Publications by authors named "Christine Théodore"

69 Publications

Quality of life in patients with metastatic prostate cancer following treatment with cabazitaxel versus abiraterone or enzalutamide (CARD): an analysis of a randomised, multicentre, open-label, phase 4 study.

Lancet Oncol 2020 11 11;21(11):1513-1525. Epub 2020 Sep 11.

Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands.

Background: In the CARD study, cabazitaxel significantly improved radiographic progression-free survival and overall survival versus abiraterone or enzalutamide in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer previously treated with docetaxel and the alternative androgen signalling-targeted inhibitor. Here, we report the quality-of-life outcomes from the CARD study.

Methods: CARD was a randomised, multicentre, open-label, phase 4 study involving 62 clinical sites across 13 European countries. Patients (aged ≥18 years, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status ≤2) with confirmed metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer were randomly assigned (1:1) by means of an interactive voice-web response system to receive cabazitaxel (25 mg/m intravenously every 3 weeks, 10 mg daily prednisone, and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor) versus abiraterone (1000 mg orally once daily plus 5 mg prednisone twice daily) or enzalutamide (160 mg orally daily). Stratification factors were ECOG performance status, time to disease progression on the previous androgen signalling-targeted inhibitor, and timing of the previous androgen signalling-targeted inhibitor. The primary endpoint was radiographic progression-free survival; here, we present more detailed analyses of pain (assessed using item 3 on the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form [BPI-SF]) and symptomatic skeletal events, alongside preplanned patient-reported outcomes, assessed using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Prostate (FACT-P) questionnaire and the EuroQoL-5 dimensions, 5 level scale (EQ-5D-5L). Efficacy analyses were done in the intention-to-treat population. Pain response was analysed in the intention-to-treat population with baseline and at least one post-baseline assessment of BPI-SF item 3, and patient-reported outcomes (PROs) were analysed in the intention-to-treat population with baseline and at least one post-baseline assessment of either FACT-P or EQ-5D-5L (PRO population). Analyses of skeletal-related events were also done in the intention-to-treat population. The CARD study is registered with, NCT02485691, and is no longer enrolling.

Findings: Between Nov 17, 2015, and Nov 28, 2018, of 303 patients screened, 255 were randomly assigned to cabazitaxel (n=129) or abiraterone or enzalutamide (n=126). Median follow-up was 9·2 months (IQR 5·6-13·1). Pain response was observed in 51 (46%) of 111 patients with cabazitaxel and 21 (19%) of 109 patients with abiraterone or enzalutamide (p<0·0001). Median time to pain progression was not estimable (NE; 95% CI NE-NE) with cabazitaxel and 8·5 months (4·9-NE) with abiraterone or enzalutamide (hazard ratio [HR] 0·55, 95% CI 0·32-0·97; log-rank p=0·035). Median time to symptomatic skeletal events was NE (95% CI 20·0-NE) with cabazitaxel and 16·7 months (10·8-NE) with abiraterone or enzalutamide (HR 0·59, 95% CI 0·35-1·01; log-rank p=0·050). Median time to FACT-P total score deterioration was 14·8 months (95% CI 6·3-NE) with cabazitaxel and 8·9 months (6·3-NE) with abiraterone or enzalutamide (HR 0·72, 95% CI 0·44-1·20; log-rank p=0·21). There was a significant treatment effect seen in changes from baseline in EQ-5D-5L utility index score in favour of cabazitaxel over abiraterone or enzalutamide (p=0·030) but no difference between treatment groups for change from baseline in EQ-5D-5L visual analogue scale (p=0·060).

Interpretation: Since cabazitaxel improved pain response, time to pain progression, time to symptomatic skeletal events, and EQ-5D-5L utility index, clinicians and patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer can be reassured that cabazitaxel will not reduce quality of life when compared with treatment with a second androgen signalling-targeted inhibitor.

Funding: Sanofi.
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November 2020

Cabazitaxel versus Abiraterone or Enzalutamide in Metastatic Prostate Cancer.

N Engl J Med 2019 12 30;381(26):2506-2518. Epub 2019 Sep 30.

From the Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, the Netherlands (R.W.); the Institute of Cancer Research and the Royal Marsden Hospital, London (J.B.); Englander Institute for Precision Medicine, Weill Cornell Medicine, New York (C.N.S.); Institut Gustave Roussy and University of Paris Sud, Villejuif (K.F.), Jean Godinot Institute and Reims Champagne-Ardenne University, Reims (J.-C.E.), Foch Hospital, Suresnes (C.T.), Hôpital d'Instruction des Armées Bégin, Saint Mandé (C.H.), and Sanofi, Europe Medical Oncology, Paris (C.G.-R.) - all in France; Institut de Recherche Clinique, Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain, Belgium (B.T.); the Department of Urology, Asklepios Tumorzentrum Hamburg, Asklepios Klinik Altona, Hamburg (C.W.), and Studienpraxis Urologie, Nürtingen (S.F.) - both in Germany; the Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (G.K.); Alexandra Hospital, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens (A.B.); Vall d'Hebron Institute of Oncology, Vall d'Hebron University Hospital, Barcelona (J.C.); Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Integrata, Verona, and Fondazione Policlinico Agostino Gemelli IRCCS, Rome - both in Italy (R.I.); Palacky University Medical School and Teaching Hospital, Olomouc, Czech Republic (B.M.); Landspitali University Hospital, Reykjavik, Iceland (Á.S.); Sanofi, Global Medical Oncology, Cambridge, MA (A.O.); and 12 de Octubre University Hospital, Madrid (D.C.).

Background: The efficacy and safety of cabazitaxel, as compared with an androgen-signaling-targeted inhibitor (abiraterone or enzalutamide), in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer who were previously treated with docetaxel and had progression within 12 months while receiving the alternative inhibitor (abiraterone or enzalutamide) are unclear.

Methods: We randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, patients who had previously received docetaxel and an androgen-signaling-targeted inhibitor (abiraterone or enzalutamide) to receive cabazitaxel (at a dose of 25 mg per square meter of body-surface area intravenously every 3 weeks, plus prednisone daily and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor) or the other androgen-signaling-targeted inhibitor (either 1000 mg of abiraterone plus prednisone daily or 160 mg of enzalutamide daily). The primary end point was imaging-based progression-free survival. Secondary end points of survival, response, and safety were assessed.

Results: A total of 255 patients underwent randomization. After a median follow-up of 9.2 months, imaging-based progression or death was reported in 95 of 129 patients (73.6%) in the cabazitaxel group, as compared with 101 of 126 patients (80.2%) in the group that received an androgen-signaling-targeted inhibitor (hazard ratio, 0.54; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.40 to 0.73; P<0.001). The median imaging-based progression-free survival was 8.0 months with cabazitaxel and 3.7 months with the androgen-signaling-targeted inhibitor. The median overall survival was 13.6 months with cabazitaxel and 11.0 months with the androgen-signaling-targeted inhibitor (hazard ratio for death, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.46 to 0.89; P = 0.008). The median progression-free survival was 4.4 months with cabazitaxel and 2.7 months with an androgen-signaling-targeted inhibitor (hazard ratio for progression or death, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.40 to 0.68; P<0.001), a prostate-specific antigen response occurred in 35.7% and 13.5% of the patients, respectively (P<0.001), and tumor response was noted in 36.5% and 11.5% (P = 0.004). Adverse events of grade 3 or higher occurred in 56.3% of patients receiving cabazitaxel and in 52.4% of those receiving an androgen-signaling-targeted inhibitor. No new safety signals were observed.

Conclusions: Cabazitaxel significantly improved a number of clinical outcomes, as compared with the androgen-signaling-targeted inhibitor (abiraterone or enzalutamide), in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer who had been previously treated with docetaxel and the alternative androgen-signaling-targeted agent (abiraterone or enzalutamide). (Funded by Sanofi; CARD number, NCT02485691.).
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December 2019

Incremental Utility of Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer: Quantifying the Relapse Risk Associated with Therapeutic Effect.

Eur Urol 2019 10 11;76(4):425-429. Epub 2019 Jul 11.

Fondazione IRCCS, Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy.

