Publications by authors named "Christina Finlayson"

23 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Re-excision rates after breast conserving surgery following the 2014 SSO-ASTRO guidelines.

Am J Surg 2017 Dec 20;214(6):1104-1109. Epub 2017 Sep 20.

University of Colorado School of Medicine, Department of Surgery, Aurora, CO, USA. Electronic address:

Background: In 2014, SSO-ASTRO published guidelines which recommended "no ink on tumor" as adequate margins for patients undergoing breast conservation for invasive breast cancer. In 2016, new SSO-ASTRO-ASCO guidelines recommended 2 mm margins for DCIS. We evaluated whether these guidelines affected re-excision rates at our institution.

Methods: Patients treated with breast conservation surgery from January 1, 2010-March 1, 2016 were identified. Re-excision rates, tumor characteristics, and presence of residual disease were recorded. The 2016 guidelines were retrospectively applied to the same cohort and expected re-excision rates calculated.

Results: Re-excision rates did not significantly decline before and after 2014 guideline adoption (11.9% before, 10.9% after; p = 0.65) or when the 2016 guidelines were retrospectively applied (8.4%; p = 0.10).

Conclusions: The 2014 and 2016 guidelines had minimal impact on our re-excision rates, as most re-excisions were done for DCIS and 2016 guidelines supported our prior institutional practices of 2 mm margins for these patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjsurg.2017.08.023DOI Listing
December 2017

Breast Cancer Following Radiation for Hodgkin Lymphoma: Clinical Scenarios and Risk-Reducing Strategies.

Oncology (Williston Park) 2016 12;30(12):1063-70

Since most patients with Hodgkin lymphoma survive their disease, long-term issues such as development of second primary malignancies arise, especially in patients treated with multimodal therapy including radiation therapy plus chemotherapy. The risk of breast cancer is significantly elevated in women exposed to high-dose ionizing radiation to the chest before age 40. The case of a 48-year-old patient with a lump in her right breast is presented as a clinical scenario in this article. We review available strategies for screening and risk reduction through chemoprevention or risk-reducing surgery, as well as challenges for management of breast cancer in patients with prior exposure to radiation for Hodgkin lymphoma. The Children's Oncology Group clinical practice guidelines for long-term follow-up care of pediatric cancer survivors provide recommendations that have been endorsed by American and European oncologists.
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December 2016

Patient-derived luminal breast cancer xenografts retain hormone receptor heterogeneity and help define unique estrogen-dependent gene signatures.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2012 Sep 24;135(2):415-32. Epub 2012 Jul 24.

Department of Medicine, Division of Medical Oncology, University of Colorado Denver Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, USA.

Bypassing estrogen receptor (ER) signaling during development of endocrine resistance remains the most common cause of disease progression and mortality in breast cancer patients. To date, the majority of molecular research on ER action in breast cancer has occurred in cell line models derived from late stage disease. Here we describe patient-derived ER+ luminal breast tumor models for the study of intratumoral hormone and receptor action. Human breast tumor samples obtained from patients post surgery were immediately transplanted into NOD/SCID or NOD/SCID/ILIIrg(-/-) mice under estrogen supplementation. Five transplantable patient-derived ER+ breast cancer xenografts were established, derived from both primary and metastatic cases. These were assessed for estrogen dependency, steroid receptor expression, cancer stem cell content, and endocrine therapy response. Gene expression patterns were determined in select tumors ±estrogen and ±endocrine therapy. Xenografts morphologically resembled the patient tumors of origin, and expressed similar levels of ER (5-99 %), and progesterone and androgen receptors, over multiple passages. Four of the tumor xenografts were estrogen dependent, and tamoxifen or estrogen withdrawal (EWD) treatment abrogated estrogen-dependent growth and/or tumor morphology. Analysis of the ER transcriptome in select tumors revealed notable differences in ER mechanism of action, and downstream activated signaling networks, in addition to identifying a small set of common estrogen-regulated genes. Treatment of a naïve tumor with tamoxifen or EWD showed similar phenotypic responses, but relatively few similarities in estrogen-dependent transcription, and affected signaling pathways. Several core estrogen centric genes were shared with traditional cell line models. However, novel tumor-specific estrogen-regulated potential target genes, such as cancer/testis antigen 45, were uncovered. These results evoke the importance of mapping both conserved and tumor-unique ER programs in breast cancers. Furthermore, they underscore the importance of primary xenografts for improved understanding of ER+ breast cancer heterogeneity and development of personalized therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-012-2164-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3818141PMC
September 2012

