Publications by authors named "Christopher J Rasmussen"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Dose-Response of Paraxanthine on Cognitive Function: A Double Blind, Placebo Controlled, Crossover Trial.

Nutrients 2021 Dec 15;13(12). Epub 2021 Dec 15.

Exercise & Sport Nutrition Lab, Human Clinical Research Facility, Department of Health & Kinesiology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA.

Paraxanthine (PXN) is a metabolite of caffeine that has recently been reported to enhance cognition at a dose of 200 mg.

Objective: To determine the acute and short-term (7-day) effects of varying doses of PXN on cognitive function and side effects.

Methods: In a double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover, and counterbalanced manner, 12 healthy male and female volunteers (22.7 ± 4 years, 165 ± 7 cm, 66.5 ± 11 kg, 24.4 ± 3 kg/m) ingested 200 mg of a placebo (PLA), 50 mg of PXN (ENFINITY™, Ingenious Ingredients, L.P.) + 150 mg PLA, 100 mg PXN + 100 mg PLA, or 200 mg of PXN. With each treatment experiment, participants completed side effect questionnaires and donated a fasting blood sample. Participants then performed a series of tests assessing cognition, executive function, memory, and reaction time. Participants then ingested one capsule of PLA or PXN treatments. Participants then completed side effects and cognitive function tests after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 h of treatment ingestion. Participants continued ingesting one dose of the assigned treatment daily for 6-days and returned to the lab on day 7 to donate a fasting blood sample, assess side effects, and perform cognitive function tests. Participants repeated the experiment while ingesting remaining treatments in a counterbalanced manner after at least a 7-day washout period until all treatments were assessed.

Results: The Sternberg Task Test (STT) 4-Letter Length Present Reaction Time tended to differ among groups ( = 0.06). Assessment of mean changes from baseline with 95% CI's revealed several significant differences among treatments in Berg-Wisconsin Card Sorting Correct Responses, Preservative Errors (PEBL), and Preservative Errors (PAR Rules). There was also evidence of significant differences among treatments in the Go/No-Go Task tests in Mean Accuracy as well as several time points of increasing complexity among STT variables. Finally, there was evidence from Psychomotor Vigilance Task Test assessment that response time improved over the series of 20 trials assessed as well as during the 6-h experiment in the PXN treatment. Acute and short-term benefits compared to PLA were seen with each dose studied but more consistent effects appeared to be at 100 mg and 200 mg doses. No significant differences were observed among treatments in clinical chemistry panels or the frequency or severity of reported side effects. Results provide evidence that acute ingestion of 100 mg and 200 mg of PXN may affect some measures of cognition, memory, reasoning, and response time as well as help sustain attention. Additionally, that acute and daily ingestion of PXN for 7 days is not associated with any clinically significant side effects.

Conclusions: PXN may serve as an effective nootropic agent at doses as low as 50 mg.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13124478DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8708375PMC
December 2021

Acute Paraxanthine Ingestion Improves Cognition and Short-Term Memory and Helps Sustain Attention in a Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Crossover Trial.

Nutrients 2021 Nov 9;13(11). Epub 2021 Nov 9.

Human Clinical Research Facility, Exercise & Sport Nutrition Lab, Department of Health & Kinesiology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA.