The availability of new potent systemic therapies for urothelial carcinoma may change the way we use standard chemotherapy perioperatively. In particular, identifying which patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) would benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy (AC) is compelling. From a multicenter database we selected 950 patients with cT2-4N0M0 MIBC treated with radical cystectomy (RC), with or without neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), and AC. We used Kaplan-Meier analyses to test 1-yr recurrence-free survival (RFS) rates according to AC use. Nomogram-derived probabilities of 1-yr recurrence after RC were plotted against actual recurrence rates according to AC use. Overall, we did not see evidence of an AC effect on the 1-yr RFS rate (p=0.6). Conversely, the 1-yr RFS rate was higher among patients with pT3-4 or pN1 disease who received AC (75% vs 54%; p<0.001). We were unable to demonstrate a difference between AC and no AC among patients who received prior NAC (1-yr RFS 57% vs 76%; p=0.057). As the most important finding, AC was associated with incremental RFS benefits only for patients with a nomogram-derived 1-yr recurrence probability of >40%. Patient summary: Maximizing disease control with adjuvant chemotherapy was beneficial for patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer who had a calculated recurrence risk of >40% and did not impact cancer recurrence in lower-risk disease. Therefore, patient stratification using the nomogram available for predicting recurrence is advisable pending external validation.
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October 2019

Modeling 1-year Relapse-free Survival After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy and Radical Cystectomy in Patients with Clinical T2-4N0M0 Urothelial Bladder Carcinoma: Endpoints for Phase 2 Trials.

Eur Urol Oncol 2019 05 7;2(3):248-256. Epub 2018 Sep 7.

Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy.

Background: Several ongoing phase 2 trials are evaluating new neoadjuvant therapy regimens in patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). The 1-yr recurrence-free survival (RFS) after radical cystectomy (RC), with or without perioperative chemotherapy, can be used to model statistical assumptions and interpret outcomes from these studies.

Objective: To provide a benchmark for predicting 1-yr RFS in patients with cT2-4N0 MIBC.

Design, Setting, And Participants: We identified 950 patients with clinical stage T2-4N0 MIBC undergoing RC at 27 centers between 1990 and 2016. We assessed 1-yr RFS rates for patients managed with no perioperative chemotherapy, neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), adjuvant chemotherapy (AC), or NAC followed by AC. Cox regression analyses tested for 1-yr postsurgical RFS predictors. A Cox-based nomogram was developed to estimate 1-yr RFS and its accuracy was assessed in terms of Harrell's c-index, a calibration plot, and decision curve analysis. We report 1-yr RFS rates across the nomogram tertiles.

Results And Limitations: The 1-yr RFS rates were 67.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 64-72) after no perioperative chemotherapy, 76.9% (95% CI 72-83%) after NAC, 77.8% (95% CI 71-85%) after AC, and 57% (95% CI 37-87) after NAC+AC. On multivariable analysis, positive surgical margins (p=0.002), pT stage (p<0.0001), and pN stage (p<.0001) were significantly associated with RFS, while NAC was not (p=0.6). The model including all these factors yielded a c-index of 0.76 (95% CI 0.72-0.79), good calibration, and a high net benefit. The 1-yr RFS rates across nomogram tertiles were 90.5% (95% CI 87-94%), 73.4% (95% CI 68-79%), and 51.1% (95% CI 45-58%), respectively. The results lack external validation.

Conclusions: Benchmark 1-yr RFS estimates for phase 2 design of new neoadjuvant trials are proposed and can be used for statistical assumptions, pending external validation.

Patient Summary: Our prognostic model predicting 1-yr survival free from recurrence of bladder cancer after radical cystectomy, with or without standard chemotherapy, could provide an improvement to the quality of phase 2 clinical trial designs and interpretation of their results.
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May 2019

The Impact of Cisplatin- or Non-Cisplatin-Containing Chemotherapy on Long-Term and Conditional Survival of Patients with Advanced Urinary Tract Cancer.

Oncologist 2019 10 1;24(10):1348-1355. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Tisch Cancer Institute, New York New York, USA.

Background: The impact of cisplatin use on long-term survival of unselected patients with advanced urinary tract cancer (aUTC) has not been adequately investigated. We used a multinational database to study long-term survival and the impact of treatment type in unselected patients with aUTC.

Materials And Methods: A total of 1,333 patients with aUTC (cT4bN0M0, cTanyN+M0, cTanyNanyM+), transitional-cell, squamous, or adenocarcinoma histology who received systemic chemotherapy and had available survival data were selected. Long-term survival was defined as alive at 3 years following initiation of first-line chemotherapy. Conditional overall survival (COS) analysis was employed to study change in prognosis given time survived from initiation of first-line chemotherapy.

Results: Median follow-up was 31.7 months. The combination of cisplatin use and cisplatin eligibility accurately predicted long-term survival. Eligible patients treated with cisplatin conferred a 31.6% probability of 3-year survival (95% confidence interval [CI]: 25.1-38.3), and 2-year COS for patients surviving 3 years after initiation of cisplatin-based chemotherapy was 83% (95% CI: 59.7-93.5). The respective probabilities for patients who were ineligible for cisplatin or not treated with cisplatin despite eligibility were 14% (95% CI: 10.8-17.6) and 49.3% (95% CI: 28.2-67.4). Two-year COS remained significantly different between these two groups up to 3 years after chemotherapy initiation.

Conclusion: Cisplatin-based therapy was associated with the highest likelihood of long-term survival in patients with aUTC and should be used in patients who fulfill the established eligibility criteria. Novel therapies are necessary to increase long-term survival in cisplatin-ineligible patients.

Implications For Practice: Long-term, disease-free survival is possible in one in four eligible-for-cisplatin patients with advanced urinary tract cancer (aUTC) treated with cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy. Therefore, deviations from eligibility criteria should be avoided. Consolidation surgery should be considered in responders. These data provide benchmarks for the study of novel therapies in aUTC.
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October 2019

Development of a Prediction Tool for Exclusive Locoregional Recurrence After Radical Cystectomy in Patients With Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer.

Clin Genitourin Cancer 2019 Feb 13;17(1):7-14.e3. Epub 2018 Sep 13.

Mount Sinai School of Medicine, Tisch Cancer Institute, New York, NY.

Background: Limited information is available about the pattern of relapse after perioperative chemotherapy with radical cystectomy (RC) vs. RC alone in muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

Patients And Methods: Data from 1082 patients of the Retrospective International Study of Invasive/Advanced Cancer of the Urothelium database, treated from February 1990 to December 2013 at 27 centers in the United States, Europe, Israel, and Canada, were collected. Locoregional relapse was defined as any pelvic lymph node or soft tissue-only recurrences. Cumulative incidence methods were used to estimate time to locoregional relapse (TTR). Cox regression analyses were performed and a nomogram for 12-month locoregional relapse-free survival (RFS) was developed. The nomogram was applied to an external data set (n = 1021).

Results: A total of 517 patients (47.8%) developed a relapse: 177 (16.4%) exclusive locoregional relapse. In multivariable analyses, perioperative chemotherapy was associated with longer TTR (P < .001). Other factors were nonurothelial histology (P = .013), pT-stage (P < .001), and surgical margins (P < .001). The concordance index of the model was 0.681 (95% bootstrapped confidence interval, 0.666-0.716). Risk group categories were obtained according to nomogram tertiles. Despite, overall, observed locoregional RFS in the validation cohort exceeding predicted results, for high-risk patients (80 points or less, lowest nomogram tertile) observed 12-month RFS was similar between development and validation cohorts (60.1% and 66.6%). The study is limited by its retrospective nature.

Conclusion: In the largest study, to our knowledge, that analyzed locoregional recurrences after RC, we propose a risk prediction tool for exclusive locoregional failures that might be suitable for clinical studies. Patients best suited for adjuvant radiotherapy might be those within the lowest nomogram tertile. Prospective trials are needed to validate findings.
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February 2019

Sunitinib Prior to Planned Nephrectomy in Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: Angiogenesis Biomarkers Predict Clinical Outcome in the Prospective Phase II PREINSUT Trial.

Clin Cancer Res 2018 11 30;24(22):5534-5542. Epub 2018 Jul 30.

Department of Medical Oncology, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris; Université Paris-Descartes; UMR-S970, Paris, France.