Cytokeratin 5 positive cells represent a steroid receptor negative and therapy resistant subpopulation in luminal breast cancers.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2011 Jul 28;128(1):45-55. Epub 2010 Jul 28.

Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, 80045, USA.

A majority of breast cancers are estrogen receptor (ER) positive and have a luminal epithelial phenotype. However, these ER⁺ tumors often contain heterogeneous subpopulations of ER⁻ tumor cells. We previously identified a population of cytokeratin 5 (CK5) positive cells within ER⁺ and progesterone receptor positive (PR⁺) tumors that is both ER⁻PR⁻ and CD44⁺, a marker of breast tumor-initiating cells (TICs). These CK5⁺ cells have properties of TICs in luminal tumor xenografts, and we speculated that they are more resistant to chemo- and anti-ER-targeted therapies than their ER⁺ neighbors. To test this, we used ER⁺PR⁺ T47D and MCF7 breast cancer cells. CK5⁺ cells had lower proliferative indices than CK5⁻ cells, were less sensitive to 5-fluorouracil and docetaxel, and cultures became enriched for CK5⁺ cells after treatments. CK5⁺ cells were less prone to drug-induced apoptosis than CK5⁻ cells. In cells treated with 17β-estradiol (E) plus anti-estrogens tamoxifen or fulvestrant, ER protein levels decreased, and CK5 protein levels increased, compared to controls treated with E alone. In ER⁺ tumors from patients treated with neoadjuvant endocrine therapies ER gene expression decreased, and CK5 gene expression increased in post compared to pre-treatment tumors. The number of CK5⁺ cells in tumors also increased in post- compared to pre-treatment tumors. We conclude that an ER⁻PR⁻CK5⁺ subpopulation found in many luminal tumors is resistant to standard endocrine and chemotherapies, relative to the majority ER⁺PR⁺CK5⁻ cells. Compounds that effectively target these cells are needed to improve outcome in luminal breast cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-010-1078-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3851293PMC
July 2011

Discovery and verification of protein differences between Er positive/Her2/neu negative breast tumor tissue and matched adjacent normal breast tissue.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2010 Nov 20;124(2):297-305. Epub 2010 Jan 20.

Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA.

This study was designed to quantify and identify differences in protein levels between tumor and adjacent normal breast tissue from the same breast in 18 women with stage I/II ER positive/Her2/neu negative invasive breast cancer. Eighteen separate difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) gels were run (1 gel per patient). Relative quantification was based on DIGE analysis. After excision and tryptic digestion, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and peptide mass mapping were used to identify protein spots. Two hundred and forty-three spots were differentially abundant between normal and cancer tissues. Fifty spots were identified: 41 were over abundant and nine were less abundant in cancers than in normal breast tissue. Western blotting provided independent confirmation for three of the most biologically and statistically interesting proteins. All 18 gels were replicated by another technician and 32% of the differentially abundant proteins were verified by the duplicate analysis. Follow-up studies are now examining these proteins as biomarkers in blood.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-009-0721-6DOI Listing
November 2010

Early-stage BRCA2-linked breast cancer diagnosed in the first trimester of pregnancy associated with a hypercoagulable state.

Oncology (Williston Park) 2009 Aug;23(9):784-91

Division of Medical Oncology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado, USA.