This study examined the effects of acute paraxanthine (PXN) ingestion on markers of cognition, executive function, and psychomotor vigilance. In a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled, crossover, and counterbalanced manner, 13 healthy male and female participants were randomly assigned to consume a placebo (PLA) or 200 mg of PXN (ENFINITY™, Ingenious Ingredients, L.P.). Participants completed stimulant sensitivity and side effect questionnaires and then performed the Berg Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (BCST), the Go/No-Go test (GNG), the Sternberg task test (STT), and the psychomotor vigilance task test (PVTT). Participants then ingested one capsule of PLA or PXN treatment. Participants completed side effect and cognitive function tests after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 h after ingestion of the supplement. After 7 days, participants repeated the experiment while consuming the alternative treatment. Data were analyzed by general linear model (GLM) univariate analyses with repeated measures using body mass as a covariate, and by assessing mean and percent changes from baseline with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) expressed as means (LL, UL). PXN decreased BCST errors (PXN -4.7 [-0.2, -9.20], = 0.04; PXN -17.5% [-36.1, 1.0], = 0.06) and perseverative errors (PXN -2.2 [-4.2, -0.2], = 0.03; PXN -32.8% [-64.4, 1.2], = 0.04) at hour 6. GNG analysis revealed some evidence that PXN ingestion better maintained mean accuracy over time and Condition R Round 2 response time (e.g., PXN -25.1 [-52.2, 1.9] ms, = 0.07 faster than PLA at 1 h), suggesting better sustained attention. PXN ingestion improved STT two-letter length absent and present reaction times over time as well as improving six-letter length absent reaction time after 2 h (PXN -86.5 ms [-165, -7.2], = 0.03; PXN -9.0% [-18.1, 0.2], = 0.05), suggesting that PXN enhanced the ability to store and retrieve random information of increasing complexity from short-term memory. A moderate treatment x time effect size (η = 0.08) was observed in PVTT, where PXN sustained vigilance during Trial 2 after 2 h (PXN 840 ms [103, 1576], = 0.03) and 4 h (PXN 1466 ms [579, 2353], = 0.002) compared to PL. As testing progressed, the response time improved during the 20 trials and over the course of the 6 h experiment in the PXN treatment, whereas it significantly increased in the PL group. The results suggest that acute PXN ingestion (200 mg) may affect some measures of short-term memory, reasoning, and response time to cognitive challenges and help sustain attention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13113980DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8622427PMC
November 2021

Effects of Inositol-Enhanced Bonded Arginine Silicate Ingestion on Cognitive and Executive Function in Gamers.

Nutrients 2021 Oct 24;13(11). Epub 2021 Oct 24.

Exercise & Sport Nutrition Laboratory, Human Clinical Research Facility, Department of Health & Kinesiology, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA.

Inositol stabilized arginine silicate (ASI) ingestion has been reported to increase nitric oxide levels while inositol (I) has been reported to enhance neurotransmission. The current study examined whether acute ASI + I (Inositol-enhanced bonded arginine silicate) ingestion affects cognitive function in e-sport gamers. In a double blind, randomized, placebo controlled, and crossover trial, 26 healthy male (n = 18) and female (n = 8) experienced gamers (23 ± 5 years, 171 ± 11 cm, 71.1 ± 14 kg, 20.7 ± 3.5 kg/m) were randomly assigned to consume 1600 mg of ASI + I (nooLVL, Nutrition 21) or 1600 mg of a maltodextrin placebo (PLA). Prior to testing, participants recorded their diet, refrained from consuming atypical amounts of stimulants and foods high in arginine and nitrates, and fasted for 8 h. During testing sessions, participants completed stimulant sensitivity questionnaires and performed cognitive function tests (i.e., Berg-Wisconsin Card Sorting task test, Go/No-Go test, Sternberg Task Test, Psychomotor Vigilance Task Test, Cambridge Brain Sciences Reasoning and Concentration test) and a light reaction test. Participants then ingested treatments in a randomized manner. Fifteen minutes following ingestion, participants repeated tests (Pre-Game). Participants then played their favorite video game for 1-h and repeated the battery of tests (Post-Game). Participants observed a 7-14-day washout period and then replicated the study with the alternative treatment. Data were analyzed by General Linear Model (GLM) univariate analyses with repeated measures using weight as a covariate, paired -tests (not adjusted to weight), and mean changes from baseline with 95% Confidence Intervals (CI). Pairwise comparison revealed that there was a significant improvement in Sternberg Mean Present Reaction Time (ASI + I vs. PLA; < 0.05). In Post-Game assessments, 4-letter Absent Reaction Time ( < 0.05), 6-letter Present Reaction Time ( < 0.01), 6-letter Absent Reaction Time ( < 0.01), Mean Present Reaction Time ( < 0.02), and Mean Absent Reaction Time ( < 0.03) were improved with ASI + I vs. PLA. There was a non-significant trend in Pre-Game Sternberg 4-letter Present Reaction time in ASI + I vs. PLA ( < 0.07). ASI + I ingestion better maintained changes in Go/No-Go Mean Accuracy and Reaction Time, Psychomotor Vigilance Task Reaction Time, and Cambridge Post-Game Visio-spatial Processing and Planning. Results provide evidence that ASI + I ingestion prior to playing video games may enhance some measures of short-term and working memory, reaction time, reasoning, and concentration in experienced gamers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13113758DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8618773PMC
October 2021

Differential Impact of Calcium and Vitamin D on Body Composition Changes in Post-Menopausal Women Following a Restricted Energy Diet and Exercise Program.