The PREINSUT study characterized factors predictive of response to sunitinib given before planned nephrectomy in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). This French multicenter, prospective, open-label, phase II trial (NCT00930345) included treatment-naïve patients with clear-cell mRCC. Patients received two cycles of sunitinib before nephrectomy. The primary objective was to evaluate the potential of circulating angiogenesis-related biomarkers measured before and on treatment for identifying responders based on primary renal tumor (PRT) size change. Secondary objectives were to evaluate the ability of biomarkers to predict progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Thirty-two patients were enrolled. The median PFS was 4.5 months, and the median OS was 12.4 months. OS was significantly longer in responding patients (28.8 vs. 11.1 months; = 0.03). Of 27 patients evaluable for PRT response, nine (33.3%) had a ≥10% decrease in PRT size. Baseline biomarkers significantly associated with outcome were endothelial progenitor cells (PRT response); vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1), soluble VEGF receptors (sVEGFR)1 and 2 (PFS); and SDF-1 and sVEGFR1 (OS). During treatment, changes in biomarkers associated with outcome were SDF-1 and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB (PRT response), sVEGFR2 (PFS), and SDF-1 and sVEGFR1 (OS). There was no correlation between plasma sunitinib or its active metabolite steady-state trough concentrations and clinical outcome. Angiogenesis-related parameters that could reflect hypoxia seem to be associated with worse outcome in mRCC. As blood biomarkers are not subjected to tumor heterogeneity and allow longitudinal follow-up, circulating angiogenesis profile has a promising place in antiangiogenic therapy guidance. .
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November 2018

Impact of the Number of Cycles of Platinum Based First Line Chemotherapy for Advanced Urothelial Carcinoma.

J Urol 2018 12 4;200(6):1207-1214. Epub 2018 Sep 4.

Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milan, Italy. Electronic address:

Purpose: We evaluated the impact of the number of cycles of platinum based, first line chemotherapy (fewer than 6 cycles vs the conventional 6 cycles or more) on the survival of patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma.

Materials And Methods: We used the RISC (Retrospective International Study of Invasive/Advanced Cancer of the Urothelium) database. The association of the number of cycles of chemotherapy with overall survival was investigated by Cox multiple regression analysis after controlling for recognized prognostic factors. We excluded patients who received fewer than 3 or more than 9 platinum chemotherapy cycles to reduce confounding factors. The primary analysis was a comparison of overall survival for 3 to 5 vs 6 to 9 cycles using 6-month landmark analysis when 281 death events were observed.

Results: Of the 1,020 patients in the RISC 472 received cisplatin or carboplatin, of whom 338 and 134, respectively, were evaluable. A total of 157 patients received 3 to 5 cycles (median 4) and 315 received 6 to 9 cycles (median 6). There was no significant difference in overall survival between 3 to 5 and 6 to 9 cycles (HR 1.02, 95% CI 0.78-1.33, p = 0.91). No significant interactions were observed for the type of platinum (p = 0.09) and completed planned chemotherapy (p = 0.56). The limitations of a hypothesis generating, retrospective analysis applied.

Conclusions: Four cycles of platinum based, first line chemotherapy appeared adequate and did not significantly compromise the survival of patients with advanced urothelial carcinoma. The omission of excessive cycles may avoid unnecessary cumulative toxicity and facilitate a better transition to second line therapy and investigational switch maintenance therapy strategies. These results require prospective validation but they may impact practice in select patients.
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December 2018

Stereotactic radiation therapy in the strategy of treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma: A study of the Getug group.

Eur J Cancer 2018 07 1;98:38-47. Epub 2018 Jun 1.

Centre François Baclesse, Department of Clinical Research, 14000, Caen, France; Centre François Baclesse, Department of Clinical Oncology, 14000, Caen, France.

Background: Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is usually considered radioresistant, but stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT) may increase local disease control. This study aimed to assess the benefit of SRT in the management of metastatic RCC patients.

Methods: Data of all RCC patients who received SRT between 2008 and 2015 with curative intent were retrospectively collected in six French referral centres. Local control (LC), progression-free survival (PFS), local recurrence-free survival (LRFS), time to systemic therapy (TTS) and overall survival (OS) were assessed.

Results: One hundred and eighty-eight patients treated with SRT for 252 RCC metastases (brain [n = 120]; spine [n = 75]; and others [n = 57]) were recensed. SRT was performed for oligoprogressive disease (101 patients), oligometastatic disease (80 patients) or residual tumour after a partial response to systemic treatment (7 patients). The median biologically effective dose was 78 Gy. For the whole population, local control rates at 6, 12 and 24 months were 87.5%, 82.9% and 77.6%, respectively; median PFS, LRFS, TTS and OS were 8.5, 23.2, 13.2 and 29.2 months, respectively. Among patients treated for oligoprogressive/oligometastatic disease, the median PFS, TTS, and OS were 8.6/7.6, 10.5/14.2 and 23.2/33.9 months, respectively. Among the 7 patients treated with SRT after partial response to systemic treatment, no relapse occurred for 3 of them after a median follow-up of 22 months. Acute and late severe toxicities were noted in 5 (2.6%) patients.

Conclusions: SRT is effective and safe for oligometastatic and oligoprogressive RCC patients and may delay introduction or change of systemic therapy.
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July 2018

Sunitinib Alone or after Nephrectomy in Metastatic Renal-Cell Carcinoma.

N Engl J Med 2018 Aug 3;379(5):417-427. Epub 2018 Jun 3.

From the Departments of Urology (A.M., M.-O.T.) and Medical Oncology (S.O.), Hôpital Européen Georges-Pompidou, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Université Paris-Descartes, and Paris Descartes Necker-Cochin Clinical Research Unit, AP-HP (S.C.), Paris, the Department of Medical Oncology, Bordeaux University Hospital (A.R.), the Department of Medical Oncology, Hôpital Saint André, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire (CHU) de Bordeaux (M.G.-G.), and the Department of Urology, CHU de Bordeaux and Université de Bordeaux (J.-C.B.), Bordeaux, Biometrics Unit, Cancer Institute of Montpellier, University of Montpellier, Montpellier (S.T.), the Department of Urology, CHU Rangueil (J.-B.B.), and the Department of Medical Oncology, Institut Universitaire du Cancer Toulouse-Oncopole (C.C.), Toulouse, the Department of Urology, University of Rennes (K.B.), and the Department of Medical Oncology, Centre Eugene Marquis (B.L.), Rennes, the Department of Medical Oncology, Institut de Cancerologie de Lorraine, Vandoeuvre lès Nancy (L. Geoffrois), the Department of Medical Oncology, CHU Besançon, Oncologie, and Université de Franche-Comte, INSERM Unité Mixte de Recherche (UMR) 1098, Structure Fédérative de Recherche Ingénierie et Biologie Cellulaire et Tissulaire, Besançon (A.T.-V.), the Department of Urology, CHU François Mitterrand, Dijon (L.C.), the Department of Urology, CHU Strasbourg, Translational Medicine Federation Strasbourg, Strasbourg (H.L.), the Department of Urology, Gabriel Montpied Hospital, and Clermont Auvergne University, Clermont-Ferrand (L. Guy), the Department of Medical Oncology, Centre de Recherche en Cancerologie de Marseille, INSERM UMR 1068, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique UMR 7258 and Institut Paoli-Calmettes (G.G.), and the Department of Urology, Hôpital la Conception (E.L.), Aix Marseille Université, Marseille, the Department of Medical Oncology, Institut de Cancerologie de l'Ouest, Nantes (F.R.), the Department of Medical Oncology, CHU Bretonneau, and the Department of Medicine, Université François Rabelais, Tours (C.L.), the Department of Urology, Mont de Marsan General Hospital, Mont de Marsan (J.-J.P.), the Departments of Medical Oncology (C.T.) and Urology (T.L.), Hôpital Foch, Suresnes, the Department of Urology, Imagerie Adaptative Diagnostique et Interventionnelle INSERM Unité 1254, CHU de Nancy, Brabois (J.H.), the Department of Medical Oncology, Institut Gustave Roussy and Université Paris-Saclay, Villejuif (L.A., B.E.), and Université Versailles, St.-Quentin-en-Yvelines (T.L.) - all in France; the Department of Urology, Haukeland University Hospital (C.B.), and the Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Bergen (C.B.), Bergen, Norway; and the Department of Urology, Royal Free Hospital, London (M.A.).

Background: Cytoreductive nephrectomy has been the standard of care in metastatic renal-cell carcinoma for 20 years, supported by randomized trials and large, retrospective studies. However, the efficacy of targeted therapies has challenged this standard. We assessed the role of nephrectomy in patients with metastatic renal-cell carcinoma who were receiving targeted therapies.

Methods: In this phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, patients with confirmed metastatic clear-cell renal-cell carcinoma at presentation who were suitable candidates for nephrectomy to undergo nephrectomy and then receive sunitinib (standard therapy) or to receive sunitinib alone. Randomization was stratified according to prognostic risk (intermediate or poor) in the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center prognostic model. Patients received sunitinib at a dose of 50 mg daily in cycles of 28 days on and 14 days off every 6 weeks. The primary end point was overall survival.

