Publications by authors named "Christopher Henry Fry"

7 Publications

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Comparison of characteristics and outcomes of patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 during wave 1 and wave 2 of the current pandemic.

Intern Emerg Med 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Department of Endocrinology, Ashford and St Peter's Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Guildford Road, Chertsey, Surrey, KT16 0PZ, UK.

In this study of patients admitted with COVID-19, we examined differences between the two waves in patient characteristics and outcomes. Data were collected from the first COVID-19 admission to the end of study (01/03/2020-31/03/2021). Data were adjusted for age and sex and presented as odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Among 12,471 admissions, 1452 (11.6%) patients were diagnosed with COVID-19. On admission, the mean (± SD) age of patients with other causes was 68.3 years (± 19.8) and those with COVID-19 in wave 1 was 69.4 years (± 18.0) and wave 2 was 66.2 years (± 18.4). Corresponding ages at discharge were 67.5 years (± 19.7), 63.9 years (± 18.0) and 62.4 years (± 18.0). The highest proportion of total admissions was among the oldest group (≥ 80 years) in wave 1 (35.0%). When compared with patients admitted with other causes, those admitted with COVID-19 in wave 1 and in wave 2 were more frequent in the 40-59 year band: 20.8, 24.6 and 30.0%; consisted of more male patients: 47.5, 57.6 and 58.8%; and a high LACE (Length of stay, Acuity of admission, Comorbidity and Emergency department visits) index (score ≥ 10): 39.4, 61.3 and 50.3%. Compared to wave-2 patients, those admitted in wave 1 had greater risk of death in hospital: OR = 1.58 (1.18-2.12) and within 30 days of discharge: OR = 2.91 (1.40-6.04). Survivors of COVID-19 in wave 1 stayed longer in hospital (median = 6.5 days; interquartile range = 2.9-12.0) as compared to survivors from wave 2 (4.5 days; interquartile range = 1.9-8.7). Patient characteristics differed significantly between the two waves of COVID-19 pandemic. There was an improvement in outcomes in wave 2, including shorter length of stay in hospital and reduction of mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11739-021-02842-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8505475PMC
October 2021

Antenatal biological models in the characterization and research of congenital lower urinary tract disorders.

J Pediatr Urol 2021 02 16;17(1):21-29. Epub 2020 Nov 16.

University of Bristol, Senate House, Tyndall Ave, Bristol BS8 1TH, UK. Electronic address:

Congenital lower urinary tract disorders are a family of diseases affecting both urinary storage and voiding as well as upstream kidney function. Current treatments include surgical reconstruction but many children still fail to achieve urethral continence or progress to chronic kidney disease. New therapies can only be achieved through undertaking research studies to enhance our understanding of congenital lower urinary tract disorders. Animal models form a critical component of this research, a corner of the triangle composed of human in-vitro studies and clinical research. We describe the current animal models for two rare congenital bladder disorders, posterior urethral valves (PUV) and bladder exstrophy (BE). We highlight important areas for researchers to consider when deciding which animal model to use to address particular research questions and outline the strengths and weaknesses of current models available for PUV and BE. Finally, we present ideas for refining animal models for PUV and BE in the future to stimulate future researchers and help them formulate their thinking when working in this field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpurol.2020.11.022DOI Listing
February 2021

Early emergency readmission frequency as an indicator of short-, medium- and long-term mortality post-discharge from hospital.

Intern Emerg Med 2021 09 26;16(6):1497-1505. Epub 2020 Dec 26.

Department of Endocrinology, Ashford and St Peter's Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Guildford Road, Chertsey, Surrey, KT16 0PZ, UK.

Frequent emergency readmissions, an indicator of quality of care, has been rising in England but the underlying reasons remain unclear. We examined the association of early readmissions with subsequent mortality in adults, taking into account the underlying presenting diagnoses and hospital length of stay (LOS). Data of alive-discharge episodes were prospectively collected between 01/04/2017 and 31/03/2019 in an National Health Service hospital, comprising 32,270 patients (46.1% men) aged 18-107 years (mean = 64.0, ± SD = 20.5 years). The associations of readmission frequency within 28 days of discharge and mortality within 30 days and 6 months of hospital discharge, and over a 2-year period were evaluated, adjusted for presenting diagnoses, LOS, age and sex during the first admission. Analysis of all patients 18-107 years (reference: no readmission) showed mortality within 30 days was increased for 1 readmission: event rate = 9.2%, odds ratio (OR) = 3.4 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.9-4.0), and ≥ 2 readmissions: event rate = 10.0%, OR = 2.6 (95%CI = 2.0-3.3), and within 6 months for 1 readmission: event rate = 19.6%, OR = 3.0 (95%CI = 2.7-3.4), and ≥ 2 readmissions: event rate = 27.4%, OR = 3.4 (95%CI = 2.9-4.0), and over a 2-year period for 1 readmission: event rate = 25.5%, hazard ratio = 2.2 (95%CI = 2.0-2.4), and ≥ 2 readmissions: event rate = 36.1%, hazard ratio = 2.5 (95%CI = 2.2-2.8). Within the age groups 18-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79 and ≥ 80 years, readmissions were also associated with increased risk of mortality within 3 months and 6 months of discharge, and over 2-year period. In conclusion, early hospital readmission predicts short-, medium- and long-term mortality post-discharge from hospital in adults aged 18-107 years, independent of underlying presenting conditions, LOS, age and sex. Further research focussing on safe discharge and follow-up patient care may help reduce preventable readmissions and post-discharge mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11739-020-02599-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8354916PMC
September 2021