Nutrients 2020 Mar 7;12(3). Epub 2020 Mar 7.

Exercise & Sport Nutrition Lab, Human Clinical Research Facility, Department of Health and Kinesiology, Texas A & M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA.

Vitamin D and calcium supplementation have been posited to improve body composition and different formulations of calcium may impact bioavailability. However, data are lacking regarding the combinatorial effects of exercise, diet, and calcium and/or vitamin D supplementation on body composition changes in post-menopausal women. Herein, 128 post-menopausal women (51.3 ± 4.5 years, 36.4 ± 5.7 kg/m, 46.2 ± 4.5% fat) were assigned to diet and supplement groups while participating in a supervised circuit-style resistance-training program (3 d/week) over a 14-week period. Diet groups included: (1) normal diet (CTL), (2) a low-calorie, higher protein diet (LCHP; 1600 kcal/day, 15% carbohydrates, 55% protein, 30% fat), and (3) a low-calorie, higher carbohydrate diet (LCHC; 1600 kcal/day, 55% carbohydrates, 15% protein, 30% fat). Supplement groups consisted of: (1) maltodextrin (PLA), (2) 800 mg/day of calcium carbonate (Ca), and (3) 800 mg/day of calcium citrate and malate and 400 IU/day of vitamin D (Ca+D). Fasting blood samples, body composition, resting energy expenditure, aerobic capacity, muscular strength and endurance measures were assessed. Data were analyzed by mixed factorial ANOVA with repeated measures and presented as mean change from baseline [95% CI]. Exercise training promoted significant improvements in strength, peak aerobic capacity, and blood lipids. Dieting resulted in greater losses of body mass (CTL -0.4 ± 2.4; LCHC -5.1 ± 4.2; LCHP -3.8 ± 4.2 kg) and fat mass (CTL -1.4 ± 1.8; LCHC -3.7 ± 3.7; LCHP -3.4 ± 3.4 kg). When compared to LCHC-PLA, the LCHC + Ca combination led to greater losses in body mass (PLA -4.1 [-6.1, -2.1], Ca -6.4 [-8.1, -4.7], Ca+D -4.4 [-6.4, -2.5] kg). In comparison to LCHC-Ca, the LCHC-Ca+D led to an improved maintenance of fat-free mass (PLA -0.3 [-1.4, 0.7], Ca -1.4 [-2.3, -0.5], Ca+D 0.4 [-0.6, 1.5] kg) and a greater loss of body fat (PLA -2.3 [-3.4, -1.1], Ca -1.3 [-2.3, -0.3], Ca+D -3.6 [-4.8, -2.5]%). Alternatively, no significant differences in weight loss or body composition resulted when adding Ca or Ca+D to the LCHP regimen in comparison to when PLA was added to the LCHP diet. When combined with an energy-restricted, higher carbohydrate diet, adding 800 mg of Ca carbonate stimulated greater body mass loss compared to when a PLA was added. Alternatively, adding Ca+D to the LCHC diet promoted greater% fat changes and attenuation of fat-free mass loss. Our results expand upon current literature regarding the impact of calcium supplementation with dieting and regular exercise. This data highlights that different forms of calcium in combination with an energy restricted, higher carbohydrate diet may trigger changes in body mass or body composition while no impact of calcium supplementation was observed when participants followed an energy restricted, higher protein diet.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu12030713DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7146554PMC
March 2020

Mechanisms of chain adsorption on porous substrates and critical conditions of polymer chromatography.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2016 Nov 15;481:181-93. Epub 2016 Jul 15.

Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 98 Brett Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA. Electronic address:

Polymer adsorption is a ubiquitous phenomenon with numerous technological and healthcare applications. The mechanisms of polymer adsorption on surfaces and in pores are complex owing to a competition between various entropic and enthalpic factors. Due to adsorption of monomers to the surface, the chain gains in enthalpy yet loses in entropy because of confining effects. This competition leads to the existence of critical conditions of adsorption when enthalpy gain and entropy loss are in balance. The critical conditions are controlled by the confining geometry and effective adsorption energy, which depends on the solvent composition and temperature. This phenomenon has important implications in polymer chromatography, since the retention at the critical point of adsorption (CPA) is chain length independent. However, the mechanisms of polymer adsorption in pores are poorly understood and there is an ongoing discussion in the theoretical literature about the very existence of CPA for polymer adsorption on porous substrates. In this work, we examine the mechanisms of chain adsorption on a model porous substrate using Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. We distinguish three adsorption mechanisms depending on the chain location: on external surface, completely confined in pores, and also partially confined in pores in so-called "flower" conformations. The free energies of different conformations of adsorbed chains are calculated by the incremental gauge cell MC method that allows one to determine the partition coefficient as a function of the adsorption potential, pore size, and chain length. We confirm the existence of the CPA for chain length independent separation on porous substrates, which is explained by the dominant contributions of the chain adsorption at the external surface, in particular in flower conformations. Moreover, we show that the critical conditions for porous and nonporous substrates are identical and depend only on the surface chemistry. The theoretical results are confirmed by comparison with experimental data on chromatographic separation of a series of linear polystyrenes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2016.07.019DOI Listing
November 2016