This patient was found to have a BRCA2 gene mutation. She underwent lumpectomy and axillary lymph node dissection without any evidence of lymph node metastasis. Systemic chemotherapy with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide for four cycles was administered beginning in the second trimester. She was treated with prophylactic LMWH until delivery and then for 6 weeks postpartum. She delivered a healthy baby boy and, after a period of breast-feeding, underwent bilateral mastectomy with immediate reconstruction. She remains well and is expecting her second child. Prophylactic oophorectomy is planned after completion of this pregnancy.
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August 2009

Hepatic complications of breast cancer.

Lancet Oncol 2009 Jun;10(6):615-21

Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Cancer Center, University of Colorado at Denver Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO 80045, USA.

Hepatic disease associated with breast cancer is common and can result from metastatic spread of the tumour to the liver, or can be caused by systemic treatment with chemotherapeutic or antiendocrine agents. Metastatic disease to the liver can present clinically and pathologically in various ways. Little is known as to why breast cancer can sometimes present as liver dominant disease or with liver involvement as a late event in the disease course. However, there are many postulations involving metastasis organotropism, which might offer future insight. The mainstay of treatment for hepatic metastases continues to be systemic therapy, but several locoregional adjunct therapies exist. Despite these therapies, liver metastasis from breast cancer is associated with a poor prognosis. Ongoing research of the mechanisms and tropism of liver metastasis from breast cancer will hopefully result in improved targeted therapies to reduce their incidence and improve outcomes when they arise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(09)70029-4DOI Listing
June 2009

A perimenopausal woman with a small, ER/HER2-positive, node-negative breast cancer.

Oncology (Williston Park) 2008 Oct;22(11):1270-6

Department of Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine Aurora, Colorado 80045, USA.

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October 2008

Immunomodulatory therapy in multiple sclerosis and breast cancer risk: a case report and literature review.

Clin Breast Cancer 2008 Oct;8(5):449-52

Department of Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045, USA.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system frequently complicated by devastating neurologic symptoms and progressive disability. Much progress has been made in the development of immunomodulating drugs to help fight the progression of MS. These drugs are believed to work by interacting with various immune system components to reduce the amount of autoimmune destruction to the nervous system. We report 2 cases of women with MS on immunomodulatory therapy who presented with locally advanced breast cancer with aggressive biologic phenotypes and exceptionally poor outcomes. We consider the potential for an increased risk of developing a poorer-prognosis breast cancer as a result of concomitant immunomodulatory effects of the previous MS treatment, particularly the effects the drugs are reported to have on regulatory T cells, and therefore present these cases and a review of the current literature. Current data in the literature reflect the need for further study in ascertaining the risk of biologically poor-prognosis breast cancer development in patients with MS treated with immunomodulatory therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3816/CBC.2008.n.055DOI Listing
October 2008

Impact of postmastectomy radiotherapy in T3N0 invasive carcinoma of the breast: a Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database analysis.

Cancer 2008 Aug;113(4):683-9

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Comprehensive Cancer Center, Aurora, Colorado 80045-0508, USA.

Background: Randomized trials provide evidence for improved outcomes with postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) in high-risk patients. It has been suggested that patients with T3N0 breast cancer represent a favorable subgroup for which PMRT renders little benefit. In the current study, the authors used a United States population database to evaluate PMRT in this subgroup.

Methods: The cause-specific survival (CSS) and overall survival (OS) of women with T3N0M0 breast cancer in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database after mastectomy and axillary staging from 1988 to 2002 were analyzed. Univariate analysis was performed to relate CSS with PMRT (yes vs no), tumor size (< or =7 cm vs >7 cm), grade (1 vs 2 or 3), patient age (< or =50 years vs >50 years), the number of lymph nodes dissected (< or =13 vs >13), and the era treated (1988-1997 vs 1998-2002). Multivariate analyses for CSS and OS were also performed.

