with the use of pentosan polysulfate sodium, the only FDA-approved oral agent for relief of bladder pain or discomfort associated with interstitial cystitis.

Methods: To evaluate this association, we reviewed data from the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System and published case reports and observational studies.

Results: The totality of clinical and epidemiology evidence does not resolve the question of causation between pentosan use and retinal pigmentary changes; however, several elements support a potential association.

Conclusion: Here, we provide our perspective on the available evidence the agency weighed when retinal pigmentary changes were added to pentosan labeling. It is important for urogynecologists prescribing pentosan to be aware of this potential association and be vigilant about assessing eye health in pentosan users.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00192-021-04970-0DOI Listing
September 2021

Postmarketing Cases of Enfortumab Vedotin-Associated Skin Reactions Reported as Stevens-Johnson Syndrome or Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis.

JAMA Dermatol 2021 Sep 8. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Division of Pharmacovigilance, Office of Surveillance and Epidemiology, US Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamadermatol.2021.3450DOI Listing
September 2021

A prospective examination of sex differences in posttraumatic autonomic functioning.

Neurobiol Stress 2021 Nov 21;15:100384. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

Department of Psychology, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, 19121, USA.

Background: Cross-sectional studies have found that individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) exhibit deficits in autonomic functioning. While PTSD rates are twice as high in women compared to men, sex differences in autonomic functioning are relatively unknown among trauma-exposed populations. The current study used a prospective design to examine sex differences in posttraumatic autonomic functioning.

Methods: 192 participants were recruited from emergency departments following trauma exposure ( age = 35.88, 68.2% female). Skin conductance was measured in the emergency department; fear conditioning was completed two weeks later and included measures of blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and high frequency heart rate variability (HF-HRV). PTSD symptoms were assessed 8 weeks after trauma.

Results: 2-week systolic BP was significantly higher in men, while 2-week HR was significantly higher in women, and a sex by PTSD interaction suggested that women who developed PTSD demonstrated the highest HR levels. Two-week HF-HRV was significantly lower in women, and a sex by PTSD interaction suggested that women with PTSD demonstrated the lowest HF-HRV levels. Skin conductance response in the emergency department was associated with 2-week HR and HF-HRV only among women who developed PTSD.

Conclusions: Our results indicate that there are notable sex differences in autonomic functioning among trauma-exposed individuals. Differences in sympathetic biomarkers (BP and HR) may have implications for cardiovascular disease risk given that sympathetic arousal is a mechanism implicated in this risk among PTSD populations. Future research examining differential pathways between PTSD and cardiovascular risk among men versus women is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ynstr.2021.100384DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8397921PMC
November 2021

Discovery of 4-aminopyrimidine analogs as highly potent dual P70S6K/Akt inhibitors.

Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2021 Sep 2;50:128352. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

EMD Serono Research and Development Institute, Inc., 45A Middlesex Turnpike, Billerica, MA 01821, USA.

Activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR kinase pathway is associated with human cancers. A dual p70S6K/Akt inhibitor is sufficient to inhibit strong tumor growth and to block negative impact of the compensatory Akt feedback loop activation. A scaffold docking strategy based on an existing quinazoline carboxamide series identified 4-aminopyrimidine analog 6, which showed a single-digit nanomolar and a micromolar potencies in p70S6K and Akt enzymatic assays. SAR optimization improved Akt enzymatic and p70S6K cellular potencies, reduced hERG liability, and ultimately discovered the promising candidate 37, which exhibited with a single digit nanomolar value in both p70S6K and Akt biochemical assays, and hERG activities (IC = 17.4 μM). This agent demonstrated dose-dependent efficacy in inhibiting mice breast cancer tumor growth and covered more than 90% pS6 inhibition up to 24 h at a dose of 200 mg/kg po.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2021.128352DOI Listing
September 2021

Adding short-term androgen deprivation therapy to RT in men with localized prostate cancer: long-term update of the NRG/RTOG 9408 randomized clinical trial.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2021 Sep 1. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Massachusetts General Hospital Cancer Center, 55 Fruit St, Boston, MA 02114.

