Publications by authors named "Christian Rantzau"

10 Publications

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Endogenous incretin hormone augmentation of acute insulin secretion in normoglycemic relatives of type 2 diabetic subjects: a 10-year retrospective pathophysiological study.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2014 Oct 22;99(10):E1943-50. Epub 2014 Jul 22.

Departments of Endocrinology and Diabetes (F.P.A.) and Medicine (F.P.A.), St Vincent's Hospital, Fitzroy, Victoria 3065, Australia; University of Melbourne (F.P.A.), Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia; The Bio21 Molecular Science and Biotechnology Institute (C.R.), University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australia; and Diabetes Research Centre (J.-E.H., M.B.E., T.T.D., K.L., H.B.-N.), Department of Endocrinology, Odense University Hospital of Southern Denmark, DK-5000 Odense, Denmark.

Aims/hypothesis: The pathophysiological role of gut incretin hormone argumentation on acute insulin release in the genesis of type 2 diabetes (TDM2) is uncertain. We examined retrospectively at 0 year and 10 years the endogenous incretin hormone action (IHA) on acute insulin release and glucose tolerance in normoglycemic relatives (REL) of TDM2 and control (CON) subjects.

Methods: At 0 year and 10 years, glucose tolerance, paired oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)- and i.v. glucose tolerance test (IVGTT)-induced acute (0-30 min) insulin release (insulinogenic index IGIOGTT and IGIIVGTT), and IHA were calculated in 19 REL and 18 CON subjects by cross-correlation linear regression slope analyses of the OGTT (0-30 min) matched insulin/glucose profiles vs the early (0-5 min) and delayed (10-30 min) IVGTT profiles.

Results: At 0 year, REL and CON IGIOGTT and IGIIVGTT were similar, but the REL 2- to 5-min IVGTT-induced insulin responses were reduced (P < .03). By 10 years, glucose tolerance deteriorated in nine dysglycemic REL (RELDGT), with raised fasting glucose and 2-hour OGTT glucose. Retrospective analyses of RELDGT at 0 year demonstrated raised proinsulin/insulin molar ratios and fasting glucose and a reduced IVGTT insulin/glucose slope, but the RELDGT IHA was similar to normoglycemic REL (RELNGT) and CON. By 10 years, RELDGT OGTT insulin/glucose slopes were reduced (P = .03-.01), but more so for the early (P < .01-.003) and delayed (P < .005-.002) IVGTT slopes, compared to the normoglycaemic REL and CON subjects.

Conclusions: IHA on acute insulin release is maintained in normoglycemic REL and CON subjects over 10 years. The apparent deterioration in IHA in RELDGT is consistent with a progressive failure of acute β-cell function over 10 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2014-1644DOI Listing
October 2014

The metabolic responses induced by acute dexamethasone predict glucose tolerance and insulin secretion over 10 years in relatives of type 2 diabetic subjects.

Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2013 Sep;29(6):492-8

Diabetes Research Centre, Department of Endocrinology, University of Southern Denmark, Odense, Denmark.

Background: This study aimed to compare the metabolic and insulin secretory responses to dexamethasone with the metabolic responses observed at 10 years in normoglycaemic relatives of type 2 diabetic and healthy control subjects.

Methods: Twenty relatives and 20 matched control subjects were studied twice at 0 year (pre- and post-dexamethasone) and at 10 years, employing a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), with serial measurements of glucose and insulin, for determination of glucose tolerance and calculations of acute insulin release (ΔI30 /ΔG30 ; insulinogenic index) and insulin sensitivity (SIHOMA ).

Results: Following dexamethasone, the relatives group developed varying degrees of glucose intolerance, associated with reduced insulin sensitivity and insulinogenic index. By 10 years, fasting glucose and 2-h OGTT glucose were raised in the relatives group, especially in the relatives most metabolically affected by dexamethasone, including a reduced insulinogenic index. Multiple regression analysis of the data in relatives demonstrated that the 2-h OGTT glucose and fasting glucose values at 10 years depended on the 0-year post-dexamethasone 2-h OGTT glucose, post-dexamethasone fasting glucose and post-dexamethasone insulin sensitivity, r(2) adj = 56% (p < 0.001) and r(2) adj = 60% (p < 0.0001), respectively. No pre-dexamethasone metabolic or insulin secretory responses entered these models.