Results: A total of 450 patients were enrolled from September 2009 to September 2017. At this planned interim analysis, the median follow-up was 50.9 months, with 326 deaths observed. The results in the sunitinib-alone group were noninferior to those in the nephrectomy-sunitinib group with regard to overall survival (stratified hazard ratio for death, 0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.71 to 1.10; upper boundary of the 95% confidence interval for noninferiority, ≤1.20). The median overall survival was 18.4 months in the sunitinib-alone group and 13.9 months in the nephrectomy-sunitinib group. No significant differences in response rate or progression-free survival were observed. Adverse events were as anticipated in each group.

Conclusions: Sunitinib alone was not inferior to nephrectomy followed by sunitinib in patients with metastatic renal-cell carcinoma who were classified as having intermediate-risk or poor-risk disease. (Funded by Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris and others; CARMENA number, NCT00930033 .).
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August 2018

Atezolizumab in Platinum-treated Locally Advanced or Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma: Outcomes by Prior Number of Regimens.

Eur Urol 2018 Mar 20;73(3):462-468. Epub 2017 Dec 20.

Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: Patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma (mUC) who progress after platinum-based chemotherapy have had few treatment options and uniformly poor outcomes. Atezolizumab (anti-programmed death-ligand 1) was approved in the USA for cisplatin-ineligible and platinum-treated mUC based on IMvigor210, a phase 2, single-arm, two-cohort study.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of atezolizumab by the number of prior lines of systemic therapy in patients with pretreated mUC.

Design, Setting, And Participants: IMvigor210 enrolled 315 patients with mUC with progression during or following platinum-based therapy at 70 international sites between May 2014 and November 2014. Key inclusion criteria included age ≥18 yr, creatinine clearance ≥30ml/min, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0-1, with no limit on prior lines of treatment.

Intervention: Patients in this cohort received atezolizumab 1200mg intravenously every 3 wk until loss of clinical benefit.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: Centrally assessed Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors v1.1 objective response rate (ORR), median duration of response, overall survival (OS), and adverse events were evaluated by prior treatment. Potential differences between subgroups were evaluated using log-rank (for OS) and chi-square (for ORR and adverse events frequencies) testing.

Results And Limitations: Three hundred and ten patients were efficacy and safety evaluable (median follow-up, 21 mo). Objective responses and prolonged OS occurred across all prespecified subgroups; median duration of response was not reached in most subgroups. In patients without prior systemic mUC therapy (first-line subgroup), ORR was 25% (95% confidence interval: 14-38), and median OS was 9.6 mo (95% confidence interval: 5.9-15.8). No significant differences in efficacy or toxicity by therapy line were observed.

Conclusions: Atezolizumab demonstrated comparable efficacy and safety in previously treated patients with mUC across all lines of therapy evaluated.

Patient Summary: We investigated effects of previous treatment in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma that progressed after platinum-based therapy. Atezolizumab was active and tolerable no matter how many treatment regimens patients had received., NCT02108652.
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March 2018

Anticancer Activity and Tolerance of Treatments Received Beyond Progression in Men Treated Upfront with Androgen Deprivation Therapy With or Without Docetaxel for Metastatic Castration-naïve Prostate Cancer in the GETUG-AFU 15 Phase 3 Trial.

Eur Urol 2018 05 23;73(5):696-703. Epub 2017 Oct 23.

Medical Oncology Department, Clinique Saint-Jean Languedoc, Toulouse, France.

Background: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) plus docetaxel is the standard of care in fit men with metastatic castration-naive prostate cancer (mCNPC) following results from GETUG-AFU 15, CHAARTED, and STAMPEDE. No data are available on the efficacy of treatments used for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) in men treated upfront with ADT plus docetaxel for mCNPC.

Objective: To investigate the efficacy and tolerance of subsequent treatments in patients treated upfront with chemo-hormonal therapy for mCNPC.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Retrospective data from the GETUG-AFU 15 phase 3 trial were collected for treatments received for mCRPC.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: For the first three lines of salvage treatment for mCRPC we investigated the biochemical progression-free survival, maximum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) decline, overall survival, and tolerance.

Results And Limitations: Overall, 245 patients received at least one treatment for mCRPC. For docetaxel used in first-line, a PSA decline ≥50% was observed in 25/66 (38%) and in 4/20 patients (20%) who had received upfront ADT alone and ADT plus docetaxel (p=0.14). The median biochemical progression-free survival was 6.0 mo (95% confidence interval: 3.6-7.7) and 4.1 mo (95% confidence interval: 1.3-4.9), respectively. For docetaxel used in first- or second-line, a PSA decline ≥50% was observed in 36/80 (45%) and in 4/29 patients (14%) who had received upfront ADT alone and ADT plus docetaxel (p=0.07). PSA declines ≥50% were observed with bicalutamide in 12/28 (43%) and 4/23 patients (17%) who had received upfront ADT alone and ADT plus docetaxel. Among men treated upfront with ADT plus docetaxel who received abiraterone or enzalutamide for mCRPC, 10/19 patients (53%) achieved a PSA decline ≥50%. Few grade 3-4 events occurred. Study limitations include the observational design and retrospective characteristics of this analysis, without standardized therapeutic salvage protocols, and the limited number of patients in some of the treatment subgroups.

Conclusions: Docetaxel rechallenge following progression to mCRPC after upfront ADT plus docetaxel for mCNPC was active only in a limited number of patients. Available data on abiraterone and enzalutamide support maintained efficacy in this setting. The lack of standardized therapeutic protocols for men developing mCRPC limits the comparability between patients.

Patient Summary: Rechallenging docetaxel at castration-resistance was active only in a limited number of patients treated upfront with chemo-hormonal therapy for metastatic castration-naive prostate cancer. Anticancer activity was suggested with abiraterone or enzalutamide in this setting.
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May 2018

Lack of Effectiveness of Postchemotherapy Lymphadenectomy in Bladder Cancer Patients with Clinical Evidence of Metastatic Pelvic or Retroperitoneal Lymph Nodes Only: A Propensity Score-based Analysis.

Eur Urol Focus 2019 03 3;5(2):242-249. Epub 2017 Jun 3.

University of Southampton, Southampton, United Kingdom.

Background: Limited data is available on the role, and extent of, postchemotherapy lymphadenectomy (PC-LND) in patients with clinical evidence of pelvic (cN1-3) or retroperitoneal (RP) lymph node spread from urothelial bladder carcinoma.

Objective: To compare the outcomes of operated versus nonoperated patients after first-line chemotherapy.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Data from 34 centers was collected, totaling 522 patients, treated between January 2000 and June 2015. Criteria for patient selection were the following: bladder primary tumor, lymph node metastases (pelvic±RP) only, first-line platinum-based chemotherapy given.

Intervention: LND (with cystectomy) versus observation after first-line chemotherapy for metastatic urothelial bladder carcinoma.

Outcome Measures And Statistical Analysis: Overall survival (OS) was the primary endpoint. Multiple propensity score techniques were adopted, including 1:1 propensity score matching and inverse probability of treatment weighting. Additionally, the inverse probability of treatment weighting analysis was performed with the inclusion of the covariates, that is, with doubly robust estimation.

Results And Limitations: Overall, 242 (46.4%) patients received PC-LND and 280 (53.6%) observation after chemotherapy. There were 177 (33.9%) and 345 (66.1%) patients with either RP or pelvic LND only, respectively. Doubly robust estimation-adjusted comparison was not significant for improved OS for PC-LND (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.56-1.31, p=0.479), confirmed by matched analysis (HR: 0.91, 95% CI: 0.60-1.36, p=0.628). This was also observed in the RP subgroup (HR: 1.12, 95% CI: 0.68-1.84). The retrospective nature of the data and the heterogeneous patient population were the major limitations.

Conclusions: Although there were substantial differences between the two groups, after accounting for major confounders we report a nonsignificant OS difference with PC-LND compared with observation only. These findings may be hypothesis-generating for future prospective trials.

Patient Summary: We found no differences in survival by adding postchemotherapy lymphadenectomy in patients with pelvic or retroperitoneal lymph node metastatic bladder cancer. The indication to perform postchemotherapy lymphadenectomy in the most suitable patients requires additional studies.
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March 2019

Robot-assisted Versus Open Radical Cystectomy in Patients Receiving Perioperative Chemotherapy for Muscle-invasive Bladder Cancer: The Oncologist's Perspective from a Multicentre Study.

Eur Urol Focus 2018 12 31;4(6):937-945. Epub 2017 Mar 31.

Hopital Foch, Suresnes, France.

Background: Little is known about the outcomes of robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) compared to open radical cystectomy (ORC) combined with perioperative chemotherapy for muscle-invasive urothelial bladder cancer (UBC).