Critical conditions of polymer adsorption and chromatography on non-porous substrates.

J Colloid Interface Sci 2016 Jul 2;474:25-33. Epub 2016 Apr 2.

Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 98 Brett Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA. Electronic address:

We present a novel thermodynamic theory and Monte Carlo simulation model for adsorption of macromolecules to solid surfaces that is applied for calculating the chain partition during separation on chromatographic columns packed with non-porous particles. We show that similarly to polymer separation on porous substrates, it is possible to attain three chromatographic modes: size exclusion chromatography at very weak or no adsorption, liquid adsorption chromatography when adsorption effects prevail, and liquid chromatography at critical conditions that occurs at the critical point of adsorption. The main attention is paid to the analysis of the critical conditions, at which the retention is chain length independent. The theoretical results are verified with specially designed experiments on isocratic separation of linear polystyrenes on a column packed with non-porous particles at various solvent compositions. Without invoking any adjustable parameters related to the column and particle geometry, we describe quantitatively the observed transition between the size exclusion and adsorption separation regimes upon the variation of solvent composition, with the intermediate mode occurring at a well-defined critical point of adsorption. A relationship is established between the experimental solvent composition and the effective adsorption potential used in model simulations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcis.2016.04.002DOI Listing
July 2016

Relation between pore size and the compressibility of a confined fluid.

J Chem Phys 2015 Nov;143(19):194506

Center for Computational Materials Science, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375, USA.

When a fluid is confined to a nanopore, its thermodynamic properties differ from the properties of a bulk fluid, so measuring such properties of the confined fluid can provide information about the pore sizes. Here, we report a simple relation between the pore size and isothermal compressibility of argon confined in such pores. Compressibility is calculated from the fluctuations of the number of particles in the grand canonical ensemble using two different simulation techniques: conventional grand-canonical Monte Carlo and grand-canonical ensemble transition-matrix Monte Carlo. Our results provide a theoretical framework for extracting the information on the pore sizes of fluid-saturated samples by measuring the compressibility from ultrasonic experiments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4935430DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4697274PMC
November 2015

Translocation dynamics of freely jointed Lennard-Jones chains into adsorbing pores.

J Chem Phys 2012 Oct;137(14):144903

Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 98 Brett Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA.

Polymer translocation into adsorbing nanopores is studied by using the Fokker-Planck equation of chain diffusion along the energy landscape calculated with Monte Carlo simulations using the incremental gauge cell method. The free energy profile of a translocating chain was found by combining two independent sub-chains, one free but tethered to a hard wall, and the other tethered inside an adsorbing pore. Translocation dynamics were revealed by application of the Fokker-Planck equation for normal diffusion. Adsorption of polymer chains into nanopores involves a competition of attractive adsorption and repulsive steric hindrance contributions to the free energy. Translocation times fell into two regimes depending on the strength of the adsorbing pore. In addition, we found a non-monotonic dependence of translocation times with increasing adsorption strength, with sharp peak associated with local free energy minima along the translocation coordinate.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4754632DOI Listing
October 2012

Capillary condensation hysteresis in overlapping spherical pores: a Monte Carlo simulation study.

Langmuir 2012 Aug 6;28(33):12100-7. Epub 2012 Aug 6.

Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, United States.