Conclusions: In relatives, fasting and 2-h OGTT glucose concentrations and β-cell responses to acute dexamethasone-induced insulin resistance are similar to those observed at 10 years, especially in relatives who develop the most disturbed dexamethasone-induced glucose intolerance and impaired acute insulin secretion. The combined 0-year, post-dexamethasone fasting and 2-h OGTT glucose concentrations and insulin resistance, measured as SIHOMA , are the best predictors in relatives of future dysglycaemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dmrr.2418DOI Listing
September 2013

Remodeling markers are associated with larger intracortical surface area but smaller trabecular surface area: a twin study.

Bone 2011 Dec 18;49(6):1125-30. Epub 2011 Aug 18.

Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Tromsø, Norway.

All postmenopausal women become estrogen deficient but not all remodel their skeleton rapidly or lose bone rapidly. As remodeling requires a surface to be initiated upon, we hypothesized that a volume of mineralized bone assembled with a larger internal surface area is more accessible to being remodeled, and so decayed, after menopause. We measured intracortical, endocortical and trabecular bone surface area and microarchitecture of the distal tibia and distal radius in 185 healthy female twin pairs aged 40 to 61 years using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT). We used generalized estimation equations to analyze (i) the trait differences across menopause, (ii) the relationship between remodeling markers and bone surface areas, and (iii) robust regression to estimate associations between within-pair differences. Relative to premenopausal women, postmenopausal women had higher remodeling markers, larger intracortical and endocortical bone surface area, higher intracortical porosity, smaller trabecular bone surface area and fewer trabeculae at both sites (all p<0.01). Postmenopausal women had greater deficits in cortical than trabecular bone mass at the distal tibia (-0.98 vs. -0.12 SD, p<0.001), but similar deficits at the distal radius (-0.45 vs. -0.39 SD, p=0.79). A 1 SD higher tibia intracortical bone surface area was associated with 0.22-0.29 SD higher remodeling markers, about half the 0.53-0.67 SD increment in remodeling markers across menopause (all p<0.001). A 1 SD higher porosity was associated with 0.20-0.30 SD higher remodeling markers. A 1 SD lower trabecular bone surface area was associated with 0.15-0.18 SD higher remodeling markers (all p<0.01). Within-pair differences in intracortical and endocortical bone surface areas at both sites and porosity at the distal tibia were associated with within-pair differences in some remodeling markers (p=0.05 to 0.09). We infer intracortical remodeling may be self perpetuating by creating intracortical porosity and so more bone surface for remodeling to occur upon, while remodeling upon the trabecular bone surface is self limiting because it removes trabeculae with their surface.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2011.08.009DOI Listing
December 2011

Effects of nitric oxide synthase blockade on dorsal vagal stimulation-induced pancreatic insulin secretion.

Brain Res 2011 Jun 16;1394:62-70. Epub 2011 Apr 16.

Department of Medicine, University of Melbourne, Austin Health, Heidelberg 3084, Victoria, Australia.

