Publications by authors named "Christopher Hopley"

8 Publications

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Evaluation of a Common Internal Standard Material to Reduce Inter-Laboratory Variation and Ensure the Quality, Safety and Efficacy of Expanded Newborn Screening Results When Using Flow Injection Analysis Tandem Mass Spectrometry with Internal Calibration.

Int J Neonatal Screen 2020 Nov 19;6(4). Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Department of Medical Biochemistry, Immunology & Toxicology, University Hospital Wales, Cardiff CF14 4XW, UK.

In 2015, the newborn screening (NBS) programmes in England and Wales were expanded to include four additional disorders: Classical Homocystinuria, Isovaleric Acidemia, Glutaric Aciduria Type 1 and Maple Syrup Urine Disease, bringing the total number of analytes quantified to eight: phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, methionine, isovalerylcarnitine, glutarylcarnitine, octanoylcarnitine and decanoylcarnitine. Post-implementation, population data monitoring showed that inter-laboratory variation was greater than expected, with 90th centiles varying from 17 to 59%. We evaluated the effect of stable isotope internal standard (IS) used for quantitation on inter-laboratory variation. Four laboratories analysed routine screening samples ( > 101,820) using a common IS. Inter-laboratory variation was determined for the eight analytes and compared with results obtained using an in-house common IS ( > 102,194). A linear mixed-effects model was fitted to the data. Using a common IS mix reduced the inter-laboratory variation significantly ( < 0.05) for five analytes. For three analytes, the lack of significance was explained by use of individual laboratory "calibration factors". For screening programmes where laboratories adhere to single analyte cut-off values (COVs), it is important that inter-laboratory variation is minimised, primarily to prevent false positive results. Whilst the use of a common IS helps achieve this, it is evident that instrument set-up also contributes to inter-laboratory variation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijns6040092DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7712741PMC
November 2020

Systematic study of the selenium fractionation in human plasma from a cancer prevention trial using HPLC hyphenated to ICP-MS and ESI-MS/MS.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2021 Jan 2;413(2):331-344. Epub 2020 Nov 2.

LGC Limited, Queens Road, Teddington, Middlesex, TW11 0LY, UK.

This work represents the first systematic speciation study of selenium (Se) in plasma from subjects participating in a pilot study for a cancer prevention trial (PRECISE). This involved supplementation of elderly British and Danish individuals with selenised yeast for 6 months and 5 years, respectively, at 100, 200, and 300 μg Se/day or placebo. Speciation data was obtained for male plasma using HPLC-ICP-MS and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. With the proposed strategy, approximately 1.5 mL of plasma was needed to determine total Se concentration and the fractionation of Se in high molecular weight (HMW) and low molecular weight (LMW) pools, and for quantification and identification of small Se species. For the first time, Se-methyl-selenocysteine (MSC) and methyl-2-acetamido-2deoxy1-seleno-β-D-galactopyranoside (Selenosugar-1) were structurally confirmed in plasma after supplementation with selenised yeast within the studied range. Determination of selenomethionine (SeMet) incorporated non-specifically into albumin (SeALB) was achieved by HPLC-ICP-MS after hydrolysis. By subtracting this SeMet concentration from the total Se in the HMW pool, the concentration of Se incorporated into selenoproteins was calculated. Results from the speciation analysis of the free Se metabolite fraction (5% of total plasma Se) suggest a significant increase in the percentage of Se (as SeMet plus Selenosugar-1) of up to 80% of the total Se in the LMW fraction after 6 months of supplementation. The Se distribution in the HMW fraction reflects a significant increase in SeALB with Se depletion from selenoproteins, which occurs most significantly at doses of over 100 μg Se/day after 5 years. The results of this work will inform future trial design. Graphical abstract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-020-02988-9DOI Listing
January 2021

Results of the first and second British Mass Spectrometry Society interlaboratory studies on ambient mass spectrometry.

Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2021 Apr 18;35 Suppl 2:e8534. Epub 2019 Sep 18.

National Measurement Laboratory, LGC, Queens Road, Teddington, TW11 0LY, UK.