Purpose: For men with localized prostate cancer, xxxx demonstrated that adding short-term Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) to radiotherapy (RT) improved the primary endpoint of overall-survival (OS) and also improved disease-specific-mortality (DSM), biochemical-failure (BF), local-progression (LP) and freedom from distant-metastases (DM). This study was performed to determine whether the short-term ADT continued to improve OS, DSM, BF, and freedom from DM with longer follow-up.

Methods And Materials: From 1994-2001, xxxx randomized 2028 men from 212 North American institutions with T1b-T2b, N0 prostate adenocarcinoma and PSA≤20ng/mL to RT-alone or RT plus short-term ADT. Patients were stratified by PSA, tumor-grade, and surgical versus clinical nodal staging. ADT was flutamide with either goserelin or leuprolide for 4 months. Prostate RT (66.6 Gy) was started after two months. OS was calculated at the date of death from any cause or at last follow-up. Secondary endpoints were DSM, BF, LP and DM. Acute and late toxic effects were assessed using **** toxicity scales.

Results: Median follow-up in surviving patients was 14.8 years (0.16-21.98). 10-year and 18-year OS was 56% and 23% with RT-alone versus 63% and 23% with combined-therapy (HR 0.94, 95%CI: 0.85-1.05, p=0.94). The hazards were not proportional (p=0.003). Estimated restricted-mean-survival-time at 18 years was 11.8 years (95%CI: 11.4-12.1) with combined-therapy versus 11.3 years with RT-alone (95%CI: 10.9-11.6, p=0.05). 10-year and 18-year DSM was 7% and 14% with RT-alone versus 3% and 8% with combined-therapy (HR=0.56, 95%CI: 0.41-0.75, p<0.01). DM and BF favored combined-therapy at 18 years. Rates of late grade ≥3 hepatic, gastrointestinal and genitourinary toxicity were ≤1%, 3%, 8% with combined-therapy versus ≤1%, 2%, 5% with RT-alone.

Conclusions: Further follow-up demonstrates that OS converges at approximately 15 years, by which point the administration of 4 months of ADT had conferred an estimated additional 6 months of life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2021.08.031DOI Listing
September 2021

Development and Validation of a Model to Predict Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Major Depression After a Motor Vehicle Collision.

JAMA Psychiatry 2021 Sep 1. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Florida College of Medicine, Jacksonville.

Importance: A substantial proportion of the 40 million people in the US who present to emergency departments (EDs) each year after traumatic events develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or major depressive episode (MDE). Accurately identifying patients at high risk in the ED would facilitate the targeting of preventive interventions.

Objectives: To develop and validate a prediction tool based on ED reports after a motor vehicle collision to predict PTSD or MDE 3 months later.

Design, Setting, And Participants: The Advancing Understanding of Recovery After Trauma (AURORA) study is a longitudinal study that examined adverse posttraumatic neuropsychiatric sequalae among patients who presented to 28 US urban EDs in the immediate aftermath of a traumatic experience. Enrollment began on September 25, 2017. The 1003 patients considered in this diagnostic/prognostic report completed 3-month assessments by January 31, 2020. Each patient received a baseline ED assessment along with follow-up self-report surveys 2 weeks, 8 weeks, and 3 months later. An ensemble machine learning method was used to predict 3-month PTSD or MDE from baseline information. Data analysis was performed from November 1, 2020, to May 31, 2021.

Main Outcomes And Measures: The PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 was used to assess PTSD and the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Depression Short-Form 8b to assess MDE.