The mechanisms of hysteretic phase transformations in fluids confined to porous bodies depend on the size and shape of pores, as well as their connectivity. We present a Monte Carlo simulation study of capillary condensation and evaporation cycles in the course of Lennard-Jones fluid adsorption in the system of overlapping spherical pores. This model system mimics pore shape and connectivity in some mesoporous materials obtained by templating cubic surfactant mesophases or colloidal crystals. We show different mechanisms of capillary hysteresis depending on the size of the window between the pores. For the system with a small window, the hysteresis cycle is similar to that in a single spherical pore: capillary condensation takes place upon achieving the limit of stability of adsorption film and evaporation is triggered by cavitation. When the window is large enough, the capillary condensation shifts to a pressure higher than that of the isolated pore, and the possibility for the equilibrium mechanism of desorption is revealed. These finding may have important implications for practical problems of assessment of the pore size distributions in mesoporous materials with cagelike pore networks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/la302318jDOI Listing
August 2012

Monte Carlo simulation of cavitation in pores with nonwetting defects.

Langmuir 2012 Mar 27;28(10):4702-11. Epub 2012 Feb 27.

Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, United States.

We investigate the onset of cavitation in a metastable fluid confined to nanoscale pores with nonwetting defects present. Using grand canonical and gauge cell mesocanonical Monte Carlo simulations, we study the degree of metastability (relative vapor pressure), at which the critical bubble forms in a spherical pore with a circular nonwetting defect. It is shown that an increase of the defect size leads to a transition from homogeneous to heterogeneous nucleation of critical bubbles formed at the defect site. In this case, the desorption process may be initiated at larger relative vapor pressures than those predicted by the theories of homogeneous cavitation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/la300078kDOI Listing
March 2012

Calculation of chemical potentials of chain molecules by the incremental gauge cell method.

J Chem Phys 2011 Dec;135(21):214109

Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 98 Brett Road, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854-8054, USA.

The gauge cell Monte Carlo method is extended to calculations of the incremental chemical potentials and free energies of linear chain molecules. The method was applied to chains of Lennard-Jones beads with stiff harmonic bonds up to 500 monomers in length. We show that the suggested method quantitatively reproduces the modified Widom particle insertion method of Kumar et al. [S. K. Kumar, I. Szleifer, and A. Z. Panagiotopoulos, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66(22), 2935 (1991)], and is by an order of magnitude more efficient for long chains in terms of the computational time required for the same accuracy of chemical potential calculations. The chain increment ansatz, which suggests that the incremental chemical potential is independent of the chain length, was tested at different temperatures. We confirmed that the ansatz holds only for coils above the θ temperature. Special attention is paid to the effects of the magnitude of adsorption potential and temperature on the behavior of single chains in confinements that are comparable in size with the free chain radius of gyration. At sufficiently low temperatures, the dependence of the incremental chemical potential on the chain length in wetting pores is superficially similar to a capillary condensation isotherm, reflecting monolayer formation following by pore volume filling, as the chain length increases. We find that the incremental gauge cell method is an accurate and efficient technique for calculations of the free energies of chain molecules in bulk systems and nanoconfinements alike. The suggested method may find practical applications, such as modeling polymer partitioning on porous substrates and dynamics of chain translocation into nanopores.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3657438DOI Listing
December 2011

Changes in weight loss, body composition and cardiovascular disease risk after altering macronutrient distributions during a regular exercise program in obese women.

Nutr J 2010 Nov 22;9:59. Epub 2010 Nov 22.

Applied Biochemistry and Molecular Physiology Laboratory, Health and Exercise Science Department, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019-6081, USA.

Background: This study's purpose investigated the impact of different macronutrient distributions and varying caloric intakes along with regular exercise for metabolic and physiological changes related to weight loss.

Methods: One hundred forty-one sedentary, obese women (38.7 ± 8.0 yrs, 163.3 ± 6.9 cm, 93.2 ± 16.5 kg, 35.0 ± 6.2 kg•m(-2), 44.8 ± 4.2% fat) were randomized to either no diet + no exercise control group (CON) a no diet + exercise control (ND), or one of four diet + exercise groups (high-energy diet [HED], very low carbohydrate, high protein diet [VLCHP], low carbohydrate, moderate protein diet [LCMP] and high carbohydrate, low protein [HCLP]) in addition to beginning a 3x•week(-1) supervised resistance training program. After 0, 1, 10 and 14 weeks, all participants completed testing sessions which included anthropometric, body composition, energy expenditure, fasting blood samples, aerobic and muscular fitness assessments. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA with an alpha of 0.05 with LSD post-hoc analysis when appropriate.

