Publications by authors named "Christophe Landry"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Discovery of pyrazolo-thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidinylamino-phenyl acetamides as type-II pan-tropomyosin receptor kinase (TRK) inhibitors: Design, synthesis, and biological evaluation.

Eur J Med Chem 2021 Apr 9;216:113265. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, AR, 72205, USA. Electronic address:

Tropomyosin receptor kinase (TRK) represents an attractive oncology target for cancer therapy related to its critical role in cancer formation and progression. NTRK fusions are found to occur in 3.3% of lung cancers, 2.2% of colorectal cancers, 16.7% of thyroid cancers, 2.5% of glioblastomas, and 7.1% of pediatric gliomas. In this paper, we described the discovery of the type-II pan-TRK inhibitor 4c through the structure-based drug design strategy from the original hits 1b and 2b. Compound 4c exhibited excellent in vitro TRKA, TRKB, and TRKC kinase inhibitory activity and anti-proliferative activity against human colorectal carcinoma derived cell line KM12. In the NCI-60 human cancer cell lines screen, compound 4g demonstrated nearly 80% of growth inhibition for KM12, while only minimal inhibitory activity was observed for the remaining 59 cancer cell lines. Western blot analysis demonstrated that 4c and its urea cousin 4k suppressed the TPM3-TRKA autophosphorylation at the concentrations of 100 nM and 10 nM, respectively. The work presented that 2-(4-(thieno[3,2-d]pyrimidin-4-ylamino)phenyl)acetamides could serve as a novel scaffold for the discovery and development of type-II pan-TRK inhibitors for the treatment of TRK driven cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2021.113265DOI Listing
April 2021

Chemoselective Hydrogenation of 6-Alkynyl-3-fluoro-2-pyridinaldoximes: Access to First-in-Class 6-Alkyl-3-Fluoro-2-pyridinaldoxime Scaffolds as New Reactivators of Sarin-Inhibited Human Acetylcholinesterase with Increased Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability.

Chemistry 2020 Nov 20;26(65):15035-15044. Epub 2020 Oct 20.

ICPEES UMR CNRS 7515, Institut de Chimie des Procédés, pour l'Energie, l'Environnement, et la Santé, 25 Rue Becquerel, 67087, Strasbourg, France.

Novel 6-alkyl- and 6-alkenyl-3-fluoro-2-pyridinaldoximes have been synthesised by using a mild and efficient chemoselective hydrogenation of 6-alkynyl-3-fluoro-2-pyridinaldoxime scaffolds, without altering the reducible, unprotected, sensitive oxime functionality and the C-F bond. These novel 6-alkyl-3-fluoro-2-pyridinaldoximes may find medicinal application as antidotes to organophosphate poisoning. Indeed, one low-molecular-weight compound exhibited increased affinity for sarin-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (hAChE) and greater reactivation efficiency or resurrection for sarin-inhibited hAChE, compared with those of 2-pyridinaldoxime (2-PAM) and 1-({[4-(aminocarbonyl)pyridinio]methoxy}methyl)-2-[(hydroxyimino)methyl]pyridinium chloride (HI-6), two pyridinium salts currently used as antidote by several countries. In addition, the uncharged 3-fluorinated bifunctional hybrid showed increased in vitro blood-brain barrier permeability compared with those of 2-PAM, HI-6 and obidoxime. These promising features of novel low-molecular-weight alkylfluoropyridinaldoxime open up a new era for the design, synthesis and discovery of central non-quaternary broad spectrum reactivators for organophosphate-inhibited cholinesterases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/chem.202002012DOI Listing
November 2020

Efficacy Assessment of an Uncharged Reactivator of NOP-Inhibited Acetylcholinesterase Based on Tetrahydroacridine Pyridine-Aldoxime Hybrid in Mouse Compared to Pralidoxime.

Biomolecules 2020 06 4;10(6). Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, F-91220 Brétigny-sur-Orge, France.

(1) Background: Human exposure to organophosphorus compounds employed as pesticides or as chemical warfare agents induces deleterious effects due to cholinesterase inhibition. One therapeutic approach is the reactivation of inhibited acetylcholinesterase by oximes. While currently available oximes are unable to reach the central nervous system to reactivate cholinesterases or to display a wide spectrum of action against the variety of organophosphorus compounds, we aim to identify new reactivators without such drawbacks. (2) Methods: This study gathers an exhaustive work to assess in vitro and in vivo efficacy, and toxicity of a hybrid tetrahydroacridine pyridinaldoxime reactivator, KM297, compared to pralidoxime. (3) Results: Blood-brain barrier crossing assay carried out on a human in vitro model established that KM297 has an endothelial permeability coefficient twice that of pralidoxime. It also presents higher cytotoxicity, particularly on bone marrow-derived cells. Its strong cholinesterase inhibition potency seems to be correlated to its low protective efficacy in mice exposed to paraoxon. Ventilatory monitoring of KM297-treated mice by double-chamber plethysmography shows toxic effects at the selected therapeutic dose. This breathing assessment could help define the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) dose of new oximes which would have a maximum therapeutic effect without any toxic side effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom10060858DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7355633PMC
June 2020

Sodium Transporters Are Involved in Lithium Influx in Brain Endothelial Cells.