Results: In total, 1865 women met the analysis criteria for OS; CSS data were available for 98.8% of those women. Of the women who were diagnosed during the era from 1988 to 1997, 22% received PMRT, and that rate increased to 41% during the era from 1998 to 2002. The actuarial 10-year CSS for those who received PMRT versus those who did not receive PMRT was 81.6% versus 79.8%, respectively (P = .38). PMRT was not associated with a CSS benefit in any subgroup, a finding that persisted in multivariate analyses. Women who received PMRT had an increased 10-year OS rate (70.7% vs 58.4%; P < .001) that was confined to women aged >50 years in a subgroup analysis.

Conclusions: This retrospective, population-based analysis demonstrated no increase in CSS with PMRT for women with T3N0 breast cancer, lending further support to the hypothesis that T3N0 disease postmastectomy represents a favorable subset of locally advanced breast cancer. The increased OS associated with PMRT in the absence of improved CSS likely reflects patient selection in this nonrandomized dataset. Prospective evaluation of PMRT in this population subset is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.23611DOI Listing
August 2008

Estrogen regulated gene expression in response to neoadjuvant endocrine therapy of breast cancers: tamoxifen agonist effects dominate in the presence of an aromatase inhibitor.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2008 Dec 13;112(3):489-501. Epub 2008 Mar 13.

Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center at Fitzsimons, Aurora, CO 80045, USA.

Estrogens (E) and estrogen receptors (ER) are implicated in breast cancer growth and are targets of hormonal therapies. Such therapies commonly use aromatase inhibitors (AI) to block E production, or antiestrogens like tamoxifen (TAM), which targets ER. Here we compare genes in pre-and post-treatment tumor pairs of patients with ER+ tumors, that were treated preoperatively with the AI exemestane alone, or with exemestane plus TAM. The accompanying manuscript shows that tumors from patients treated with AI + TAM responded less well than tumors treated with AI alone. The present manuscript defines the E-signaling mechanisms underlying these differences, and describes genetic differences between hormone responsive versus intrinsically resistant ER+ tumors. Gene expression profiling was performed on paired tumor biopsies of individual patients before treatment, and after 4 months of treatment with AI or AI + TAM. Separately, E and TAM regulated genes were defined using a human breast cancer xenograft model. We demonstrate: (1) that AI alone alters global gene expression approximately 5 times more than AI + TAM, and is 11 times more effective in modifying expression of E regulated genes; (2) among E regulated genes, there is little overlap between AI and AI + TAM treatment groups. AI + TAM preferentially induce genes, like androgen receptors, expressing TAM "E-like" agonist activity, or genes uniquely regulated by TAM. (3) A pre-treatment 25 gene signature of ER+ tumors may predict response or intrinsic resistance to endocrine therapies. We conclude that in the presence of exemestane, the agonist properties of TAM are paradoxically exposed, diminishing the effectiveness of combination therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-008-9923-6DOI Listing
December 2008

Molecular signatures of neoadjuvant endocrine therapy for breast cancer: characteristics of response or intrinsic resistance.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2008 Dec 9;112(3):475-88. Epub 2008 Mar 9.

Department of Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Aurora, CO 80045, USA.

Approximately 30% of patients with estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancers exhibit de novo or intrinsic resistance to endocrine therapies. The purpose of this study was to define genes that distinguish ER+ resistant from ER+ responsive tumors, prior to the start of hormone therapies. Previously untreated post-menopausal patients with ER+ breast cancers were treated for 4 months in a neoadjuvant setting with the aromatase inhibitor exemestane alone, or in combination with the antiestrogen tamoxifen. Matched pre- and post-treatment tumor samples from the same patient, were analyzed by gene expression profiling and were correlated with response to treatment. Genes associated with tumor shrinkage achieved by estrogen blockade therapy were identified, as were genes associated with resistance to treatment. Prediction Analysis of Microarrays (PAM) identified 50 genes that can predict response or intrinsic resistance to neoadjuvant endocrine therapy of ER+ tumors, 8 of which have been previously implicated as useful biomarkers in breast cancer. In summary, we identify genes associated with response to endocrine therapy that may distinguish ER+, hormone responsive breast cancers, from ER+ tumors that exhibit intrinsic or de novo resistance. We suggest that the estrogen signaling pathway is aberrant in ER+ tumors with intrinsic resistance. Lastly, the studies show upregulation of a "lipogenic pathway" in non-responsive ER+ tumors that may serve as a marker of intrinsic resistance. This pathway may represent an alternative target for therapeutic intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-008-9897-4DOI Listing
December 2008

Evaluation of breast sentinel lymph node coverage by standard radiation therapy fields.

Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2008 Apr 29;70(5):1468-71. Epub 2007 Oct 29.

Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Colorado Cancer Center, Aurora, CO 80045, USA.

Background: Biopsy of the breast sentinel lymph node (SLN) is now a standard staging procedure for early-stage invasive breast cancer. The anatomic location of the breast SLN and its relationship to standard radiation fields has not been described.

Methods And Materials: A retrospective review of radiotherapy treatment planning data sets was performed in patients with breast cancer who had undergone SLN biopsy, and those with a surgical clip at the SLN biopsy site were identified. The location of the clip was evaluated relative to vertebral body level on an anterior-posterior digitally reconstructed radiograph, treated whole-breast tangential radiation fields, and standard axillary fields in 106 data sets meeting these criteria.

Results: The breast SLN varied in vertebral body level position, ranging from T2 to T7 but most commonly opposite T4. The SLN clip was located below the base of the clavicle in 90%, and hence would be excluded from standard axillary radiotherapy fields where the inferior border is placed at this level. The clip was within the irradiated whole-breast tangent fields in 78%, beneath the superior-posterior corner multileaf collimators in 12%, and outside the tangent field borders in 10%.

Conclusions: Standard axillary fields do not encompass the lymph nodes at highest risk of containing tumor in breast cancer patients. Elimination of the superior-posterior corner MLCs from the tangent field design would result in inclusion of the breast SLN in 90% of patients treated with standard whole-breast irradiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijrobp.2007.08.064DOI Listing
April 2008

Intracystic papillary carcinoma of the breast: differential diagnosis and management.

Oncology (Williston Park) 2007 Jun;21(7):871-6

Department of Pathology, University of Colorado at Denver Health Sciences Center, Denver, Colorado 80045, USA.

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June 2007

Melatonin and estrogen in breast cyst fluids.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2007 Jul 24;103(3):331-41. Epub 2006 Oct 24.

Cancer Prevention and Control Program, Center for Colon Cancer Research, WJB Dorn Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208, USA.

Increased breast cancer risks have been reported among women with gross cystic breast disease (GCBD), although the mechanism for this increase remains unexplained. Relationships between GCBD characteristics, breast cancer risk factors, and the biochemical composition and growth properties of 142 breast cyst fluid (BCF) samples were studied among 93 women with GCBD. Concentrations of melatonin, estrogen (17-beta-estradiol), dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S), epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-B1 and TGF-B2), sodium (Na), and potassium (K) were quantified in BCF samples, and human breast cancer cells (MCF-7) were treated with BCF in vitro. Patients were grouped according to BCF Na:K ratios previously linked with increased breast cancer risks (Na:K 3, Type 2) and mixed cyst groups. Women with larger and more frequently occurring cysts had higher BCF estrogen and DHEA-S, and lower TGF-B1 levels. Women with Type 1 cysts had elevated BCF melatonin, estrogen, DHEA-S, and EGF, and lower concentrations of TGF-B2 compared to women with Type 2 cysts. BCF generally inhibited cell growth relative to serum-treated controls, consistent with previous studies. Melatonin and estrogen in BCF independently predicted growth inhibition and stimulation, respectively. Biological monitoring of BCF may help identify women with GCBD at greatest risk for breast cancer development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-006-9372-zDOI Listing
July 2007

A woman with primary breast cancer and a solitary sternal metastasis.

Oncology (Williston Park) 2006 Aug;20(9):1068-71, 1075, 1079-80

Division of Medical Oncology, University of Colorado, Health Sciences Center, USA.