Objective: To evaluate surgical and oncological outcomes for RARC and ORC in multimodal treatment.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Data from 28 centres were collected for cystectomies performed between January 2000 and July 2013.

Intervention: RARC or ORC combined with perioperative chemotherapy for UBC.

Outcome Measures And Statistical Analysis: Fisher's exact tests, χ tests, and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were used to compare the RARC and ORC groups. Logistic and Cox regression analyses were performed to evaluate potential prognostic factors.

Results And Limitations: A total of 688 patients (n=603 ORC and n=85 RARC) were analysed; 60.6% received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and 45.1% adjuvant chemotherapy. No significant differences in baseline characteristics were found between the groups. The median time from surgery to adjuvant chemotherapy was 1.9 mo for both RARC and ORC groups. The median number of lymph nodes removed was 21 (interquartile range [IQR] 14-35) for RARC and 13 (IQR 8-21) for ORC (p<0.001); the results were confirmed in subgroup analyses. Multivariable analyses revealed no difference in the rate of positive surgical margins (p=0.54 and p=0.78), rate of neobladder diversion (p=0.33 and p=0.51), relapse-free survival (p=0.31 and p=0.23), and overall survival (p=0.63 and p=0.69). The retrospective nature of the data is the major limitation.

Conclusions: In this study, no differences in efficacy outcomes or ability to deliver adjuvant chemotherapy were observed between RARC and ORC. The increasing use of RARC is justifiable from an oncological viewpoint.

Patient Summary: In a retrospective study of patients who received perioperative chemotherapy for urothelial bladder cancer, we found no difference in key outcomes between robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) and open radical cystectomy. Performing RARC seems to be justifiable in the multidisciplinary setting.
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December 2018

Nomogram-based Prediction of Overall Survival in Patients with Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma Receiving First-line Platinum-based Chemotherapy: Retrospective International Study of Invasive/Advanced Cancer of the Urothelium (RISC).

Eur Urol 2017 02 8;71(2):281-289. Epub 2016 Oct 8.

Princess Margaret Hospital, University Health Network, Toronto, Canada.

Background: The available prognostic models for overall survival (OS) in patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC) have been derived from clinical trial populations of cisplatin-treated patients.

Objective: To develop a new model based on real-world patients.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Individual patient-level data from 29 centers were collected, including metastatic UC and first-line cisplatin- or carboplatin-based chemotherapy administered between January 2006 and January 2011.

Intervention: First-line, platinum-based, combination chemotherapy.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: The population was randomly split into a development and a validation cohort. Generalized boosted regression modelling was used to screen out irrelevant variables and address multivariable analyses. Two nomograms were built to estimate OS probability, the first based on baseline factors and platinum agent, the second incorporating objective response (OR). The performance of the above nomograms and that of other available models was assessed. We plotted decision curves to evaluate the clinical usefulness of the two nomograms.

Results And Limitations: A total of 1020 patients were analyzed (development: 687, validation: 333). In a platinum-stratified Cox model, significant variables for OS were performance status (p<0.001), white blood cell count (p=0.013), body mass index (p=0.003), ethnicity (p=0.012), lung, liver, or bone metastases (p<0.001), and prior perioperative chemotherapy (p=0.012). The c-index was 0.660. The distribution of the nomogram scores was associated with OR (p<0.001), and incorporating OR into the model further improved the c-index in the validation cohort (0.670).

Conclusions: We developed and validated two nomograms for OS to be used before and after completion of first-line chemotherapy for metastatic UC.

Patient Summary: We proposed two models for estimating overall survival of patients with metastatic urothelial carcinoma receiving first-line, platinum-based chemotherapy. These nomograms have been developed on real-world patients who were treated outside of clinical trials and may be used irrespective of the chemotherapeutic platinum agent used.
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February 2017

Efficacy and safety of Vinflunine for advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma in routine practice based on the French multi-centre CURVE study.

BMC Cancer 2016 Mar 14;16:217. Epub 2016 Mar 14.

Department of Oncology, Hôpital Foch, 92151, Suresnes, France.

Background: To retrospectively assess the efficacy and safety of Vinflunine (VFL) under routine conditions and identify overall survival (OS) prognostic factors.

Methods: Twenty centres participated in the retrospective study (minimum 4 patients undergoing VFL treatment for advanced/metastatic UC after platinum-based regimen progression. Primary endpoint was OS. Secondary endpoints: progression-free survival (PFS), radiological response rate (RR) RECIST criteria and toxicity (CTC NCI v3).

Results: These centres enrolled 134 patients. Prior chemotherapy (CT) lines (≥ 1 palliative): 1 and ≥ 2 in 69% and 26% of patients, respectively. Performance status (PS): 0, 1, 2 in 25%, 46% and 23% of patients. Median OS = 8.2 months [6.5-9.4], PFS = 4.2 months and RR 22%, median number of 5 cycles. In risk groups based on 0-3 presence of adverse prognostic factors (PS ≥ 1, haemoglobin ≤ 10 g/dl and liver metastasis), median OS: 13.2, 9.9, 3.6, and 2.4 months (P < .0001), respectively; 3.3 months (1.9-5.6) in PS ≥ 2 subgroup.

Conclusion: This study reflects routine UC management and confirmed VFL patient efficacy. The drug is safe with gastro-intestinal and haematological prophylaxis. Analysis of prognostic factors for OS is consistent with pivotal trials.
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March 2016

Androgen Deprivation Therapy (ADT) Plus Docetaxel Versus ADT Alone in Metastatic Non castrate Prostate Cancer: Impact of Metastatic Burden and Long-term Survival Analysis of the Randomized Phase 3 GETUG-AFU15 Trial.

Eur Urol 2016 08 21;70(2):256-62. Epub 2015 Nov 21.

Department of Cancer Medicine, Institut Gustave Roussy, University of Paris Sud, Villejuif, France.

Background: The role of chemotherapy in metastatic non castrate prostate cancer (mNCPC) is debated. Survival benefits of docetaxel (D) added to androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) were shown in the CHAARTED trial in patients with metastatic high-volume disease (HVD).

Objective: To assess the impact of metastatic burden and to update overall survival (OS) data of the GETUG-AFU15 study.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Randomized phase 3 trial of ADT plus D versus ADT alone in 385 mNCPC patients; median follow-up of 7 yr.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: Primary end point was OS. Secondary end points were biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS) and radiographic progression-free survival (rPFS). Retrospective analysis was by tumor volume.

Results And Limitations: After a median follow-up of 83.9 mo, median OS in the overall population was 62.1 mo (95% confidence interval [CI], 49.5-73.7) and 48.6 mo (95% CI, 40.9-60.6) for ADT plus D and ADT arms, respectively (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.88 [95% CI, 0.68-1.14]; p=0.3). Median OS in ADT plus D and ADT arms, respectively, was for HVD patients: 39.8 mo (95% CI, 28.0-53.4) versus 35.1 mo (95% CI, 29.9-43.6) (HR: 0.78 [95% CI, 0.56-1.09]; p=0.14), for low-volume disease (LVD) patients; median was not reached (NR; 95% CI, 69.5-NR) and 83.4 mo (95% CI, 61.8-NR) (HR: 1.02 [95% CI, 0.67-1.55]; p=0.9). For upfront metastatic patients, OS was 52.6 mo (95% CI, 43.3-66.8) and 41.5 mo (95% CI, 36.3-54.5), respectively (HR: 0.93 [95% CI, 0.69-1.25]; p=0.6). The bPFS (HR: 0.73 [95% CI, 0.56-0.94]; p=0.014) and rPFS (HR: 0.75 [95% CI, 0.58-0.97]; p=0.030) were significantly longer in the ADT plus D arm. Limitations included the retrospective analysis of metastatic extent and the lack of statistical power to detect a significant difference in subgroups.

Conclusions: The post hoc analyses of the GETUG-AFU15 study demonstrated a nonsignificant 20% reduction in the risk of death in the HVD subgroup. Patients with LVD had no survival improvement with early D.

Patient Summary: In this study, docetaxel added to castration did not improve survival in patients with metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer, partly due to methodological issues. However, early chemotherapy should be discussed with all patients, given the data of three randomized trials including GETUG-AFU15.
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August 2016

Outcome According to Elective Pelvic Radiation Therapy in Patients With High-Risk Localized Prostate Cancer: A Secondary Analysis of the GETUG 12 Phase 3 Randomized Trial.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2016 Jan 25;94(1):85-92. Epub 2015 Sep 25.

