Publications by authors named "Christian Schinke"

6 Publications

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Modeling chemotherapy induced neurotoxicity with human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) -derived sensory neurons.

Neurobiol Dis 2021 Jul 11;155:105391. Epub 2021 May 11.

Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin and Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Klinik und Hochschulambulanz für Neurologie, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin, Germany; Berlin Institute of Health at Charité, Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Anna-Louisa-Karsch Straße 2, 10178 Berlin, Germany; Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, NeuroCure Cluster of Excellence, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin, Germany; Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, corporate member of Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Center for Stroke Research Berlin, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin, Germany; German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), partner site Berlin, Germany; German Center for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK), partner site Berlin, Germany.

Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a frequent, potentially irreversible adverse effect of cytotoxic chemotherapy often leading to a reduction or discontinuation of treatment which negatively impacts patients' prognosis. To date, however, neither predictive biomarkers nor preventive treatments for CIPN are available, which is partially due to a lack of suitable experimental models. We therefore aimed to evaluate whether sensory neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC-DSN) can serve as human disease model system for CIPN. Treatment of iPSC-DSN for 24 h with the neurotoxic drugs paclitaxel, bortezomib, vincristine and cisplatin led to axonal blebbing and a dose dependent decline of cell viability in clinically relevant IC ranges, which was not observed for the non-neurotoxic compounds doxorubicin and 5-fluorouracil. Paclitaxel treatment effects were less pronounced after 24 h but prominent when treatment was applied for 72 h. Global transcriptome analyses performed at 24 h, i.e. before paclitaxel-induced cell death occurred, revealed the differential expression of genes of neuronal injury, cellular stress response, and sterol pathways. We further evaluated if known neuroprotective strategies can be reproduced in iPSC-DSN and observed protective effects of lithium replicating findings from rodent dorsal root ganglia cells. Comparing sensory neurons derived from two different healthy donors, we found preliminary evidence that these cell lines react differentially to neurotoxic drugs as expected from the variable presentation of CIPN in patients. In conclusion, iPSC-DSN are a promising platform to study the pathogenesis of CIPN and to evaluate neuroprotective treatment strategies. In the future, the application of patient-specific iPSC-DSN could open new avenues for personalized medicine with individual risk prediction, choice of chemotherapeutic compounds and preventive treatments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nbd.2021.105391DOI Listing
July 2021

Changes of central noradrenaline transporter availability in immunotherapy-naïve multiple sclerosis patients.

Sci Rep 2020 09 4;10(1):14651. Epub 2020 Sep 4.

Department of Neurology, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.

The neurotransmitter noradrenaline (NA) mediates arousal, attention and mood, and exerts anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects. Alterations of monoamine signalling were reported in multiple sclerosis (MS) and psychiatric illness and may account for the high prevalence of comorbid depression and fatigue in MS patients. We assessed central noradrenaline transporter (NAT) availability using positron emission tomography (PET) and the NAT selective radiotracer S,S-[C]O-methylreboxetine in immunotherapy-naïve patients with relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS; n = 11) compared to healthy controls (HC; n = 12), and its association to lesion load, time since manifestation, the expanded disability status scale (EDSS), the fatigue scale Würzburger Erschöpfungsinventar bei MS (WEIMuS) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). We found NAT availability to be increased in the thalamus, amygdala, putamen and pons/midbrain of MS patients. No relation to clinical or psychometric variables was found. These first data indicate higher NAT availability in subcortical brain regions of immunotherapy-naïve RRMS patients. If these changes of noradrenergic neurotransmission predispose to psychiatric symptoms or associate with disease activity needs to be investigated in longitudinal studies or a larger sample which allows subgroup analyses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-70732-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7474089PMC
September 2020

A case report of delayed cortical infarction adjacent to sulcal clots after traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage in the absence of proximal vasospasm.

BMC Neurol 2018 Dec 18;18(1):210. Epub 2018 Dec 18.

Department of Neurology, Charité - Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin Institute of Health, Berlin, Germany.