Mol Pharm 2018 07 14;15(7):2528-2538. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

Inserm U1144 , Paris F-75006 , France.

Variability in drug response to lithium (Li) is poorly understood and significant, as only 40% of patients with bipolar disorder highly respond to Li. Li can be transported by sodium (Na) transporters in kidney tubules or red blood cells, but its transport has not been investigated at the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Inhibition and/or transcriptomic strategies for Na transporters such as NHE (SLC9), NBC (SLC4), and NKCC (SLC12) were used to assess their role on Li transport in human brain endothelial cells. Na-free buffer was also used to examine Na/Li countertransport (NLCT) activity. The BBB permeability of Li evaluated in the rat was 2% that of diazepam, a high passive diffusion lipophilic compound. Gene expression of several Na transporters was determined in hCMEC/D3 cells, human hematopoietic stem-cell-derived BBB models (HBLEC), and human primary brain microvascular endothelial cells (hPBMECs) and showed the following rank order with close expression profile: NHE1 > NKCC1 > NHE5 > NBCn1, while NHE2-4, NBCn2, and NBCe1-2 were barely detected. Li influx in hCMEC/D3 cells was increased in Na-free buffer by 3.3-fold, while depletion of chloride or bicarbonate had no effect. DMA (NHE inhibitor), DIDS (anionic carriers inhibitor), and bumetanide (NKCC inhibitor) decreased Li uptake significantly in hCMEC/D3 by 52, 51, and 47%, respectively, while S0859 (NBC inhibitor) increased Li influx 2.3-fold. Zoniporide (NHE1 inhibitor) and siRNA against NHE1 had no effect on Li influx in hCMEC/D3 cells. Our study shows that NHE1 and/or NHE5, NBCn1, and NKCC1 may play a significant role in the transport of Li through the plasma membrane of brain endothelial cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.molpharmaceut.8b00018DOI Listing
July 2018

Food-Derived Hemorphins Cross Intestinal and Blood-Brain Barriers .

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2018 10;9:159. Epub 2018 Apr 10.

Université de Lille INRA, ISA, Université d'Artois, Université Littoral Côte d'Opale, EA 7394-ICV Institut Charles Viollette, Lille, France.

A qualitative study is presented, where the main question was whether food-derived hemorphins, i.e., originating from digested alimentary hemoglobin, could pass the intestinal barrier and/or the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Once absorbed, hemorphins are opioid receptor (OR) ligands that may interact with peripheral and central OR and have effects on food intake and energy balance regulation. LLVV-YPWT (LLVV-H4), LVV-H4, VV-H4, VV-YPWTQRF (VV-H7), and VV-H7 hemorphins that were previously identified in the 120 min digest resulting from the simulated gastrointestinal digestion of hemoglobin have been synthesized to be tested in models of passage of IB and BBB. LC-MS/MS analyses yielded that all hemorphins, except the LLVV-H4 sequence, were able to cross intact the human intestinal epithelium model with Caco-2 cells within 5-60 min when applied at 5 mM. Moreover, all hemorphins crossed intact the human BBB model with brain-like endothelial cells (BLEC) within 30 min when applied at 100 µM. Fragments of these hemorphins were also detected, especially the YPWT common tetrapeptide that retains OR-binding capacity. A cAMP assay performed in Caco-2 cells indicates that tested hemorphins behave as OR agonists in these cells by reducing cAMP production. We further provide preliminary results regarding the effects of hemorphins on tight junction proteins, specifically here the claudin-4 that is involved in paracellular permeability. All hemorphins at 100 µM, except the LLVV-H4 peptide, significantly decreased claudin-4 mRNA levels in the Caco-2 intestinal model. This study is a first step toward demonstrating food-derived hemorphins bioavailability which is in line with the growing body of evidence supporting physiological functions for food-derived peptides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2018.00159DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5903475PMC
April 2018

Development and Pharmacological Characterization of Selective Blockers of 2-Arachidonoyl Glycerol Degradation with Efficacy in Rodent Models of Multiple Sclerosis and Pain.

J Med Chem 2016 03 7;59(6):2612-32. Epub 2016 Mar 7.