We and others have previously shown that the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) is involved in regulation of pancreatic exocrine secretion. Many pancreatic preganglionic neurons within the DMV are inhibited by pancreatic secretagogues suggesting that an inhibitory pathway may participate in the control of pancreatic exocrine secretion. Accordingly, the present study examined whether chemical stimulation of the DMV activates the endocrine pancreas and whether an inhibitory pathway is involved in this response. All experiments were conducted in overnight fasted isoflurane/urethane-anesthetized Sprague Dawley rats. Activation of the DMV by bilateral microinjection of bicuculline methiodide (BIM, GABA(A) receptor antagonist, 100 pmol/25 nl; 4 mM) resulted in a significant and rapid increase in glucose-induced insulin secretion (9.2±0.1 ng/ml peak response) compared to control microinjection (4.0±0.6 ng/ml). Activation of glucose-induced insulin secretion by chemical stimulation of the DMV was inhibited (2.1±1.1 ng/ml and 1.6±0.1 ng/ml 5 min later) in the presence of the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine methonitrate (100 μg/kg/min, i.v.). On the other hand, the nitric oxide (NO) synthesis inhibitor l-nitroarginine methyl ester (30 mg/kg, i.v.) significantly increased the excitatory effect of DMV stimulation on glucose-induced insulin secretion to 15.3±3.0 ng/ml and 16.1±3.1 ng/ml 5 min later. These findings suggest that NO may play an inhibitory role in the central regulation of insulin secretion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2011.04.015DOI Listing
June 2011

Glucose effectiveness and insulin sensitivity measurements derived from the non-insulin-assisted minimal model and the clamp techniques are concordant.

Diabetes Metab Res Rev 2010 Oct;26(7):569-78

Department of Endocrinology M, Diabetes Research Centre, Odense University Hospital, Odense C, Denmark.

Background: We investigated the concordance between glucose effectiveness (SG) and insulin sensitivity (SI), derived from the unmodified dynamic non-insulin-assisted intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) implemented by SG(MM) and SI(MM); simulation analysis and modelling/conversational interaction (SAAM/CONSAM) versus the eu/hyperglycaemic basal insulinaemic and the euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp (SG(CLAMP) and SI(CLAMP)).

Methods: Twenty-seven of 30 normoglycaemic subjects completed a (1) euglycaemic hyperinsulinaemic clamp, (2) 6-h eu/hyperglycaemic near-normoinsulinaemic pancreatic clamp with hyperglycaemia present over the final 2 h of the clamp (Day 2 study), (3) identical clamp to (2) but with euglycaemia maintained over the entire 6 h (Day 3 study) and (4) IVGTT. SG(CLAMP) was calculated in two ways based on data from study (2) alone (Day 2 SG(CLAMP210-240')) or from data from study day (2) and (3) (Day 2-3 SG(CLAMP330-360')).

Results: SG(MM) was unrelated to the magnitude of endogenous insulin release (AIR). The single-day (Day 2) and two-day (Day 2 and 3) SG(CLAMP) protocols correlated (r = 0.72, p = 0.003), but SG(CLAMP210-240') was significantly (p = 0.001) higher than SG(CLAMP330-360'). Employing the Day 2 and 3 SG(CLAMP) protocol, the whole body SG(CLAMP330-360') was similar to SG(MM) (1.80 ± 0.82 versus 1.73 ± 0.58 dL/min) and correlated (r = 0.45, p < 0.02). SG(CLAMP210-240') did not correlate with SG(MM) (r = 0.24). SI(MM) and SI(CLAMP) were similar (0.093 ± 0.060 versus 0.087 ± 0.029 dL/min per mU/L) and correlated (r = 0.76, p < 0.001).

Conclusions: The time-dependent increase in glucose disposal observed during a prolonged 6-h clamp significantly influences the estimation of SG(CLAMP), and significant concordance coefficients are observed between SG(MM), and SG(CLAMP330-360'), and SI(MM) and SI(CLAMP).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dmrr.1127DOI Listing
October 2010

Increased glucose production in mice overexpressing human fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase in the liver.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2008 Nov 9;295(5):E1132-41. Epub 2008 Sep 9.

Department of Medicine, Austin Health and Northern Health, University of Melbourne, Heidelberg Heights, Australia.