Results: A total of 1003 patients (median [interquartile range] age, 34.5 [24-43] years; 715 [weighted 67.9%] female; 100 [weighted 10.7%] Hispanic, 537 [weighted 52.7%] non-Hispanic Black, 324 [weighted 32.2%] non-Hispanic White, and 42 [weighted 4.4%] of non-Hispanic other race or ethnicity were included in this study. A total of 274 patients (weighted 26.6%) met criteria for 3-month PTSD or MDE. An ensemble machine learning model restricted to 30 predictors estimated in a training sample (patients from the Northeast or Midwest) had good prediction accuracy (mean [SE] area under the curve [AUC], 0.815 [0.031]) and calibration (mean [SE] integrated calibration index, 0.040 [0.002]; mean [SE] expected calibration error, 0.039 [0.002]) in an independent test sample (patients from the South). Patients in the top 30% of predicted risk accounted for 65% of all 3-month PTSD or MDE, with a mean (SE) positive predictive value of 58.2% (6.4%) among these patients at high risk. The model had good consistency across regions of the country in terms of both AUC (mean [SE], 0.789 [0.025] using the Northeast as the test sample and 0.809 [0.023] using the Midwest as the test sample) and calibration (mean [SE] integrated calibration index, 0.048 [0.003] using the Northeast as the test sample and 0.024 [0.001] using the Midwest as the test sample; mean [SE] expected calibration error, 0.034 [0.003] using the Northeast as the test sample and 0.025 [0.001] using the Midwest as the test sample). The most important predictors in terms of Shapley Additive Explanations values were symptoms of anxiety sensitivity and depressive disposition, psychological distress in the 30 days before motor vehicle collision, and peritraumatic psychosomatic symptoms.

Conclusions And Relevance: The results of this study suggest that a short set of questions feasible to administer in an ED can predict 3-month PTSD or MDE with good AUC, calibration, and geographic consistency. Patients at high risk can be identified in the ED for targeting if cost-effective preventive interventions are developed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2021.2427DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8411364PMC
September 2021

Introducing the Associate Editors: Rodney Priestley and Xin Xu.

JACS Au 2021 May 24;1(5):525-526. Epub 2021 May 24.

Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332, United States.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacsau.1c00185DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8395700PMC
May 2021

Introducing the Associate Editors: Sabine Flitsch and Nuno Maulide.

JACS Au 2021 Apr 26;1(4):369-370. Epub 2021 Apr 26.

Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332, United States.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacsau.1c00136DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8395677PMC
April 2021

Introducing the Associate Editors: Carole Duboc and Hyunjoo Lee.

JACS Au 2021 Mar 22;1(3):245-246. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332, United States.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacsau.1c00075DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8395641PMC
March 2021

FAQs about Submission to .

JACS Au 2021 Feb 22;1(2):117-118. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332, United States.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacsau.1c00042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8395629PMC
February 2021

Welcome to

JACS Au 2021 Jan 25;1(1):1-2. Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta, Georgia 30332, United States.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jacsau.1c00008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8395627PMC
January 2021

Shifting expectations: Lapses in spatial attention are driven by anticipatory attentional shifts.

Atten Percept Psychophys 2021 Oct 25;83(7):2822-2842. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Department of Psychology, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

Attention is dynamic, constantly shifting between different locations - sometimes imperfectly. How do goal-driven expectations impact dynamic spatial attention? A previous study (Dowd & Golomb, Psychological Science, 30(3), 343-361, 2019) explored object-feature binding when covert attention needed to be either maintained at a single location or shifted from one location to another. In addition to revealing feature-binding errors during dynamic shifts of attention, this study unexpectedly found that participants sometimes made correlated errors on trials when they did not have to shift attention, mistakenly reporting the features and location of an object at a different location. The authors posited that these errors represent "spatial lapses" attention, which are perhaps driven by the implicit sampling of other locations in anticipation of having to shift attention. To investigate whether these spatial lapses are indeed anticipatory, we conducted a series of four experiments. We first replicated in Psychological Science, 30(3), the original finding of spatial lapses, and then showed that these spatial lapses were not observed in contexts where participants are not expecting to have to shift attention. We then tested contexts where the direction of attentional shifts was spatially predictable, and found that participants lapse preferentially to more likely shift locations. Finally, we found that spatial lapses do not seem to be driven by explicit knowledge of likely shift locations. Combined, these results suggest that spatial lapses of attention are induced by the implicit anticipation of making an attentional shift, providing further insight into the interplay between implicit expectations, dynamic spatial attention, and visual perception.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/s13414-021-02354-6DOI Listing
October 2021

Irrigation and Debridement With Implant Retention: Does Chronicity of Symptoms Matter?