Clinical outcomes in patients admitted to hospital with cervical spine fractures or with hip fractures.

Intern Emerg Med 2021 Aug 26;16(5):1207-1213. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Institute of Cardiovascular Research, Royal Holloway, University of London, Egham, TW20 0EX, Surrey, UK.

Patients admitted with a cervical fracture are twice as likely to die within 30 days of injury than those with a hip fracture. However, guidelines for the management of cervical fractures are less available than for hip fractures. We hypothesise that outcomes may differ between these types of fractures. We analysed 1359 patients (406 men, 953 women) with mean age of 83.8 years (standard deviation = 8.7) admitted to a National Health Service hospital in 2013-2019 with a cervical (7.5%) or hip fracture (92.5%) of similar age. The association of cervical fracture (hip fracture as reference), hospital length of stay (LOS), co-morbidities, age and sex with outcomes (acute delirium, new pressure ulcer, and discharge to residential/nursing care) was assessed by stepwise multivariate logistic regression. Acute delirium without history of dementia was increased with cervical fractures: odds ratio (OR) = 2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.3-4.7, age ≥ 80 years: OR = 3.5 (95% CI = 1.9-6.4), history of stroke: OR = 1.8 (95% CI = 1.0-3.1) and ischaemic heart disease: OR = 1.9 (95% CI = 1.1-3.6); pressure ulcers was increased with cervical fractures: OR = 10.9 (95% CI = 5.3-22.7), LOS of 2-3 weeks: OR = 3.0 (95% CI = 1.2-7.5) and LOS of ≥ 3 weeks: OR = 4.9, 95% CI = 2.2-11.0; and discharge to residential/nursing care was increased with cervical fractures: OR = 3.2 (95% CI = 1.4-7.0), LOS of ≥ 3 weeks: OR = 4.4 (95% CI = 2.5-7.6), dementia: OR = 2.7 (95% CI = 1.6-4.7), Parkinson's disease: OR = 3.4 (95% CI = 1.3-8.8), and age ≥ 80 years: OR = 2.7 (95% CI = 1.3-5.6). In conclusion, compared with hip fracture, cervical fracture is more likely to associate with acute delirium and pressure ulcers, and for discharge to residency of high level of care, independent of established risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11739-020-02567-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8310478PMC
August 2021

Derivation of age-adjusted LACE index thresholds in the prediction of mortality and frequent hospital readmissions in adults.

Intern Emerg Med 2020 10 28;15(7):1319-1325. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Department of Endocrinology, Ashford and St Peter's NHS Foundation Trust, Guildford Road, Chertsey, Surrey, KT16 0PZ, UK.

The LACE index has been shown to predict hospital readmissions and death with variable accuracy. A LACE index ≥ 10 is considered as high risk in the existing literature. We aimed to derive age-specific LACE index thresholds in the prediction of mortality and frequent readmissions. Analysis of prospectively collected data of consecutive alive-discharge episodes between 01/04/2017 and 31/03/2019 to a single hospital was conducted. The derivation of LACE index thresholds for predicting all-cause mortality within 6 months of hospital discharge or frequent readmissions (≥ 2 times within 28 days) was examined by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) in 32270 patients (14878 men, 17392 women) aged 18-107 year (mean = 64.0 years, SD = 20.5). For all patients with a LACE index ≥ 10, the area under the curve (AUC) for predicting mortality was 80.5% (95% CI 79.7-81.3) and for frequent readmissions was 84.0% (83.0-85.1). Two-graph ROC plots showed that the LACE index threshold where sensitivity equates specificity was 9.5 (95% intermediate range = 5.6-13.5) for predicting mortality and 10.3 (95% intermediate range = 6.6-13.6) for frequent readmissions. These thresholds were lowest among youngest individuals and rose progressively with age for mortality prediction: 18-49 years = 5.0, 50-59 years = 6.5, 60-69 years = 8.0, 70-79 years = 9.8 and ≥ 80 years = 11.6, and similarly for frequent readmissions: 18-49 years = 5.1, 50-59 years = 7.5, 60-69 years = 9.1, 70-79 years = 10.6 and ≥ 80 years = 12.0. Positive and negative likelihood ratios (LRs) ranged 1.5-3.3 and 0.4-0.6 for predicting mortality, and 2.5-4.4 and 0.3-0.6 for frequent readmissions, respectively, with stronger evidence in younger than in older individuals (LRs further from unity). In conclusion, the LACE index predicts mortality and frequent readmissions at lower thresholds and stronger in younger than in older individuals. Age should be taken into account when using the LACE index for identifying patients at high risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11739-020-02448-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7511461PMC
October 2020