Increased endogenous glucose production (EGP) predominantly from the liver is a characteristic feature of type 2 diabetes, which positively correlates with fasting hyperglycemia. Gluconeogenesis is the biochemical pathway shown to significantly contribute to increased EGP in diabetes. Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) is a regulated enzyme in gluconeogenesis that is increased in animal models of obesity and insulin resistance. However, whether a specific increase in liver FBPase can result in increased EGP has not been shown. The objective of this study was to determine the role of upregulated liver FBPase in glucose homeostasis. To achieve this goal, we generated human liver FBPase transgenic mice under the control of the transthyretin promoter, using insulator sequences to flank the transgene and protect it from site-of-integration effects. This resulted in a liver-specific model, as transgene expression was not detected in other tissues. Mice were studied under the following conditions: 1) at two ages (24 wk and 1 yr old), 2) after a 60% high-fat diet, and 3) when bred to homozygosity. Hemizygous transgenic mice had an approximately threefold increase in total liver FBPase mRNA with concomitant increases in FBPase protein and enzyme activity levels. After high-fat feeding, hemizygous transgenics were glucose intolerant compared with negative littermates (P < 0.02). Furthermore, when bred to homozygosity, chow-fed transgenic mice showed a 5.5-fold increase in liver FBPase levels and were glucose intolerant compared with negative littermates, with a significantly higher rate of EGP (P < 0.006). This is the first study to show that FBPase regulates EGP and whole body glucose homeostasis in a liver-specific transgenic model. Our homozygous transgenic model may be useful for testing human FBPase inhibitor compounds with the potential to treat patients with type 2 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.90552.2008DOI Listing
November 2008

Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase overexpression in pancreatic beta-cells results in reduced insulin secretion: a new mechanism for fat-induced impairment of beta-cell function.

Diabetes 2008 Jul 28;57(7):1887-95. Epub 2008 Mar 28.

Department of Medicine, Heidelberg Repatriation Hospital, University of Melbourne, Heidelberg Heights, Victoria, Australia.

Objective: Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) is a gluconeogenic enzyme that is upregulated in islets or pancreatic beta-cell lines exposed to high fat. However, whether specific beta-cell upregulation of FBPase can impair insulin secretory function is not known. The objective of this study therefore is to determine whether a specific increase in islet beta-cell FBPase can result in reduced glucose-mediated insulin secretion.

Research Design And Methods: To test this hypothesis, we have generated three transgenic mouse lines overexpressing the human FBPase (huFBPase) gene specifically in pancreatic islet beta-cells. In addition, to investigate the biochemical mechanism by which elevated FBPase affects insulin secretion, we made two pancreatic beta-cell lines (MIN6) stably overexpressing huFBPase.

Results: FBPase transgenic mice showed reduced insulin secretion in response to an intravenous glucose bolus. Compared with the untransfected parental MIN6, FBPase-overexpressing cells showed a decreased cell proliferation rate and significantly depressed glucose-induced insulin secretion. These defects were associated with a decrease in the rate of glucose utilization, resulting in reduced cellular ATP levels.

Conclusions: Taken together, these results suggest that upregulation of FBPase in pancreatic islet beta-cells, as occurs in states of lipid oversupply and type 2 diabetes, contributes to insulin secretory dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/db07-1326DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2453625PMC
July 2008

Impact of in vivo fatty acid oxidation blockade on glucose turnover and muscle glucose metabolism during low-dose AICAR infusion.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 2006 Nov 13;291(5):E1131-40. Epub 2006 Jun 13.

Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, St. Vincent's Hospital, Fitzroy, Victoria, Australia.