J Arthroplasty 2021 Aug 4. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Stavros Niarchos Complex Joint Reconstruction Center, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY.

Background: Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) remains a rare, yet devastating complication of total joint arthroplasty (TJA). Chronic infection is generally considered a contraindication to debridement, antibiotics, and implant retention (DAIR); however, outcomes stratified by chronicity have not been well documented.

Methods: A retrospective review of all DAIR cases performed at a single institution from 2008 to 2015 was performed. Chronicity of PJI was categorized as acute postoperative, chronic, or acute hematogenous. Failure after DAIR, defined as re-revision for infection recurrence with the same organism, was evaluated between the 3 chronicity groups at 90 days as well as at a minimum 2-year follow-up.

Results: Overall, 248 patients undergoing DAIR for total hip arthroplasty or total knee arthroplasty PJI were included. Categorization of PJI was acute (acute postoperative) in 59 cases (24%), chronic in 54 (22%), and acute hematogenous in 135 (54%). DAIR survivorship was 47% (range 0.3-10 years). Overall, there were 118 (47.6%) treatment failures after DAIR with a minimum of 2-year follow-up. There was no difference in failure rate between total hip or total knee arthroplasty patients (P = .07). Patients infected with Staphylococcus conferred a higher risk of failure for all DAIR procedures regardless of chronicity category.

Conclusion: Identification of microbial species prior to undertaking DAIR may be more clinically relevant than stratification according to chronicity category when considering treatment options.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.arth.2021.07.018DOI Listing
August 2021

Early Convalescent Plasma for High-Risk Outpatients with Covid-19.

N Engl J Med 2021 Aug 18. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

From the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (F.K.K., R.D.D., C.V.H., V.L.W.S., C.F.G., N.L.H., R.S., W.B.), Spectrum Health, Grand Rapids (J.C.R.), and Michigan State University, East Lansing (J.C.R.) - all in Michigan; the Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston (V.D.-M., S.D.Y., L.D.F., E.L.); Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA (K.S., J.M.H., S.J., J.Q.); Vitalant Research Institute, Scottsdale, AZ (L.J.D.); the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Bethesda, MD (N.E.K.); the University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh (A.K., J.F.M., D.J.T., C.W.C.); Harbor-UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles (K.Y.); Cooper University Hospital, Camden, NJ (C.W.J.); Oregon Health and Science University, Portland (B.K.); Health Partners Methodist Hospital, St. Louis Park, MN (A.B.); and the University of Chicago, Chicago (D.G.B.).

Background: Early administration of convalescent plasma obtained from blood donors who have recovered from coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) may prevent disease progression in acutely ill, high-risk patients with Covid-19.

Methods: In this randomized, multicenter, single-blind trial, we assigned patients who were being treated in an emergency department for Covid-19 symptoms to receive either one unit of convalescent plasma with a high titer of antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) or placebo. All the patients were either 50 years of age or older or had one or more risk factors for disease progression. In addition, all the patients presented to the emergency department within 7 days after symptom onset and were in stable condition for outpatient management. The primary outcome was disease progression within 15 days after randomization, which was a composite of hospital admission for any reason, seeking emergency or urgent care, or death without hospitalization. Secondary outcomes included the worst severity of illness on an 8-category ordinal scale, hospital-free days within 30 days after randomization, and death from any cause.