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August 2006

Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and proliferation marker MIB1 are influenced by neoadjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced breast cancer.

Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol 2005 Jun;13(2):147-56

Department of Pathology, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO 80262, USA.

Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) has become the standard of care for patients with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). This was a retrospective review of 21 consecutive women who received NACT as initial treatment of LABC, followed by surgical excision. The pre- and post-treatment breast specimens and post-treatment axillary lymph nodes with metastases were immunostained to evaluate for proliferative index (PI) (MIB-1 Immunotech) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression (Santa Cruz, CA, clone A-20). Thirteen of the 21 patients (62%) had more than 50% tumor shrinkage following NACT. The breast's mean PI decreased from 47.86% to 23.95% after treatment (P = 0.005). The mean PI in the post-treatment lymph nodes was 24.47%. A nodal post-NACT PI of less than 10% and progesterone receptor-positive tumor status were associated with better survival, as all such patients are alive. A high PI after NACT was associated with recurrence or death. All of the patients who showed an excellent clinical response had either a decrease in the PI or an absence of a high level of VEGF after NACT. Most patients exhibited persistent expression of VEGF after NACT. Pathologic response in the primary tumor did not correlate with the response in the lymph nodes or with overall survival. NACT reduces the size and PI of the primary breast tumor independent of the patient's node status. The PI may be an early means by which to identify tumors most likely to reduce in size with chemotherapy. A low PI after NACT is associated with better survival. There is persistent expression of VEGF in post-NACT residual breast carcinoma. Thus, anti-VEGF drugs after conventional chemotherapy may benefit patients with residual carcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.pai.0000137364.36091.b0DOI Listing
June 2005

A postmenopausal woman with early-stage breast cancer and borderline hormone-receptor staining.

Oncology (Williston Park) 2005 Mar;19(3):278, 283-4, 287 passim

Division of Medical Oncology, Denver Health Medical Center, USA.

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March 2005

Enhanced insulin signaling via Shc in human breast cancer.

Metabolism 2003 Dec;52(12):1606-11

Department of Surgery, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, USA.

Insulin is a mild mitogen and has been shown to potentiate mitogenic influence of other growth factors. Because hyperinsulinemia and/or overexpression of insulin receptors have been linked to development, progression, and outcome of breast cancer, we attempted to evaluate the mechanism of these associations. We have compared the expression of insulin receptors and the magnitude of insulin signaling in breast tumors and adjacent normal mammary tissue samples obtained from 20 patients. We observed that insulin binding more than doubled in the tumors as compared with the normal tissue (P <.01 by paired t test). Insulin signaling to Shc, judged by the magnitude of its phosphorylation, was also significantly enhanced in the tumors. In contrast, the phosphorylation of the insulin-receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1), Akt, and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase were identical in the tumorous and normal mammary tissues. Finally, tumors displayed significantly increased amounts of farnesylated p21 Ras and geranylgeranylated Rho-A (P <.01), consistent with Shc-dependent activation of farnesyl (FTase) and geranylgeranyl transferases (GGTase) in the tumor tissue. We conclude that the mechanism of the mitogenic influence of insulin in breast cancer may include increased expression of insulin receptors, preferential hyperphosphorylation of Shc, and increased amounts of prenylated p21 Ras and Rho-A in tumor tissue as compared with adjacent normal mammary tissue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0026-0495(03)00311-1DOI Listing
December 2003

Urachal carcinoma: key points for the general surgeon.

Am Surg 2002 Feb;68(2):201-3

Department of Surgery, University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver 80262, USA.

Urachal carcinoma is a rare neoplasm with the majority of cases reported in the urologic literature. Because of its presentation as an intra-abdominal mass with involvement of adjacent structures the general surgeon may be consulted early in the diagnostic evaluation. One should be aware of this entity as early recognition and appropriate surgery provides the best opportunity for long-term survival. Herein we describe a typical case, appropriate evaluation, and review of the literature.
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February 2002
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