Background: Cortical ischemic lesions represent the predominant pathomorphological pattern of focal lesions after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Autopsy studies suggest that they occur adjacent to subarachnoid blood and are related to spasm of small cortical rather than proximal arteries. Recent clinical monitoring studies showed that cortical spreading depolarizations, which induce cortical arterial spasms, are involved in lesion development. If subarachnoid blood induces adjacent cortical lesions, it would be expected that (i) they also develop after traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (tSAH), and (ii) lesions after tSAH can occur in absence of angiographic vasospasm, as was found for aSAH.

Case Presentation: An 86-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with fluctuating consciousness after hitting her head during a fall. The initial computed tomography (CT) was significant for tSAH in cortical sulci. On day 8, the patient experienced a secondary neurological deterioration with reduced consciousness and global aphasia. Whereas the CT scan on day 9 was still unremarkable, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on day 10 revealed new cortical laminar infarcts adjacent to sulcal blood clots. Proximal vasospasm was ruled out using MR and CT angiography and Doppler sonography. CT on day 14 confirmed the delayed infarcts.

Conclusions: We describe a case of delayed cortical infarcts around sulcal blood clots after tSAH in the absence of proximal vasospasm, similar to results found previously for aSAH. As for aSAH, this case suggests that assessment of angiographic vasospasm is not sufficient to screen for risk of delayed infarcts after tSAH. Electrocorticography is suggested as a complementary method to monitor the hypothesized mechanism of spreading depolarizations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12883-018-1217-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6297952PMC
December 2018

Central noradrenaline transporter availability is linked with HPA axis responsiveness and copeptin in human obesity and non-obese controls.

Stress 2019 01 29;22(1):93-102. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

a Integrated Research and Treatment Center (IFB) Adiposity Diseases , Leipzig University Medical Center , Leipzig , Germany.

The central noradrenaline (NA) stress-response network co-mediates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) release. Dysregulation of these systems contributes to stress-related diseases such as human obesity, but their interrelation remains unclear. The study was aimed to test for the first time in vivo whether central noradrenergic activity quantitatively indexed by the availability of the presynaptic NA transporter (NAT) is associated with HPA axis responsiveness as measured with the combined dexamethasone suppression/corticotropin releasing hormone stimulation (dex/CRH) test and copeptin as a surrogate marker of the serum AVP tone in highly obese, otherwise, healthy individuals compared to age- and sex-matched non-obese, healthy controls. In order to assess central NAT availability, positron emission tomography (PET) was applied using the NAT-selective radiotracer S,S-[C]O-methylreboxetine (MRB) and correlated with curve indicators derived from the dex/CRH test (maximum, MAX, and area under the curve, AUC, for cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone, ACTH) as well as with copeptin. In non-obese controls, positive correlations were found between the NAT distribution volume ratios (DVR) of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and the amygdala with the HPA response (OFC: ACTH r = 0.87, p = .001; cortisol r = 0.86, p = .002; amygdala: ACTH r = 0.86, p = .002; cortisol r = 0.79, p = .006), while in obesity, the hypothalamic DVR correlated inversely with the HPA axis response (cortisol, r = -0.66, p = .04) and with copeptin (r = -0.71, p = .02). This association of central NAT availability with HPA axis responsiveness and copeptin suggests a mechanistic interaction between noradrenergic transmission with HPA axis activity and the serum AVP system that differs between non-obese individuals with prefrontal-limbic involvement and obesity with a hypothalamic-centered relationship. Whether the latter finding contributes to obesogenic behavior needs to be further explored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10253890.2018.1511698DOI Listing
January 2019

Post-dexamethasone serum copeptin corresponds to HPA axis responsiveness in human obesity.

Psychoneuroendocrinology 2017 04 16;78:39-47. Epub 2017 Jan 16.

Department of Neurology, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany; Translational Centre for Regenerative Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany. Electronic address:

Context: Increased activities of the arginine-vasopressin (AVP) system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis were shown to be associated with human obesity, but relationships between these systems in obesity remain unclear.