Results: All dieting groups exhibited adequate compliance to their prescribed diet regimen as energy and macronutrient amounts and distributions were close to prescribed amounts. Those groups that followed a diet and exercise program reported significantly greater anthropometric (waist circumference and body mass) and body composition via DXA (fat mass and % fat) changes. Caloric restriction initially reduced energy expenditure, but successfully returned to baseline values after 10 weeks of dieting and exercising. Significant fitness improvements (aerobic capacity and maximal strength) occurred in all exercising groups. No significant changes occurred in lipid panel constituents, but serum insulin and HOMA-IR values decreased in the VLCHP group. Significant reductions in serum leptin occurred in all caloric restriction + exercise groups after 14 weeks, which were unchanged in other non-diet/non-exercise groups.

Conclusions: Overall and over the entire test period, all diet groups which restricted their caloric intake and exercised experienced similar responses to each other. Regular exercise and modest caloric restriction successfully promoted anthropometric and body composition improvements along with various markers of muscular fitness. Significant increases in relative energy expenditure and reductions in circulating leptin were found in response to all exercise and diet groups. Macronutrient distribution may impact circulating levels of insulin and overall ability to improve strength levels in obese women who follow regular exercise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2891-9-59DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3000832PMC
November 2010

Cavitation in metastable liquid nitrogen confined to nanoscale pores.

Langmuir 2010 Jun;26(12):10147-57

Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA.

We studied cavitation in metastable fluids drawing on the example of liquid nitrogen confined to spheroidal pores of specially prepared well-characterized mesoporous silica materials with mean pore diameters ranging from approximately 6 to approximately 35 nm. Cavitation was monitored in the process of evaporation/desorption from fully saturated samples with gradually decreasing vapor pressure at the isothermal conditions. The onset of cavitation was displayed by a sharp step on the desorption isotherm. We found that the vapor pressure at the onset of cavitation depended on the pore size for the samples with pores smaller than approximately 11 nm and remained practically unchanged for the samples with larger pores. We suggest that the observed independence of the cavitation pressure on the size of confinement indicates that the conditions of bubble nucleation in pores larger than approximately 11 nm approach the nucleation conditions in the bulk metastable liquid. To test this hypothesis and to evaluate the nucleation barriers, we performed grand canonical and gauge cell Monte Carlo simulations of nitrogen adsorption and desorption in spherical silica pores ranging from 5.5 to 10 nm in diameter. Simulated and experimental adsorption isotherms were in good agreement. Exploiting the correlation between the experimental cavitation pressure and the simulated nucleation barrier, we found that the nucleation barrier increased almost linearly from approximately 40 to approximately 70 k(B)T in the range of pores from approximately 6 to approximately 11 nm, and varied in diapason of 70-75 k(B)T in larger pores, up to 35 nm. We constructed the dependence of the nucleation barrier on the vapor pressure, which asymptotically approaches the predictions of the classical nucleation theory for the metastable bulk liquid at larger relative pressures (>0.6). Our findings suggest that there is a limit to the influence of the confinement on the onset of cavitation, and thus, cavitation of nanoconfined fluids may be employed to explore cavitation in macroscopic systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/la100268qDOI Listing
June 2010

Early-phase adaptations to a split-body, linear periodization resistance training program in college-aged and middle-aged men.

J Strength Cond Res 2009 May;23(3):962-71

Health and Exercise Science Department, Applied Biochemistry and Molecular Physiology Laboratory, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma, USA.

An 8-week, split-body, linear periodized resistance training program was completed by college-aged (CA: 18-22 years; n = 24) and middle-aged (MA: 35-50 years; n = 25) men to determine early-phase adaptations in body composition and upper- and lower-body strength. Participants completed 2 upper-body and 2 lower-body resistance training workouts each week. During weeks 1-4, subjects completed 3-6 sets at a 10-repetition maximum (RM) intensity and increased to 8RM for weeks 5-8. The 1RM strength levels were determined on the bench press and leg press, and 30-second Wingate tests were assessed at baseline and after 8 weeks of resistance training. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). For selected data, delta values (post - pre values) were calculated and reported as mean +/- SEM. No changes (p > 0.05) were reported for peak and average Wingate power. Bench press (CA, 3.2 +/- 1.9 kg; MA, 6.2 +/- 3.3 kg; p < 0.001) and leg press (CA, 25.0 +/- 4.4 kg; MA, 18.2 +/- 13.3 kg; p < 0.001) 1RM significantly increased in both groups over time. Lean mass significantly increased over time in both groups (CA, 0.9 +/- 2.4 kg; MA, 1.1 +/- 1.9 kg; p < 0.001). Significant group x time effects were seen for fat mass changes (CA, 0.5 +/- 1.3 kg; MA, -0.5 +/- 1.1 kg; p = 0.01) and % body fat changes (CA, 0.4 +/- 1.4%; MA, -0.7 +/- 1.1%; p = 0.01). These results indicate that performing a split-body, linearly periodized resistance training program for 8 weeks significantly increases bench press 1RM, leg press 1RM, and DXA lean mass in CA and MA men. Furthermore, MA men lost significantly more fat mass and significantly decreased % body fat compared with CA men. A split-body, linearly periodized resistance training program may be used as an effective program to increase strength and lean mass in both young and MA populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181a00bafDOI Listing
May 2009