European Research Centre for Drug Discovery and Development (NatSynDrugs), University of Siena , via Aldo Moro 2, I-53100 Siena, Italy.

We report the discovery of compound 4a, a potent β-lactam-based monoacylglycerol lipase (MGL) inhibitor characterized by an irreversible and stereoselective mechanism of action, high membrane permeability, high brain penetration evaluated using a human in vitro blood-brain barrier model, high selectivity in binding and affinity-based proteomic profiling assays, and low in vitro toxicity. Mode-of-action studies demonstrate that 4a, by blocking MGL, increases 2-arachidonoylglycerol and behaves as a cannabinoid (CB1/CB2) receptor indirect agonist. Administration of 4a in mice suffering from experimental autoimmune encephalitis ameliorates the severity of the clinical symptoms in a CB1/CB2-dependent manner. Moreover, 4a produced analgesic effects in a rodent model of acute inflammatory pain, which was antagonized by CB1 and CB2 receptor antagonists/inverse agonists. 4a also relieves the neuropathic hypersensitivity induced by oxaliplatin. Given these evidence, 4a, as MGL selective inhibitor, could represent a valuable lead for the future development of therapeutic options for multiple sclerosis and chronic pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.jmedchem.5b01812DOI Listing
March 2016

Evaluation of drug-induced neurotoxicity based on metabolomics, proteomics and electrical activity measurements in complementary CNS in vitro models.

Toxicol In Vitro 2015 Dec 27;30(1 Pt A):138-65. Epub 2015 May 27.

European Commission Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, I-21027 Ispra, VA, Italy. Electronic address:

The present study was performed in an attempt to develop an in vitro integrated testing strategy (ITS) to evaluate drug-induced neurotoxicity. A number of endpoints were analyzed using two complementary brain cell culture models and an in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) model after single and repeated exposure treatments with selected drugs that covered the major biological, pharmacological and neuro-toxicological responses. Furthermore, four drugs (diazepam, cyclosporine A, chlorpromazine and amiodarone) were tested more in depth as representatives of different classes of neurotoxicants, inducing toxicity through different pathways of toxicity. The developed in vitro BBB model allowed detection of toxic effects at the level of BBB and evaluation of drug transport through the barrier for predicting free brain concentrations of the studied drugs. The measurement of neuronal electrical activity was found to be a sensitive tool to predict the neuroactivity and neurotoxicity of drugs after acute exposure. The histotypic 3D re-aggregating brain cell cultures, containing all brain cell types, were found to be well suited for OMICs analyses after both acute and long term treatment. The obtained data suggest that an in vitro ITS based on the information obtained from BBB studies and combined with metabolomics, proteomics and neuronal electrical activity measurements performed in stable in vitro neuronal cell culture systems, has high potential to improve current in vitro drug-induced neurotoxicity evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2015.05.016DOI Listing
December 2015

New strategy for alerting central nervous system toxicity: Integration of blood-brain barrier toxicity and permeability in neurotoxicity assessment.

Toxicol In Vitro 2009 Apr 24;23(3):447-53. Epub 2008 Dec 24.

Université Lille Nord de France, Laboratoire de Physiopathologie de la Barrière Hémato-encéphalique, EA 2465 - IMPRT 114, Faculté Jean Perrin, Rue Jean Souvraz, S.P. 18, F-62300 Lens, France.

The combination of an in vitro BBB model (4d/24w) with a neuronal cell line (SH-SY5Y) provides a convenient approach to explore the importance of BBB permeability in neurotoxicity assessment of compounds. The toxicity of 16 compounds on SH-SY5Y cells was evaluated after 24h incubation with each compound and compared to their toxicity on SH-SY5Y after passage through the BBB model. Nine out of 16 compounds were found toxic after direct exposure at 100muM while only three still induced toxicity on SH-SY5Y cells after BBB transport. The BBB permeability values of each compound revealed that in the case of compounds that did not induce toxicity, the amount that crossed the BBB was not enough to exert a toxic effect on the neuronal cells. Since disrupting the BBB may also cause unwanted effect on brain cells, the BBB toxicity of these compounds have been assessed. Our results prompted the importance of BBB permeability assessment in neurotoxicity evaluation, as it allows a better estimation of the actual concentration at the target site.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2008.12.011DOI Listing
April 2009

An in vitro blood-brain barrier model for high throughput (HTS) toxicological screening.

Toxicol In Vitro 2008 Apr 8;22(3):799-811. Epub 2008 Jan 8.

Laboratoire de Physiopathologie de la Barrière Hémato Encéphalique, Université d'Artois, EA 2465-IMPRT-IFR 114, Faculté Jean Perrin, Rue Jean Souvraz, SP 18 62307 Lens, France.