Objectives: To assess HPA axis responsiveness and its relation to serum concentrations of the AVP-surrogate copeptin in subjects with obesity (OB) in comparison to non-obesity controls (NOC).

Methods: In a cross-sectional monocentric study, thirty-nine OB (f/m 25/14; age 36.5±10.0years; body mass index, BMI, 41.5±4.7kg/m) were compared to twenty-two NOC (f/m 12/10; age 35.3±8.5years; BMI 23.1±2.4kg/m), matched for age and sex. All individuals underwent the combined dexamethasone/CRH test.

Main Outcome Measures: Plasma ACTH and cortisol curve indicators derived from the dex/CRH test (post-CRH concentrations 30min after 100μg CRH; maximum concentration, MAX; area-under-the-curve, AUC; ACTH/cortisol ratios). Copeptin was assessed in 1500h samples of the dex/CRH test (after 1.5mg of oral dexamethasone, prior to CRH administration).

Results: Copeptin serum concentrations were higher in OB (median [IQR]: OB 4.62 [2.60-5.88] vs. NOC 3.04 [2.52-4.29] pmol/l, P=0.04). Correspondingly, OB showed higher post-CRH cortisol concentrations (OB: 51.5 [25.9-159.3] vs. NOC: 28.6 [20.0-41.6] nmol/l, P=0.01) and a lower post-CRH ACTH/cortisol ratio (OB: 0.028 [0.016-0.053] vs. NOC: 0.048 [0.034-0.070] pmol/nmol, P<0.01). Serum copeptin was significantly associated with HPA responsiveness in OB (post-CRH ACTH: R=0.42, P<0.01), driven by OB men (post-CRH ACTH: R=0.76, P<0.01, post-CRH cortisol: R=0.64, P=0.02). All associations withstand adjustments for BMI and age.

Conclusions: The association between increased copeptin with ACTH and cortisol release suggests a potential mechanistic interaction of the AVP system with HPA activation in human obesity. The relation of copeptin and HPA responsiveness should be further validated in situations with pronounced HPA activation, such as depression or multiple sclerosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2017.01.004DOI Listing
April 2017

Central serotonin transporter availability in highly obese individuals compared with non-obese controls: A [(11)C] DASB positron emission tomography study.

Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2016 Jun 18;43(6):1096-104. Epub 2015 Nov 18.

Department of Nuclear Medicine, University of Leipzig, Liebigstraße 18, 04103, Leipzig, Germany.

Purpose: The role of the central serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system in feeding has been extensively studied in animals with the 5-HT family of transporters (5-HTT) being identified as key molecules in the regulation of satiety and body weight. Aberrant 5-HT transmission has been implicated in the pathogenesis of human obesity by in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging techniques. However, results obtained thus far from studies of central 5-HTT availability have been inconsistent, which is thought to be brought about mainly by the low number of individuals with a high body mass index (BMI) previously used. The aim of this study was therefore to assess 5-HTT availability in the brains of highly obese otherwise healthy individuals compared with non-obese healthy controls.

Methods: We performed PET using the 5-HTT selective radiotracer [(11)C] DASB on 30 highly obese (BMI range between 35 and 55 kg/m(2)) and 15 age- and sex-matched non-obese volunteers (BMI range between 19 and 27 kg/m(2)) in a cross-sectional study design. The 5-HTT binding potential (BPND) was used as the outcome parameter.

Results: On a group level, there was no significant difference in 5-HTT BPND in various cortical and subcortical regions in individuals with the highest BMI compared with non-obese controls, while statistical models showed minor effects of age, sex, and the degree of depression on 5-HTT BPND.

Conclusion: The overall finding of a lack of significantly altered 5-HTT availability together with its high variance in obese individuals justifies the investigation of individual behavioral responses to external and internal cues which may further define distinct phenotypes and subgroups in human obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00259-015-3243-yDOI Listing
June 2016
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