Effects of Zinc Magnesium Aspartate (ZMA) Supplementation on Training Adaptations and Markers of Anabolism and Catabolism.

J Int Soc Sports Nutr 2004 Dec 31;1(2):12-20. Epub 2004 Dec 31.

Exercise & Sport Nutrition Lab, Baylor University, Waco, TX.

This study examined whether supplementing the diet with a commercial supplement containing zinc magnesium aspartate (ZMA) during training affects zinc and magnesium status, anabolic and catabolic hormone profiles, and/or training adaptations. Forty-two resistance trained males (27 +/- 9 yrs; 178 +/- 8 cm, 85 +/- 15 kg, 18.6 +/- 6% body fat) were matched according to fat free mass and randomly assigned to ingest in a double blind manner either a dextrose placebo (P) or ZMA 30-60 minutes prior to going to sleep during 8-weeks of standardized resistance-training. Subjects completed testing sessions at 0, 4, and 8 weeks that included body composition assessment as determined by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, 1-RM and muscular endurance tests on the bench and leg press, a Wingate anaerobic power test, and blood analysis to assess anabolic/catabolic status as well as markers of health. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. Results indicated that ZMA supplementation non-significantly increased serum zinc levels by 11 - 17% (p = 0.12). However, no significant differences were observed between groups in anabolic or catabolic hormone status, body composition, 1-RM bench press and leg press, upper or lower body muscular endurance, or cycling anaerobic capacity. Results indicate that ZMA supplementation during training does not appear to enhance training adaptations in resistance trained populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1550-2783-1-2-12DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2129161PMC
December 2004

The effects of protein and amino acid supplementation on performance and training adaptations during ten weeks of resistance training.

J Strength Cond Res 2006 Aug;20(3):643-53

Center for Exercise, Nutrition and Preventive Health Research, Department of Health, Human Performance and Recreation, Baylor University, Waco, TX 76798, USA.

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of whey protein supplementation on body composition, muscular strength, muscular endurance, and anaerobic capacity during 10 weeks of resistance training. Thirty-six resistance-trained males (31.0 +/- 8.0 years, 179.1 +/- 8.0 cm, 84.0 +/- 12.9 kg, 17.8 +/- 6.6%) followed a 4 days-per-week split body part resistance training program for 10 weeks. Three groups of supplements were randomly assigned, prior to the beginning of the exercise program, in a double-blind manner to all subjects: 48 g per day (g.d(-1)) carbohydrate placebo (P), 40 g.d(-1) of whey protein + 8 g.d(-1) of casein (WC), or 40 g.d(-1) of whey protein + 3 g.d(-1) branched-chain amino acids + 5 g.d(-1) L-glutamine (WBG). At 0, 5, and 10 weeks, subjects were tested for fasting blood samples, body mass, body composition using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench and leg press, 80% 1RM maximal repetitions to fatigue for bench press and leg press, and 30-second Wingate anaerobic capacity tests. No changes (p > 0.05) were noted in all groups for energy intake, training volume, blood parameters, and anaerobic capacity. WC experienced the greatest increases in DEXA lean mass (P = 0.0 +/- 0.9; WC = 1.9 +/- 0.6; WBG = -0.1 +/- 0.3 kg, p < 0.05) and DEXA fat-free mass (P = 0.1 +/- 1.0; WC = 1.8 +/- 0.6; WBG = -0.1 +/- 0.2 kg, p < 0.05). Significant increases in 1RM bench press and leg press were observed in all groups after 10 weeks. In this study, the combination of whey and casein protein promoted the greatest increases in fat-free mass after 10 weeks of heavy resistance training. Athletes, coaches, and nutritionists can use these findings to increase fat-free mass and to improve body composition during resistance training.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/R-17695.1DOI Listing
August 2006

Low vs. high glycemic index carbohydrate gel ingestion during simulated 64-km cycling time trial performance.