Results: A total of 511 patients were enrolled in the trial (257 in the convalescent-plasma group and 254 in the placebo group). The median age of the patients was 54 years; the median symptom duration was 4 days. In the donor plasma samples, the median titer of SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies was 1:641. Disease progression occurred in 77 patients (30.0%) in the convalescent-plasma group and in 81 patients (31.9%) in the placebo group (risk difference, 1.9 percentage points; 95% credible interval, -6.0 to 9.8; posterior probability of superiority of convalescent plasma, 0.68). Five patients in the plasma group and 1 patient in the placebo group died. Outcomes regarding worst illness severity and hospital-free days were similar in the two groups.

Conclusions: The administration of Covid-19 convalescent plasma to high-risk outpatients within 1 week after the onset of symptoms of Covid-19 did not prevent disease progression. (SIREN-C3PO ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04355767.).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2103784DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8385553PMC
August 2021

Passive citizen science: The role of social media in wildlife observations.

PLoS One 2021 18;16(8):e0255416. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

School of Computer Science and Informatics, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom.

Citizen science plays an important role in observing the natural environment. While conventional citizen science consists of organized campaigns to observe a particular phenomenon or species there are also many ad hoc observations of the environment in social media. These data constitute a valuable resource for 'passive citizen science'-the use of social media that are unconnected to any particular citizen science program, but represent an untapped dataset of ecological value. We explore the value of passive citizen science, by evaluating species distributions using the photo sharing site Flickr. The data are evaluated relative to those submitted to the National Biodiversity Network (NBN) Atlas, the largest collection of species distribution data in the UK. Our study focuses on the 1500 best represented species on NBN, and common invasive species within UK, and compares the spatial and temporal distribution with NBN data. We also introduce an innovative image verification technique that uses the Google Cloud Vision API in combination with species taxonomic data to determine the likelihood that a mention of a species on Flickr represents a given species. The spatial and temporal analyses for our case studies suggest that the Flickr dataset best reflects the NBN dataset when considering a purely spatial distribution with no time constraints. The best represented species on Flickr in comparison to NBN are diurnal garden birds as around 70% of the Flickr posts for them are valid observations relative to the NBN. Passive citizen science could offer a rich source of observation data for certain taxonomic groups, and/or as a repository for dedicated projects. Our novel method of validating Flickr records is suited to verifying more extensive collections, including less well-known species, and when used in combination with citizen science projects could offer a platform for accurate identification of species and their location.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0255416PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8372924PMC
August 2021

Traumatic splenic laceration with delayed rupture secondary to coughing in a patient with Von Willebrand disease.

Am J Emerg Med 2021 May 29. Epub 2021 May 29.

Emergency Medicine Residency Program, Good Samaritan Hospital Medical Center, West Islip, NY, United States of America.

We describe the case of a 54-year-old male with Von Willebrand Disease who presented to the Emergency Department (ED) with 2 weeks of worsening abdominal pain after falling on his left flank while boating. On his initial presentation, he was found to have a Grade II splenic injury that was managed non operatively by the trauma service. Four days later, he returned to the ED when he developed severe abdominal pain after coughing and was found to have active extravasation from the splenic parenchyma with hemoperitoneum on CT angiography and a grossly positive FAST exam. Intraoperatively, he was found to have a Grade V splenic injury and subsequently underwent splenectomy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajem.2021.05.064DOI Listing
May 2021

Stable and momentary psychosocial correlates of everyday smoking: An application of Temporal Self-Regulation Theory.

J Behav Med 2021 Aug 6. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Institute of Public Health and Nursing Research, University of Bremen, Grazer Str. 4, 28359, Bremen, Germany.