There is a growing interest to use in vitro BBB cell assays in early safety assessment of compounds. By modifying a well-validated co-culture model of brain capillary endothelial and glial cells, developed by Dehouck et al. [Dehouck, M.P., Meresse, S., Delorme, P., Fruchart, J.C., Cecchelli, R., 1990. An easier, reproducible, and mass-production method to study the blood-brain barrier in vitro. Journal of Neurochemistry 54 (5), 1798-1801], it has been possible to develop a new in vitro BBB system suitable for high throughput screening (HTS). In addition, this new procedure substantially reduces the use of experimental animals and considerably facilitates the process of obtaining a functional in vitro BBB model. The model is ready to use after only 4 days of culture and then shows the typical expression and localization of tight junction proteins. The function of the P-glycoprotein and the transcriptional expression of other efflux transporters such as MRP 1, 4 and 5 have been demonstrated. In addition, the model produces a good in vitro/in vivo correlation for 10 compounds (R2=0.81). Furthermore, studies were undertaken within the European ACuteTox consortium with the objective to assess BBB toxicity and make risk assessments of potentially toxic compounds according to their predicted ability to reach the CNS compartment. These investigations demonstrated that the results produced in the HTS BBB model were similar to the standard co-culture model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tiv.2007.12.016DOI Listing
April 2008

Mouse syngenic in vitro blood-brain barrier model: a new tool to examine inflammatory events in cerebral endothelium.

Lab Invest 2005 Jun;85(6):734-46

EA 2465, Unité mixte Université d'Artois, Institut Pasteur de Lille, Lens Cedex, France.

Although cerebral endothelium disturbance is commonly observed in central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory pathologies, neither the cause of this phenomenon nor the effective participation of blood-brain barrier (BBB) in such diseases are well established. Observations were mostly made in vivo using mouse models of chronic inflammation. This paper presents a new mouse in vitro model suitable for the study of underlying mechanistic events touching BBB functions during CNS inflammatory disturbances. This model consists of a coculture with both primary cell types isolated from mice. Mouse brain capillary endothelial cell (MBCEC)s coming from brain capillaries are in culture with their in vivo partners and form differentiated monolayers that retain endothelial markers and numerous phenotypic properties of in vivo cerebral endothelium, such as: (1) peripheral distribution of tight junction proteins (occludin, claudin-5, claudin-3 and JAM-1); (2) high trans-endothelium electrical resistance value; (3) attenuated paracellular flux of sucrose and inulin; (4) P-gp expression; (5) no MECA-32 expression. Furthermore, this endothelium expresses cell adhesion molecules described in vivo and shows intracellular cell adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 upregulation under lipopolysaccharide-treatment. Therefore, this well-differentiated model using autologous cells appears as a suitable support to reconstitute pathological in vitro BBB model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/labinvest.3700281DOI Listing
June 2005

Contribution of glial cells and pericytes to the mRNA profiles of P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated proteins in an in vitro model of the blood-brain barrier.

Brain Res 2004 Aug;1018(1):1-9

Laboratoire de Physiopathologie de la Barrière Hémato-Encéphalique, Unité mixte Institut Pasteur de Lille, Université d'Artois, Faculté Jean Perrin, EA.2465 Lens, France.

P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and the multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRP), whose expression is associated with multidrug resistance, have been recently located in the brain capillary endothelial cells (BCEC) forming the blood-brain barrier (BBB), without taking into account a possible influence or contribution of glial cells and pericytes. Using semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the present study analysed the transcriptional expression of P-gp and the seven homologues of MRP transporters in BCECs in solo culture or in an in vitro model of the BBB consisting of a co-culture of BCECs and glial cells. Pericytes, glial cells, isolated brain capillaries and bovine grey matter extracts were also tested. P-gp mRNA, absent in glial cells, was found in brain capillaries and in co-cultured BCECs with an increased signal compared to the in solo culture. No amplification was observed in pericytes or grey matter. While MRP2, MRP3 and MRP7 remained undetected, MRP1, absent in capillaries or grey matter, was amplified in BCECs, glial cells and pericytes. MRP4 gave a low signal in most cultures. MRP5 was ubiquitously expressed, displaying a potent signal in all conditions. In spite of its presence in cultured glial cells, MRP6 mRNA expression appeared to be restricted to BCECs, with the same upregulation in the co-cultured condition as observed with P-gp. Moreover, MRP6 was the only transporter whose endothelial mRNA expression was influenced by the presence of pericytes. The tissue distribution of the expression of these transporters and the contribution of the different cell populations are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2004.05.092DOI Listing
August 2004