J Strength Cond Res 2004 Aug;18(3):466-72

The Cooper Institute Center for Human Performance and Nutrition Research, Dallas, Texas 75230, USA.

We examined the effect of low and high glycemic index (GI) carbohydrate (CHO) feedings during a simulated 64-km cycling time trial (TT) in nine subjects ([mean +/- SEM], age = 30 +/- 1 years; weight = 77.0 +/- 2.6 kg). Each rider completed three randomized, double blind, counter-balanced, crossover rides, where riders ingested 15 g of low GI (honey; GI = 35) and high GI (dextrose; GI = 100) CHO every 16 km. Our results showed no differences between groups for the time to complete the entire TT (honey = 128 minutes, 42 seconds +/- 3.6 minutes; dextrose = 128 minutes, 18 seconds +/- 3.8 minutes; placebo = 131 minutes, 18 seconds +/- 3.9 minutes). However, an analysis of total time alone may not portray an accurate picture of TT performance under CHO-supplemented conditions. For example, when the CHO data were collapsed, the CHO condition (128 minutes, 30 seconds) proved faster than placebo condition (131 minutes, 18 seconds; p < 0.02). Furthermore, examining the percent differences and 95% confidence intervals (CI) shows the two CHO conditions to be generally faster, as the majority of the CI lies in the positive range: placebo vs. dextrose (2.36% [95% CI; -0.69, 4.64]) and honey (1.98% [95% CI; -0.30, 5.02]). Dextrose vs. honey was 0.39% (95% CI; -3.39, 4.15). Within treatment analysis also showed that subjects generated more watts (W) over the last 16 km vs. preceding segments for dextrose (p < 0.002) and honey (p < 0.0004) treatments. When the final 16-km W was expressed as a percentage of pretest maximal W, the dextrose treatment was greater than placebo (p < 0.05). A strong trend was noted for the honey condition (p < 0.06), despite no differences in heart rate (HR) or rate of perceived exertion (RPE). Our results show a trend for improvement in time and wattage over the last 16 km of a 64-km simulated TT regardless of glycemic index.
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August 2004

Long-term creatine supplementation does not significantly affect clinical markers of health in athletes.

Mol Cell Biochem 2003 Feb;244(1-2):95-104

Exercise and Sport Nutrition Laboratory, Department of Human Movement Sciences and Education, The University of Memphis, Memphis, TN, USA.

Creatine has been reported to be an effective ergogenic aid for athletes. However, concerns have been raised regarding the long-term safety of creatine supplementation. This study examined the effects of long-term creatine supplementation on a 69-item panel of serum, whole blood, and urinary markers of clinical health status in athletes. Over a 21-month period, 98 Division IA college football players were administered in an open label manner creatine or non-creatine containing supplements following training sessions. Subjects who ingested creatine were administered 15.75 g/day of creatine monohydrate for 5 days and an average of 5 g/day thereafter in 5-10 g/day doses. Fasting blood and 24-h urine samples were collected at 0, 1, 1.5, 4, 6, 10, 12, 17, and 21 months of training. A comprehensive quantitative clinical chemistry panel was determined on serum and whole blood samples (metabolic markers, muscle and liver enzymes, electrolytes, lipid profiles, hematological markers, and lymphocytes). In addition, urine samples were quantitatively and qualitative analyzed to assess clinical status and renal function. At the end of the study, subjects were categorized into groups that did not take creatine (n = 44) and subjects who took creatine for 0-6 months (mean 4.4 +/- 1.8 months, n = 12), 7-12 months (mean 9.3 +/- 2.0 months, n = 25), and 12-21 months (mean 19.3 +/- 2.4 months, n = 17). Baseline and the subjects' final blood and urine samples were analyzed by MANOVA and 2 x 2 repeated measures ANOVA univariate tests. MANOVA revealed no significant differences (p = 0.51) among groups in the 54-item panel of quantitative blood and urine markers assessed. Univariate analysis revealed no clinically significant interactions among groups in markers of clinical status. In addition, no apparent differences were observed among groups in the 15-item panel of qualitative urine markers. Results indicate that long-term creatine supplementation (up to 21-months) does not appear to adversely effect markers of health status in athletes undergoing intense training in comparison to athletes who do not take creatine.
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February 2003
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