Smoking is one of the leading causes of non-communicable disease mortality and morbidity. Smoking behaviour is determined by both stable, person-level (e.g., motivation, nicotine dependence) and variable, situation-level factors (e.g., urges, cues). However, most theoretical approaches to understanding health behaviours so far have not integrated these two spheres of influence. Temporal Self-Regulation Theory (TST) integrates these person-level and situation-level factors, but has not yet been comprehensively applied to predicting smoking behaviour. We use Ecological Momentary Assessment to examine the utility of TST in predicting daily smoking. 46 smokers reported individual and environmental cues right after smoking and at random time points during the day. Cognitions, self-control, past behaviour, and nicotine dependence were assessed at baseline. Multi-level logistic regressions show that smoking is largely guided by momentary cues, but individual motivation can buffer their influence. This suggests that TST is a useful integrative approach to understand modifiable determinants of smoking and thus intervention targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10865-021-00248-4DOI Listing
August 2021

First Case Report of an Unusual Fungus ( Associated with a Pulmonary Infection in a Drug Injection User.

Clin Pathol 2021 Jan-Dec;14:2632010X211029970. Epub 2021 Jul 12.

Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA.

In contrast to a robust literature on known pathogenic fungi such as and species that cause pulmonary infections, reports of the uncommon genus causing infections are very limited. We present the first case report describing the fungus, as a likely cause of pneumonia in a patient with a history of polysubstance abuse and injection drug use (IDU). The patient recovered following antifungal treatment. The organism was recovered from a blood culture, 3 days post collection. Although CHROMagar was of little value, only yeast-like organisms were observed on cornmeal agar. The organism was not in the matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry database. Definitive identification was achieved using the ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequence analysis by targeting the (internal transcribed spacer 1) region. This case report is intended to promote awareness of this fungus as a potential pathogen, by providing new information that has not yet been reported in the literature, and prompts physician awareness to suspect a fungal infection when managing patients with a history of IDU as a potential source of unique environmental organisms not previously encountered, warranting more comprehensive diagnosis and treatment options.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2632010X211029970DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8280816PMC
July 2021

The correlation between social support and post-traumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents: A meta-analysis.

J Affect Disord 2021 Nov 16;294:543-557. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychological Therapies, Norwich Medical School, University of East Anglia, UK.

Background: Risk factors exploring the link between trauma and Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been extensively explored in adults, however, less is known about child and adolescent populations.

Methods: The current meta-analysis aimed to systematically evaluate and summarise the child focused literature to estimate the strength of the relationship between social support and PTSD symptoms following traumatic events.

Results: Fifty primary studies reporting an effect size for the relationship between total social support scale or a source of social support with PTSD were included. A small effect size was found for the relationship between social support and PTSD (r = -0.12, 95% CI -0.16 to -0.07, k = 41), with large heterogeneity (I = 90.3%). The effect sizes between peer support (r = -0.18, 95% CI -0.10 to -0.25, k = 12), family support (r = -0.16, 95% CI -0.09 to -0.24, k = 13) and teacher support (r = -0.20, 95% CI -0.15 to -0.24, k = 5) and PTSD were also small. Moderator analyses indicated that studies reporting on participants exposed to abuse (r = -0.25) and correlations based on univariate data (r = -0.14) had higher correlations and medium heterogeneity. The main effect size was robust to publication bias and study quality.

Limitations: The cross-sectional design of the studies limits the findings and future research using prospective and longitudinal design would help to explain the relationship between social support and PTSD further.

Conclusions: The current review suggests that social support may only play a small role in protecting against PTSD and future research may benefit from exploring the link between post-trauma cognitions and social support.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2021.07.028DOI Listing
November 2021

Developmental and reproductive safety of AZD1222 (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) in mice.

Reprod Toxicol 2021 09 26;104:134-142. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

AstraZeneca, Clinical Pharmacology & Safety Sciences, Melbourn Science Park, Melbourn, SG8 6HB, United Kingdom.