New targets for overactive bladder-ICI-RS 2109.

Neurourol Urodyn 2020 07 18;39 Suppl 3:S113-S121. Epub 2019 Nov 18.

Bristol Medical School, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK.

Aim: To review evidence for novel drug targets that can manage overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms.

Methods: A think tank considered evidence from the literature and their own research experience to propose new drug targets in the urinary bladder to characterize their use to treat OAB.

Results: Five classes of agents or cellular pathways were considered. (a) Cyclic nucleotide-dependent (cyclic adenosine monophosphate and cyclic guanosine monophosphate) pathways that modulate adenosine triphosphate release from motor nerves and urothelium. (b) Novel targets for β agonists, including the bladder wall vasculature and muscularis mucosa. (c) Several TRP channels (TRPV , TRPV , TRPA , and TRPM ) and their modulators in affecting detrusor overactivity. (d) Small conductance Ca -activated K channels and their influence on spontaneous contractions. (e) Antifibrosis agents that act to modulate directly or indirectly the TGF-β pathway-the canonical fibrosis pathway.

Conclusions: The specificity of action remains a consideration if particular classes of agents can be considered for future development as receptors or pathways that mediate actions of the above mentioned potential agents are distributed among most organ systems. The tasks are to determine more detail of the pathological changes that occur in the OAB and how the specificity of potential drugs may be directed to bladder pathological changes. An important conclusion was that the storage, not the voiding, phase in the micturition cycle should be investigated and potential targets lie in the whole range of tissue in the bladder wall and not just detrusor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nau.24228DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8114459PMC
July 2020

Anticoagulation therapy in patients with stroke and atrial fibrillation: a registry-based study of acute stroke care in Surrey, UK.

BMJ Open 2018 07 11;8(7):e022558. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

Institute of Cardiovascular Research, Royal Holloway, University of London, London, UK.

Introduction: Because of their high risk of stroke, anticoagulation therapy is recommended for most patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). The present study evaluated the use of anticoagulants in the community and in a hospital setting for patients with AF and its associations with stroke.

Methods: Patients admitted with stroke to four major hospitals in County of Surrey, England were surveyed in the 2014-2016 Sentinel Stroke National Audit Programme. Descriptive statistics was used to summarise subject characteristics and χ² test to assess differences between categorical variables.

Results: A total of 3309 patients, 1656 men (mean age: 73.1 years±SD 13.2) and 1653 women (79.3 years±13.0) were admitted with stroke (83.3% with ischaemic, 15.7% haemorrhagic stroke and 1% unspecified). AF occurred more frequently (χ=62.4; p<0.001) among patients admitted with recurrent (30.2%) rather than with first stroke (17.1%). There were 666 (20.1%) patients admitted with a history of AF, among whom 304 (45.3%) were anticoagulated, 279 (41.9%) were untreated and 85 (12.8%) deemed unsuitable for anticoagulation. Of the 453 patients with history of AF admitted with a first ischaemic stroke, 138 (37.2%) were on anticoagulation and 41 (49.6%) were not (χ = 6.3; p<0.043) and thrombolysis was given more frequently for those without prior anticoagulation treatment (16.1%) or unsuitable for anticoagulation (23.6%) compared with those already on anticoagulation treatment (8.3%; χ=10.0; p=0.007). Of 2643 patients without a previous history of AF, 171 (6.5%) were identified with AF during hospitalisation. Of patients with AF who presented with ischaemic stroke who were not anticoagulated or deemed unsuitable for anticoagulation prior to admission, 91.8% and 75.0%, respectively, were anticoagulated on discharge.

Conclusions: The study highlights an existing burden for patients with stroke and reflects inadequate treatment of AF which results in an increased stroke burden. There is significant scope to improve the rates of anticoagulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-022558DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6089275PMC
July 2018
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