University of Paris-Sud, Cancer Campus, Villejuif, France; Department of Cancer Medicine, Gustave Roussy Cancer Center, Villejuif, France.

Purpose: The role of pelvic elective nodal irradiation (ENI) in the management of prostate cancer is controversial. This study analyzed the role of pelvic radiation therapy (RT) on the outcome in high-risk localized prostate cancer patients included in the Groupe d'Etude des Tumeurs Uro-Genitales (GETUG) 12 trial.

Methods And Materials: Patients with a nonpretreated high-risk localized prostate cancer and a staging lymphadenectomy were randomly assigned to receive either goserelin every 3 months for 3 years and 4 cycles of docetaxel plus estramustine or goserelin alone. Local therapy was administered 3 months after the start of systemic treatment. Performance of pelvic ENI was left to the treating physician. Only patients treated with primary RT were included in this analysis. The primary endpoint was biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS).

Results: A total of 413 patients treated from 2002 to 2006 were included, of whom 358 were treated using primary RT. A total of 208 patients received pelvic RT and 150 prostate-only RT. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) concentration, Gleason score, or T stage did not differ according to performance of pelvic RT; pN+ patients more frequently received pelvic RT than pN0 patients (P<.0001). Median follow-up was 8.8 years. In multivariate analysis, bPFS was negatively impacted by pN stage (hazard ratio [HR]: 2.52 [95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.78-3.54], P<.0001), Gleason score 8 or higher (HR: 1.41 [95% CI: 1.03-1.93], P=.033) and PSA higher than 20 ng/mL (HR: 1.41 [95% CI: 1.02-1.96], P=.038), and positively impacted by the use of chemotherapy (HR: 0.66 [95% CI: 0.48-0.9], P=.009). There was no association between bPFS and use of pelvic ENI in multivariate analysis (HR: 1.10 [95% CI: 0.78-1.55], P=.60), even when analysis was restricted to pN0 patients (HR: 0.88 [95% CI: 0.59-1.31], P=.53). Pelvic ENI was not associated with increased acute or late patient reported toxicity.

Conclusions: This unplanned analysis of a randomized trial failed to demonstrate a benefit of pelvic ENI on bPFS in high-risk localized prostate cancer patients.
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January 2016

Androgen deprivation therapy plus docetaxel and estramustine versus androgen deprivation therapy alone for high-risk localised prostate cancer (GETUG 12): a phase 3 randomised controlled trial.

Lancet Oncol 2015 Jul 28;16(7):787-94. Epub 2015 May 28.

Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France.

Background: Early risk-stratified chemotherapy is a standard treatment for breast, colorectal, and lung cancers, but not for high-risk localised prostate cancer. Combined docetaxel and estramustine improves survival in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer. We assessed the effects of combined docetaxel and estramustine on relapse in patients with high-risk localised prostate cancer.

Methods: We did this randomised phase 3 trial at 26 hospitals in France. We enrolled patients with treatment-naive prostate cancer and at least one risk factor (ie, stage T3-T4 disease, Gleason score of ≥8, prostate-specific antigen concentration >20 ng/mL, or pathological node-positive). All patients underwent a staging pelvic lymph node dissection. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to either androgen deprivation therapy (ADT; goserelin 10·8 mg every 3 months for 3 years) plus four cycles of docetaxel on day 2 at a dose of 70 mg/m(2) and estramustine 10 mg/kg per day on days 1-5, every 3 weeks, or ADT only. The randomisation was done centrally by computer, stratified by risk factor. Local treatment was administered at 3 months. Neither patients nor investigators were masked to treatment allocation. The primary endpoint was relapse-free survival in the intention-to-treat population. Follow-up for other endpoints is ongoing. This study is registered with, number NCT00055731.

Findings: We randomly assigned 207 patients to the ADT plus docetaxel and estramustine group and 206 to the ADT only group. Median follow-up was 8·8 years (IQR 8·1-9·7). 88 (43%) of 207 patients in the ADT plus docetaxel and estramustine group had an event (relapse or death) versus 111 (54%) of 206 in the ADT only group. 8-year relapse-free survival was 62% (95% CI 55-69) in the ADT plus docetaxel and estramustine group versus 50% (44-57) in the ADT only group (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0·71, 95% CI 0·54-0·94, p=0·017). Of patients who were treated with radiotherapy and had data available, 31 (21%) of 151 in the ADT plus docetaxel and estramustine group versus 26 (18%) of 143 in the ADT only group reported a grade 2 or higher long-term side-effect (p=0·61). We recorded no excess second cancers (26 [13%] of 207 vs 22 [11%] of 206; p=0·57), and there were no treatment-related deaths.

Interpretation: Docetaxel-based chemotherapy improves relapse-free survival in patients with high-risk localised prostate cancer. Longer follow-up is needed to assess whether this benefit translates into improved metastasis-free survival and overall survival.

Funding: Ligue Contre le Cancer, Sanofi-Aventis, AstraZeneca, Institut National du Cancer.
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July 2015

Successful treatment of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated bronchiectasis with immunosuppressive therapy.

Eur Respir J 2015 Aug 14;46(2):554-7. Epub 2015 May 14.

Service de Pneumologie, Hôpital Foch, Suresnes, France Faculté de Médecine, UFR des Sciences de la Santé Simone Veil, Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Montigny-Le-Bretonneux, France UPRES EA220, Hôpital Foch, Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, Suresnes, France

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August 2015

Comparative effectiveness of gemcitabine plus cisplatin versus methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, plus cisplatin as neoadjuvant therapy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

Cancer 2015 Aug 14;121(15):2586-93. Epub 2015 Apr 14.

Division of Genitourinary Oncology, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York.

Background: Gemcitabine plus cisplatin (GC) has been adopted as a neoadjuvant regimen for muscle-invasive bladder cancer despite the lack of Level I evidence in this setting.

Methods: Data were collected using an electronic data-capture platform from 28 international centers. Eligible patients had clinical T-classification 2 (cT2) through cT4aN0M0 urothelial cancer of the bladder and received neoadjuvant GC or methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, plus cisplatin (MVAC) before undergoing cystectomy. Logistic regression was used to compute propensity scores as the predicted probabilities of patients being assigned to MVAC versus GC given their baseline characteristics. These propensity scores were then included in a new logistic regression model to estimate an adjusted odds ratio comparing the odds of attaining a pathologic complete response (pCR) between patients who received MVAC and those who received GC.

Results: In total, 212 patients (146 patients in the GC cohort and 66 patients in the MVAC cohort) met criteria for inclusion in the analysis. The majority of patients in the MVAC cohort (77%) received dose-dense MVAC. The median age of patients was 63 years, they were predominantly men (74%), and they received a median of 3 cycles of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The pCR rate was 29% in the MVAC cohort and 31% in the GC cohort. There was no significant difference in the pCR rate when adjusted for propensity scores between the 2 regimens (odds ratio, 0.91; 95% confidence interval, 0.48-1.72; P = .77). In an exploratory analysis evaluating survival, the hazard ratio comparing hazard rates for MVAC versus GC adjusted for propensity scores was not statistically significant (hazard ratio, 0.78; 95% confidence interval, 0.40-1.54; P = .48).

Conclusions: Patients who received neoadjuvant GC and MVAC achieved comparable pCR rates in the current analysis, providing evidence to support what has become routine practice.
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August 2015

Biosynthetic products from a nearshore-derived gram-negative bacterium enable reassessment of the kailuin depsipeptides.

J Nat Prod 2015 Mar 20;78(3):441-52. Epub 2015 Feb 20.

†Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064, United States.

Sampling of California nearshore sediments resulted in the isolation of a Gram-negative bacterium, Photobacterium halotolerans, capable of producing unusual biosynthetic products. Liquid culture in artificial seawater-based media provided cyclic depsipeptides including four known compounds, kailuins B-E (2-5), and two new analogues, kailuins G and H (7 and 8). The structures of the new and known compounds were confirmed through extensive spectroscopic and Marfey's analyses. During the course of these studies, a correction was made to the previously reported double-bond geometry of kailuin D (4). Additionally, through the application of a combination of derivatization with Mosher's reagent and extensive (13)C NMR shift analysis, the previously unassigned chiral center at position C-3 of the β-acyloxy group of all compounds was determined. To evaluate bioactivity and structure-activity relationships, the kailuin core (13) and kailuin lactam (14) were prepared by chiral synthesis using an Fmoc solid-phase peptide strategy followed by solution-phase cyclization. All isolated compounds and synthetic cores were assayed for solid tumor cell cytotoxicity and showed only minimal activity, contrary to other published reports. Additional phenotypic screenings were done on 4 and 5, with little evidence of activity.
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March 2015

Intermediate analysis of a phase II trial assessing gemcitabine and cisplatin in locoregional or metastatic penile squamous cell carcinoma.

