Publications by authors named "Christina Monnie"

3 Publications

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HIV-1 Vpr activates host CRL4-DCAF1 E3 ligase to degrade histone deacetylase SIRT7.

Virol J 2021 Mar 1;18(1):48. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Structural Biology and Pittsburgh Center for HIV Protein Interactions, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Biomedical Science Tower 3, RM 1055, 3501 Fifth Ave., Pittsburgh, PA, 15260, USA.

Background: Vpr is a virion-associated protein that is encoded by lentiviruses and serves to counteract intrinsic immunity factors that restrict infection. HIV-1 Vpr mediates proteasome-dependent degradation of several DNA repair/modification proteins. Mechanistically, Vpr directly recruits cellular targets onto DCAF1, a substrate receptor of Cullin 4 RING E3 ubiquitin ligase (CRL4) for poly-ubiquitination. Further, Vpr can mediate poly-ubiquitination of DCAF1-interacting proteins by the CRL4. Because Vpr-mediated degradation of its known targets can not explain the primary cell-cycle arrest phenotype that Vpr expression induces, we surveyed the literature for DNA-repair-associated proteins that interact with the CRL4-DCAF1. One such protein is SIRT7, a deacetylase of histone 3 that belongs to the Sirtuin family and regulates a wide range of cellular processes. We wondered whether Vpr can mediate degradation of SIRT7 via the CRL4-DCAF1.

Methods: HEK293T cells were transfected with cocktails of plasmids expressing DCAF1, DDB1, SIRT7 and Vpr. Ectopic and endogeneous levels of SIRT7 were monitered by immunoblotting and protein-protein interactions were assessed by immunoprecipitation. For in vitro reconstitution assays, recombinant CRL4-DCAF1-Vpr complexes and SIRT7 were prepared and poly-ubiqutination of SIRT7 was monitored with immunoblotting.

Results: We demonstrate SIRT7 polyubiquitination and degradation upon Vpr expression. Specifically, SIRT7 is shown to interact with the CRL4-DCAF1 complex, and expression of Vpr in HEK293T cells results in SIRT7 degradation, which is partially rescued by CRL inhibitor MNL4924 and proteasome inhibitor MG132. Further, in vitro reconstitution assays show that Vpr induces poly-ubiquitination of SIRT7 by the CRL4-DCAF1. Importantly, we find that Vpr from several different HIV-1 strains, but not HIV-2 strains, mediates SIRT7 poly-ubiquitination in the reconstitution assay and degradation in cells. Finally, we show that SIRT7 degradation by Vpr is independent of the known, distinctive phenotype of Vpr-induced cell cycle arrest at the G2 phase, CONCLUSIONS: Targeting histone deacetylase SIRT7 for degradation is a conserved feature of HIV-1 Vpr. Altogether, our findings reveal that HIV-1 Vpr mediates down-regulation of SIRT7 by a mechanism that does not involve novel target recruitment to the CRL4-DCAF1 but instead involves regulation of the E3 ligase activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12985-021-01514-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7923639PMC
March 2021

HIV-1 Vpr Reprograms CLR4 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase to Antagonize Exonuclease 1-Mediated Restriction of HIV-1 Infection.

mBio 2018 10 23;9(5). Epub 2018 Oct 23.

Department of Molecular Biology and Microbiology, Case Western Reserve School of Medicine, Cleveland, Ohio, USA

Viral accessory proteins hijack host cell E3 ubiquitin ligases to antagonize innate/intrinsic defenses and thereby provide a more permissive environment for virus replication. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) accessory protein Vpr reprograms CRL4 E3 to antagonize select postreplication DNA repair enzymes, but the significance and role of these Vpr interactions are poorly understood. To gain additional insights, we performed a focused screen for substrates of CRL4 E3 reprogrammed by HIV-1 Vpr among known postreplication DNA repair proteins and identified exonuclease 1 (Exo1) as a novel direct HIV-1 Vpr target. We show that HIV-1 Vpr recruits Exo1 to the CRL4 E3 complex for ubiquitination and subsequent proteasome-dependent degradation and that Exo1 levels are depleted in HIV-1-infected cells in a Vpr-dependent manner. We also show that Exo1 inhibits HIV-1 replication in T cells. Notably, the antagonism of Exo1 is a conserved function of main group HIV-1 and its ancestor Vpr proteins in the simian immunodeficiency virus from chimpanzee (SIVcpz) lineage, further underscoring the relevance of our findings. Overall, our studies (i) reveal that HIV-1 Vpr extensively remodels the cellular postreplication DNA repair machinery by impinging on multiple repair pathways, (ii) support a model in which Vpr promotes HIV-1 replication by antagonizing select DNA repair enzymes, and (iii) highlight the importance of a new class of restrictions placed on HIV-1 replication in T cells by the cellular DNA repair machinery. HIV-1 polymerase reverse transcribes the viral RNA genome into imperfectly double-stranded proviral DNA, containing gaps and flaps, for integration into the host cell chromosome. HIV-1 reverse transcripts share characteristics with cellular DNA replication intermediates and are thought to be converted into fully double-stranded DNA by cellular postreplication DNA repair enzymes. Therefore, the finding that the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr antagonizes select postreplication DNA repair enzymes that can process HIV-1 reverse transcripts has been surprising. Here, we show that one such Vpr-antagonized enzyme, exonuclease 1, inhibits HIV-1 replication in T cells. We identify exonuclease 1 as a member of a new class of HIV-1 restriction factors in T cells and propose that certain modes of DNA "repair" inhibit HIV-1 infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01732-18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6199497PMC
October 2018

HIV-1 Vpr protein directly loads helicase-like transcription factor (HLTF) onto the CRL4-DCAF1 E3 ubiquitin ligase.

J Biol Chem 2017 12 27;292(51):21117-21127. Epub 2017 Oct 27.

From the Department of Structural Biology and Pittsburgh Center for HIV Protein Interactions, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15260 and

The viral protein R (Vpr) is an accessory virulence factor of HIV-1 that facilitates infection in immune cells. Cellular functions of Vpr are tied to its interaction with DCAF1, a substrate receptor component of the CRL4 E3 ubiquitin ligase. Recent proteomic approaches suggested that Vpr degrades helicase-like transcription factor (HLTF) DNA helicase in a proteasome-dependent manner by redirecting the CRL4-DCAF1 E3 ligase. However, the precise molecular mechanism of Vpr-dependent HLTF depletion is not known. Here, using reconstitution assays, we show that Vpr mediates polyubiquitination of HLTF, by directly loading it onto the C-terminal WD40 domain of DCAF1 in complex with the CRL4 E3 ubiquitin ligase. Mutational analyses suggest that Vpr interacts with DNA-binding residues in the N-terminal HIRAN domain of HLTF in a manner similar to the recruitment of another target, uracil DNA glycosylase (UNG2), to the CRL4-DCAF1 E3 by Vpr. Strikingly, Vpr also engages a second, adjacent region, which connects the HIRAN and ATPase/helicase domains. Thus, our findings reveal that Vpr utilizes common as well as distinctive interfaces to recruit multiple postreplication DNA repair proteins to the CRL4-DCAF1 E3 ligase for ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal degradation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M117.798801DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5743084PMC
December 2017