Rationale: As the popularity of ambient ionisation grows, so too does the importance of understanding its capabilities and limitations. The British Mass Spectrometry Society Special Interest Group on Ambient Ionisation has carried out two studies into the use of ambient ionisation, the results of which are presented here.

Methods: The first study (study 1) examined the detection and quantitation capabilities of ambient ionisation while the second examined repeatability and robustness. For study 1 participants were sent a range of samples including two calibration sample sets and asked to analyse them. For study 2, two samples containing the same eight-component mixture were provided (one in solvent, one in matrix); participants were asked to analyse these samples multiple times, over multiple days to allow assessment of repeatability.

Results: Study 1 showed that small, polar compounds were well detected by the participants while lower polarity compounds were less well detected. For many samples the introduction method appeared to be a significant factor in the observed spectra. The quantitation study gave good results but revealed significant variability. For study 2 the mean repeatabilities were 65% in solvent and 88% in matrix. The inclusion of an internal standard was shown to greatly improve repeatability.

Conclusions: Ambient ionisation is capable of ionising a wide range of compounds with good precision and excellent repeatability; however, in order to obtain such data care must be taken with the experimental design. The data can be significantly improved with a well-chosen internal standard.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rcm.8534DOI Listing
April 2021

Almond or Mahaleb? Orthogonal Allergen Analysis During a Live Incident Investigation by ELISA, Molecular Biology, and Protein Mass Spectrometry.

J AOAC Int 2018 Jan 5;101(1):162-169. Epub 2017 Dec 5.

Laboratory of the Government Chemist, Queens Rd, Teddington TW11 0LY, United Kingdom.

It is now well known that an incident investigated in the United Kingdom in 2015 of cumin alleged to be contaminated with almond, a risk for people with almond allergy, was caused by the Prunus species, Prunus mahaleb. In the United Kingdom, the Government Chemist offers a route of technical appeal from official findings in the food control system. Findings of almond in two official samples, cumin and paprika, which had prompted action to exclude the consignments from the food chain, were so referred. Herein are described the approaches deployed to resolve the analytical issues during the investigation of the incidents. The cross-reactivity of ELISA to Prunus species was confirmed, and although this is useful in screening for the genus, orthogonal techniques are required to identify the species and confirm its presence. Two novel PCR assays were developed: one specific for P. mahaleb and the other a screening method capable of identifying common Prunus DNA. Peptides unique to almond and mahaleb were identified, permitting LC-tandem MS and criteria were developed for peptide identification to forensic standards. This work enables a staged approach to be taken to any future incident thought to involve Prunus species and provides a template for the investigation of similar incidents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5740/jaoacint.17-0405DOI Listing
January 2018

Resolution of a disputed albendazole result in the UK Official Control System - time for more guidance?

Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess 2017 Apr 19;34(4):489-493. Epub 2016 Oct 19.

d London Port Health Authority, Stanford-Le-Hope , Essex , UK.

Albendazole, one of the benzimidazole anthelmintics, is used in ruminants and has maximum residue limits in muscle, fat and other tissue owing to reported teratogenicity. Albendazole is extensively metabolised in domestic animals and humans with rapid conversion to a sulphoxide and subsequently sulphone and amino sulphone metabolites. Sulphoxide metabolites are responsible for the systemic biological activity of benzimidazole drugs. Herein we report a case of disputed results for albendazole in a consignment sampled at import in which the Official Analyst certified against the consignment for excess albendazole. A laboratory acting for the importer reported data below the MRL, including a finding of the parent drug which is not included in the residue definition. The Government Chemist has a statutory duty as a route of technical appeal in the UK Official Food Control system and the case was referred for referee analysis. We report our findings based on a LC-MS/MS method, which confirmed the official findings, did not reveal the presence of the parent drug but identified hot spots of albendazole marker residues in the consignment. We discuss the need for recommendations on official sampling at import and interpretation of results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19440049.2016.1243807DOI Listing
April 2017

Extractive atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation.

Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2011 Sep;25(17):2570-2

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rcm.5141DOI Listing
September 2011

Capabilities of HPLC with APEX-Q nebulisation ICP-MS and ESI MS/MS to compare selenium uptake and speciation of non-malignant with different B cell lymphoma lines.

Anal Bioanal Chem 2011 Feb 8;399(5):1789-97. Epub 2010 Dec 8.

LGC Limited, Queens Road, Teddington, Middlesex TW11 OLY, UK.

The formation of intracellular dimethylselenide (DMSe) as a product of exposure of non-malignant (PBMCs) and lymphoma (RL and DHL-4) cell lines to methylseleninic acid (MSA) at clinical levels is suggested here for the first time. This was achieved by analysis of cell lysates by HPLC coupled to ICP-MS via APEX-Q nebulisation, enabling limits of detection for target methyl-Se species which are up to 12-fold lower than those obtained with conventional nebulisation. Methyl-Se-glutathione (CH₃Se-SG), although detected in lysates of cells exposed to MSA, was found to be a reaction product of MSA with glutathione. This was confirmed by HPLC-ESI MS (MS) analysis of lysates of control cells (unexposed to Se) spiked with MSA. The MS/MS data obtained by collision-induced dissociation fragmentation of the ion m/z 402 (for [M+H](+) ⁸⁰Se) were consistent with the presence of CH₃Se-SG. Formation of DMSe was not detected by HPLC-ICP-MS in these spiked lysates, and it was found to require live cells in cell media containing MSA. Interestingly, the ratio of DMSe to CH₃Se-SG was significantly higher in lymphoma cells exposed to MSA in comparison to non-malignant cells. Moreover, maximum Se uptake levels in lymphoma cell lines seemed to be reached much earlier (after 10 min of MSA exposure) than in non-malignant cells. Finally, the GC-TOF-MS speciation data obtained for cell headspace suggested that the major Se species (dimethyldiselenide) appeared to be present in lymphoma cell headspace at significantly higher concentrations than in non-malignant cell headspace after only 10 min of exposure to MSA. Evidence for the presence of dimethylselenidesulfide in lymphoma cell headspace is also provided for the first time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00216-010-4474-1DOI Listing
February 2011

Capabilities of mixed-mode liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the simultaneous speciation analysis of inorganic and organically-bound selenium.

J Chromatogr A 2009 Oct 24;1216(42):7001-6. Epub 2009 Aug 24.

LGC Ltd., Queens Road, Teddington, Middlesex, TW11 0LY, United Kingdom.

This work investigates for the first time the potential of mixed-mode (anion-exchange with reversed-phase) high performance liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for the simultaneous retention and selective separation of a range of inorganic and organically-bound selenium (Se) species. Baseline separation and detection of selenocystine (SeCys(2)), Se-methyl-selenocysteine (SeMC), selenomethionine (SeMet), methylseleninic acid (MSA), selenite, gamma-glutamyl-methyl-selenocysteine (gamma-glutamyl-SeMC), and selenate in a Se standard mixture by mixed-mode HPLC-ICP-MS was achieved by switching between two citrate mobile phases of different pH and ionic strength within a single chromatographic run of 20 min. Limits of detection obtained for these Se species ranged from 80 ng kg(-1) (for SeMC) to 123 ng kg(-1) (for selenate). Using this approach as developed for selenium speciation, an adequate separation of inorganic and organic As compounds was also achieved. These include arsenite, arsenate, arsenobetaine (AsB) and dimethylarsenic acid (DMA), which may coexist with Se species in biological samples. Application of the newly proposed methodology to the investigation of the elemental species distribution in watercress (used as the model sample) after enzymatic hydrolysis or leaching in water by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) was addressed. Only SeMet, SeMC and selenate could be tentatively identified in watercress extracts by mixed-mode HPLC-ICP-MS and retention time matching with standards. Recoveries (n=3) of these Se species from samples spiked with standards averaged 102% (for SeMC), 94.9% (for SeMet) and 98.3% (for selenate). Verification of the presence of SeMet and SeMC in an enzymatic watercress extract was achieved by on-line HPLC-ESI MS/MS in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chroma.2009.08.047DOI Listing
October 2009
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