BJU Int 2016 Mar 27;117(3):444-9. Epub 2015 Apr 27.

Department of Medical Oncology, Claudius Régaud Cancer Institute, Toulouse, France.

Objective: To perform a phase II study evaluating a combination of gemcitabine and cisplatin in a population of patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis and unresected locoregional lymph nodes and/or distant metastases, who had a poor prognosis with no standard of chemotherapy.

Patients And Methods: Eligible patients had histologically confirmed SCC of the penis with unresected locoregional lymph nodes and/or distant metastases, at initial diagnosis or at relapse, and measurable disease as defined by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) criteria. Patients were treated with a combination of gemcitabine 1250 mg/m(2) on day 1 over 30 min and cisplatin 50 mg/m(2) on day 1 over 1 h, every 2 weeks. The primary endpoint was the objective response rate; secondary endpoints were time to progression (TTP) and overall survival (OS).

Results: In all, 25 patients were included in the first phase of the study between February 2004 and January 2010 and received a median of five cycles. For the intent-to-treat population, two patients (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.98-26.0) presented an objective response and 13 patients (52%) had stable disease (95% CI 35.5-76.8). The median TTP was at 5.48 months (95% CI 2.40-11.73). After a median follow-up of 26.97 months (95% CI 17.77, not reached), nine patients were still alive. The median OS and 2-year OS rate were respectively estimated at 14.98 months (95% CI 9.76-32.9) and 39.32% (95% CI 19.15-59.03). Eleven patients had a serious adverse event (44%), 24% being relied to chemotherapy.

Conclusion: Every 2 weeks' administration of the combination of gemcitabine and cisplatin showed non-significant responses in patients with unresected locoregional or metastatic penile SCC. Despite manageable side-effects, this combination cannot be recommended as a standard of care, due to disappointing response rates seen in this negative study. Further regimens should be explored to improve the OS of these patients with poor prognosis.
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March 2016

Immediate versus deferred chemotherapy after radical cystectomy in patients with pT3-pT4 or N+ M0 urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (EORTC 30994): an intergroup, open-label, randomised phase 3 trial.

Lancet Oncol 2015 Jan 11;16(1):76-86. Epub 2014 Dec 11.

EORTC Headquarters, Brussels, Belgium.

Background: Patients with muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma of the bladder have poor survival after cystectomy. The EORTC 30994 trial aimed to compare immediate versus deferred cisplatin-based combination chemotherapy after radical cystectomy in patients with pT3-pT4 or N+ M0 urothelial carcinoma of the bladder.

Methods: This intergroup, open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial recruited patients from hospitals across Europe and Canada. Eligible patients had histologically proven urothelial carcinoma of the bladder, pT3-pT4 disease or node positive (pN1-3) M0 disease after radical cystectomy and bilateral lymphadenectomy, with no evidence of any microscopic residual disease. Within 90 days of cystectomy, patients were centrally randomly assigned (1:1) by minimisation to either immediate adjuvant chemotherapy (four cycles of gemcitabine plus cisplatin, high-dose methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin [high-dose MVAC], or MVAC) or six cycles of deferred chemotherapy at relapse, with stratification for institution, pT category, and lymph node status according to the number of nodes dissected. Neither patients nor investigators were masked. Overall survival was the primary endpoint; all analyses were by intention to treat. The trial was closed after recruitment of 284 of the planned 660 patients. This trial is registered with, number NCT00028756.

Findings: From April 29, 2002, to Aug 14, 2008, 284 patients were randomly assigned (141 to immediate treatment and 143 to deferred treatment), and followed up until the data cutoff of Aug 21, 2013. After a median follow-up of 7.0 years (IQR 5.2-8.7), 66 (47%) of 141 patients in the immediate treatment group had died compared with 82 (57%) of 143 in the deferred treatment group. No significant improvement in overall survival was noted with immediate treatment when compared with deferred treatment (adjusted HR 0.78, 95% CI 0.56-1.08; p=0.13). Immediate treatment significantly prolonged progression-free survival compared with deferred treatment (HR 0.54, 95% CI 0.4-0.73, p<0.0001), with 5-year progression-free survival of 47.6% (95% CI 38.8-55.9) in the immediate treatment group and 31.8% (24.2-39.6) in the deferred treatment group. Grade 3-4 myelosuppression was reported in 33 (26%) of 128 patients who received treatment in the immediate chemotherapy group versus 24 (35%) of 68 patients who received treatment in the deferred chemotherapy group, neutropenia occurred in 49 (38%) versus 36 (53%) patients, respectively, and thrombocytopenia in 36 (28%) versus 26 (38%). Two patients died due to toxicity, one in each group.

Interpretation: Our data did not show a significant improvement in overall survival with immediate versus deferred chemotherapy after radical cystectomy and bilateral lymphadenectomy for patients with muscle-invasive urothelial carcinoma. However, the trial is limited in power, and it is possible that some subgroups of patients might still benefit from immediate chemotherapy. An updated individual patient data meta-analysis and biomarker research are needed to further elucidate the potential for survival benefit in subgroups of patients.

Funding: Lilly, Canadian Cancer Society Research.
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January 2015

Multicentre randomised phase II trial of gemcitabine+platinum, with or without trastuzumab, in advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma overexpressing Her2.

Eur J Cancer 2015 Jan 15;51(1):45-54. Epub 2014 Nov 15.

Department of Medical Oncology, Curie Institute, Paris, France.

Aim: To investigate the efficacy and safety of gemcitabine and platinum salt, with or without trastuzumab, in patients with locally advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma overexpressing Her2.

Methods: The main eligibility criterion was Her2 overexpression on immunohistochemistry (IHC 2+ or 3+) of primary tumour tissue confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH). Patients were randomised to Arm A: gemcitabine 1000mg/m(2) (days 1 and 8) plus either cisplatin (70mg/m(2)) or carboplatin (AUC=5) (day 1 every 3 weeks) or Arm B: added trastuzumab (8mg/kg loading dose, then 6 mg/kg every 21 days until progression). The primary end-point was progression-free survival (PFS).

Results: Among 563 screened patients, 75 (13.3%) were Her2 positive (IHC 2+/3+ and FISH+) and 61 met all eligibility criteria (median age, 64 years; 54/61 males; 50/61 baseline ECOG-PS 0-1; 11 locally advanced and 50 metastatic). There was no significant difference between Arms A and B in median PFS (10.2 versus 8.2 months, respectively, p=0.689), objective response rate (65.5% versus 53.2%, p=0.39), and median overall survival (15.7 versus 14.1 months, respectively, p=0.684). In an exploratory analysis, trastuzumab-treated patients receiving cisplatin rather than carboplatin-based chemotherapy fared better (PFS: 10.6 versus 8.0; OS: 33.1 versus 9.5 months). Myelosuppression was the main grade 3/4 toxicity. A case of grade 3 cardiotoxicity and one death from febrile neutropenia occurred in arm B.

Conclusion: The unexpectedly low incidence of Her2 overexpression precluded the detection of a significant difference in efficacy on addition of trastuzumab to platinum-based chemotherapy with gemcitabine. However, the satisfactory tolerance of the combination warrants further studies, especially of the cisplatin-based combination, in well-defined patient subsets.
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January 2015

Efficacy and Safety of Sequential Use of Everolimus in Patients With Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Previously Treated With Bevacizumab With or Without Interferon Therapy: Results From the European AVATOR Study.

Clin Genitourin Cancer 2015 Jun 20;13(3):231-8. Epub 2014 Nov 20.

Oncology Department, Jean Minjoz Hospital, Besançon, France.

Background: Everolimus is a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor. It gained approval based on the results of the RECORD-1 (Regulation of Coagulation in Orthopedic Surgery to Prevent Deep Venous Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism 1) trial, which included patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) whose disease progressed after receiving vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Bevacizumab is a monoclonal antibody targeting angiogenesis that is approved in patients with mRCC. The sequence of everolimus second-line therapy after failure of bevacizumab ± interferon (IFN) first-line therapy has not yet been studied.

Methods: AVAstin(®) followed by afiniTOR(®) (AVATOR) was a noninterventional retrospective multicenter European observational study of 42 unselected patients with mRCC who were previously or currently treated with everolimus after failure of bevacizumab ± IFN. The primary end point was everolimus progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary end points were related to the overall survival (OS) of patients receiving the drug sequence and everolimus treatment and safety.