AZD1222 (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19) is a COVID-19 vaccine that is not yet licensed for use during pregnancy. To support the inclusion of pregnant and breastfeeding people in AZD1222 clinical studies, a non-clinical developmental and reproductive toxicity study was performed to evaluate its effects on fertility and reproductive processes of female CD-1 mice during the embryofetal development phase, and postnatal outcomes during the littering phase. Immunogenicity assessments were also made in dams, fetuses, and pups. There were no vaccine-related unscheduled deaths throughout the study. Furthermore, there were no vaccine-related effects on female reproduction, fetal or pup survival, fetal external, visceral, or skeletal findings, pup physical development, and no abnormal gross pathology findings in pups or dams. Antibody responses raised in dams were maintained throughout gestation and postnatal periods, and seroconversion in fetuses and pups indicate placental and lactational transfer of immunoglobulins. Together with clinical data from non-pregnant people, these results support the inclusion of pregnant and breastfeeding people in AZD1222 clinical studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.reprotox.2021.07.010DOI Listing
September 2021

Thalamic volume and fear extinction interact to predict acute posttraumatic stress severity.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 09 14;141:325-332. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Department of Emergency Medicine, Saint Joseph Mercy Hospital, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with lower gray matter volume (GMV) in brain regions critical for extinction of learned threat. However, relationships among volume, extinction learning, and PTSD symptom development remain unclear. We investigated subcortical brain volumes in regions supporting extinction learning and fear-potentiated startle (FPS) to understand brain-behavior interactions that may impact PTSD symptom development in recently traumatized individuals. Participants (N = 99) completed magnetic resonance imaging and threat conditioning two weeks following trauma exposure as part of a multisite observational study to understand the neuropsychiatric effects of trauma (AURORA Study). Participants completed self-assessments of PTSD (PTSD Checklist for DSM-5; PCL-5), dissociation, and depression symptoms two- and eight-weeks post-trauma. We completed multiple regressions to investigate relationships between FPS during late extinction, GMV, and PTSD symptom development. The interaction between thalamic GMV and FPS during late extinction at two weeks post-trauma predicted PCL-5 scores eight weeks (t (75) = 2.49, β = 0.28, p = 0.015) post-trauma. Higher FPS predicted higher PCL-5 scores in the setting of increased thalamic GMV. Meanwhile, lower FPS also predicted higher PCL-5 scores in the setting of decreased thalamic GMV. Thalamic GMV and FPS interactions also predicted posttraumatic dissociative and depressive symptoms. Amygdala and hippocampus GMV by FPS interactions were not associated with posttraumatic symptom development. Taken together, thalamic GMV and FPS during late extinction interact to contribute to adverse posttraumatic neuropsychiatric outcomes. Multimodal assessments soon after trauma have the potential to distinguish key phenotypes vulnerable to posttraumatic neuropsychiatric outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2021.07.023DOI Listing
September 2021

Safety, Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Formulation of Liver-Distributed Farnesoid X-Receptor Agonist TERN-101 in Healthy Volunteers.

Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev 2021 Jul 24. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Center for Liver Diseases, The University of Chicago Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

TERN-101 is a nonsteroidal farnesoid X-receptor agonist being developed for the treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). We assessed the safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), and pharmacodynamics (PD) of TERN-101 capsule and tablet formulations in healthy volunteers. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, 38 participants were enrolled and randomized to receive placebo or 25-, 75-, or 150-mg TERN-101 capsules orally once daily for 7 days. In a separate open-label PK and formulation-bridging study, 16 participants received single doses of TERN-101 tablets (5 and 25 mg) or capsules (25 mg). TERN-101 was overall well-tolerated in this healthy volunteer population; no pruritus was reported. TERN-101 capsule administration over 7 days resulted in decreases in serum 7α-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one that were sustained for 24 hours after the last dose (maximum suppression 91% from baseline), indicating target engagement in the liver. TERN-101 capsules exhibited less than dose-proportional PK. Relative to capsules, TERN-101 tablets showed increased bioavailability, with 24-hour plasma exposure of the 5-mg tablet similar to that of the 25-mg capsule. There was no significant effect of food on exposure. The overall safety, PK, and PD profiles of TERN-101 support its further evaluation for the treatment of NASH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cpdd.960DOI Listing
July 2021
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