Results: Exploring the duration of second-line everolimus treatment, 63.8% of patients received at least 3 months of everolimus and 28.8% received at least 8 months of treatment. At the time of data analysis, 15 patients (36%) were still receiving everolimus, 40% had stopped because of progressive disease, and 24% had discontinued treatment for other reasons. Patients receiving everolimus after bevacizumab experienced a median PFS of 17 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 5 [not reached]). Median OS was not reached with everolimus second-line therapy. At 32 months after the start of first-line therapy, 53.3% of patients were still alive. All grades of common adverse events (AEs) were consistent with the known safety profile of everolimus.

Conclusion: The AVATOR-studied sequence displayed a longer than expected median PFS. Further prospective exploratory studies need to be performed to confirm these encouraging results in a larger cohort of patients.
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June 2015

Personalised chemotherapy based on tumour marker decline in poor prognosis germ-cell tumours (GETUG 13): a phase 3, multicentre, randomised trial.

Lancet Oncol 2014 Dec 13;15(13):1442-1450. Epub 2014 Nov 13.

Hôpital Saint Louis, Department of Cancer Medicine, Paris, France.

Background: Poor prognosis germ-cell tumours are only cured in about half of patients. We aimed to assess whether treatment intensification based on an early tumour marker decline will improve progression-free survival for patients with germ-cell tumours.

Methods: In this phase 3, multicentre, randomised trial, patients were enrolled from France (20 centres), USA (one centre), and Slovakia (one centre). Patients were eligible if they were older than 16 years, had evidence of testicular, retroperitoneal, or mediastinal non-seminomatous germ cell tumours based on histological findings or clinical evidence and highly elevated serum human chorionic gonadotropin or alfa-fetoprotein concentrations that matched International Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group poor prognosis criteria. After one cycle of BEP (intravenous cisplatin [20 mg/m(2) per day for 5 days], etoposide [100 mg/m(2) per day for 5 days], and intramuscular or intravenous bleomycin [30 mg per day on days 1, 8, and 15]), patients' human chorionic gonadotropin and alfa-fetoprotein concentrations were measured at day 18-21. Patients with a favourable decline in human chorionic gonadotropin and alfa-fetoprotein continued BEP (Fav-BEP group) for 3 additonal cycles, whereas patients with an unfavourable decline were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either BEP (Unfav-BEP group) or a dose-dense regimen (Unfav-dose-dense group), consisting of intravenous paclitaxel (175 mg/m(2) over 3 h on day 1) before BEP plus intravenous oxaliplatin (130 mg/m(2) over 3 h on day 10; two cycles), followed by intravenous cisplatin (100 mg/m(2) over 2 h on day 1), intravenous ifosfamide (2 g/m(2) over 3 h on days 10, 12, and 14), plus mesna (500 mg/m(2) at 0, 3, 7 and 11 h), and bleomycin (25 units per day, by continuous infusion for 5 days on days 10-14; two cycles), with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (lenograstim) support. Centrally blocked computer-generated randomisation stratified by centre was used. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival and the efficacy analysis was done in the intention-to-treat population. The planned trial accrual was completed in May, 2012, and follow-up is ongoing. This study is registered with, number NCT00104676.

Findings: Between Nov 28, 2003, and May 16, 2012, 263 patients were enrolled and 254 were available for tumour marker assessment. Of these 51 (20%) had a favourable marker assessment, and 203 (80%) had an unfavourable tumour marker decline; 105 were randomly assigned to the Unfav-dose-dense group and 98 to the Unfav-BEP group. 3-year progression-free survival was 59% (95% CI 49-68) in the Unfav-dose-dense group versus 48% (38-59) in the Unfav-BEP group (HR 0·66, 95% CI 0·44-1·00, p=0·05). 3-year progression-free survival was 70% (95% CI 57-81) in the Fav-BEP group (HR 0·66, 95% CI 0·49-0·88, p=0·01 for progression-free survival compared with the Unfav-BEP group). More grade 3-4 neurotoxic events (seven [7%] vs one [1%]) and haematotoxic events occurred in the Unfav-dose-dense group compared with in the Unfav-BEP group; there was no difference in grade 1-2 febrile neutropenia (18 [17%] vs 18 [18%]) or toxic deaths (one [1%] in both groups). Salvage high-dose chemotherapy plus a stem-cell transplant was required in six (6%) patients in the Unfav-dose-dense group and 16 (16%) in the Unfav-BEP group.

Interpretation: Personalised treatment with chemotherapy intensification reduces the risk of progression or death in patients with poor prognosis germ-cell tumours and an unfavourable tumour marker decline.

Funding: Institut National du Cancer (Programme Hospitalier de Recherche Clinique).
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December 2014

Prognostic Factors for Survival in Noncastrate Metastatic Prostate Cancer: Validation of the Glass Model and Development of a Novel Simplified Prognostic Model.

Eur Urol 2015 Aug 30;68(2):196-204. Epub 2014 Sep 30.

Medical Oncology Department, Clinique Saint-Jean Languedoc, Toulouse, France.

Background: The Glass model developed in 2003 uses prognostic factors for noncastrate metastatic prostate cancer (NCMPC) to define subgroups with good, intermediate, and poor prognosis.

Objective: To validate NCMPC risk groups in a more recently diagnosed population and to develop a more sensitive prognostic model.

Design, Setting, And Participants: NCMPC patients were randomized to receive continuous androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) with or without docetaxel in the GETUG-15 phase 3 trial. Potential prognostic factors were recorded: age, performance status, Gleason score, hemoglobin (Hb), prostate-specific antigen, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), metastatic localization, body mass index, and pain.

Outcome Measurements And Statistical Analysis: These factors were used to develop a new prognostic model using a recursive partitioning method. Before analysis, the data were split into learning and validation sets. The outcome was overall survival (OS).

Results And Limitations: For the 385 patients included, those with good (49%), intermediate (29%), and poor (22%) prognosis had median OS of 69.0, 46.5 and 36.6 mo (p=0.001), and 5-yr survival estimates of 60.7%, 39.4%, and 32.1%, respectively (p=0.001). The most discriminatory variables in univariate analysis were ALP, pain intensity, Hb, LDH, and bone metastases. ALP was the strongest prognostic factor in discriminating patients with good or poor prognosis. In the learning set, median OS in patients with normal and abnormal ALP was 69.1 and 33.6 mo, and 5-yr survival estimates were 62.1% and 23.2%, respectively. The hazard ratio for ALP was 3.11 and 3.13 in the learning and validation sets, respectively. The discriminatory ability of ALP (concordance [C] index 0.64, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.58-0.71) was superior to that of the Glass risk model (C-index 0.59, 95% CI 0.52-0.66). The study limitations include the limited number of patients and low values for the C-index.

Conclusion: A new and simple prognostic model was developed for patients with NCMPC, underlying the role of normal or abnormal ALP.

Patient Summary: We analyzed clinical and biological factors that could affect overall survival in noncastrate metastatic prostate cancer. We showed that normal or abnormal alkaline phosphatase at baseline might be useful in predicting survival.
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August 2015

Genomic and metabolomic insights into the natural product biosynthetic diversity of a feral-hog-associated Brevibacillus laterosporus strain.

PLoS One 2014 3;9(3):e90124. Epub 2014 Mar 3.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma, United States of America; Natural Products Discovery Group, Institute for Natural Products Applications and Research Technologies, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma, United States of America.

Bacteria associated with mammals are a rich source of microbial biodiversity; however, little is known concerning the abilities of these microbes to generate secondary metabolites. This report focuses on a bacterium isolated from the ear of a feral hog from southwestern Oklahoma, USA. The bacterium was identified as a new strain (PE36) of Brevibacillus latersporus, which was shown via genomic analysis to contain a large number of gene clusters presumably involved in secondary metabolite biosynthesis. A scale-up culture of B. latersporus PE36 yielded three bioactive compounds that inhibited the growth of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (basiliskamides A and B and 12-methyltetradecanoic acid). Further studies of the isolate's secondary metabolome provided both new (auripyrazine) and previously-described pyrazine-containing compounds. In addition, a new peptidic natural product (auriporcine) was purified that was determined to be composed of a polyketide unit, two L-proline residues, two D-leucine residues, one L-leucine residue, and a reduced L-phenylalanine (L-phenylalanol). An examination of the genome revealed two gene clusters that are likely responsible for generating the basiliskamides and auriporcine. These combined genomic and chemical studies confirm that new and unusual secondary metabolites can be obtained from the bacterial associates of wild mammals.
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January 2015