AMPK plays a central role in influencing fuel usage and selection. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of low-dose AMP analog 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-d-ribosyl monophosphate (ZMP) on whole body glucose turnover and skeletal muscle (SkM) glucose metabolism. Dogs were restudied after prior 48-h fatty acid oxidation (FA(OX)) blockade by methylpalmoxirate (MP; 5 x 12 hourly 10 mg/kg doses). During the basal equilibrium period (0-150 min), fasting dogs (n = 8) were infused with [3-(3)H]glucose followed by either 2-h saline or AICAR (1.5-2.0 mg x kg(-1) x min(-1)) infusions. SkM was biopsied at completion of each study. On a separate day, the same protocol was undertaken after 48-h in vivo FA(OX) blockade. The AICAR and AICAR + MP studies were repeated in three chronic alloxan-diabetic dogs. AICAR produced a transient fall in plasma glucose and increase in insulin and a small decline in free fatty acid (FFA). Parallel increases in hepatic glucose production (HGP), glucose disappearance (R(d tissue)), and glycolytic flux (GF) occurred, whereas metabolic clearance rate of glucose (MCR(g)) did not change significantly. Intracellular SkM glucose, glucose 6-phosphate, and glycogen were unchanged. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC approximately pSer(221)) increased by 50%. In the AICAR + MP studies, the metabolic responses were modified: the glucose was lower over 120 min, only minor changes occurred with insulin and FFA, and HGP and R(d tissue) responses were markedly attenuated, but MCR(g) and GF increased significantly. SkM substrates were unchanged, but ACC approximately pSer(221) rose by 80%. Thus low-dose AICAR leads to increases in HGP and SkM glucose uptake, which are modified by prior FA(ox) blockade.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajpendo.00518.2005DOI Listing
November 2006

Prevailing hyperglycemia is critical in the regulation of glucose metabolism during exercise in poorly controlled alloxan-diabetic dogs.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2005 Mar;98(3):930-9

Department of Endocrinology and Diabetes, St. Vincent's Hospital Melbourne, 35 Victoria Parade, Fitzroy 3065, Victoria, Australia.

The separate impacts of the chronic diabetic state and the prevailing hyperglycemia on plasma substrates and hormones, in vivo glucose turnover, and ex vivo skeletal muscle (SkM) during exercise were examined in the same six dogs before alloxan-induced diabetes (prealloxan) and after 4-5 wk of poorly controlled hyperglycemic diabetes (HGD) in the absence and presence of approximately 300-min phlorizin-induced (glycosuria mediated) normoglycemia (NGD). For each treatment state, the approximately 15-h-fasted dog underwent a primed continuous 150-min infusion of [3-(3)H]glucose, followed by a 30-min treadmill exercise test (approximately 65% maximal oxygen capacity), with SkM biopsies taken from the thigh (vastus lateralis) before and after exercise. In the HGD and NGD states, preexercise hepatic glucose production rose by 130 and 160%, and the metabolic clearance rate of glucose (MCRg) fell by 70 and 37%, respectively, compared with the corresponding prealloxan state, but the rates of glucose uptake into peripheral tissues (Rd(tissue)) and total glycolysis (GF) were unchanged, despite an increased availability of plasma free fatty acid in the NGD state. Exercise-induced increments in hepatic glucose production, Rd(tissue), and plasma-derived GF were severely blunted by approximately 30-50% in the NGD state, but increments in MCRg remained markedly reduced by approximately 70-75% in both diabetic states. SkM intracellular glucose concentrations were significantly elevated only in the HGD state. Although Rd(tissue) during exercise in the diabetic states correlated positively with preexercise plasma glucose and insulin and GF and negatively with preexercise plasma free fatty acid, stepwise regression analysis revealed that an individual's preexercise glucose and GF accounted for 88% of Rd(tissue) during exercise. In conclusion, the prevailing hyperglycemia in poorly controlled diabetes is critical in maintaining a sufficient supply of plasma glucose for SkM glucose uptake during exercise. During phlorizin-induced NGD, increments in both Rd(tissue) and GF are impaired due to a diminished fuel supply from plasma glucose and a sustained reduction in increments of MCRg.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00687.2004DOI Listing
March 2005

Skeletal muscle basal AMP-activated protein kinase activity is chronically elevated in alloxan-diabetic dogs: impact of exercise.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2003 Oct 27;95(4):1523-30. Epub 2003 Jun 27.

Dept. of Endocrinology and Diabetes, St. Vincent's Hospital Melbourne, 35 Victoria Parade, Fitzroy 3065, Victoria, Australia.

The effect of diabetes and exercise on skeletal muscle (SkM) AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)alpha1 and -alpha2 activities and site-specific phosphorylation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase was examined in the same six dogs before alloxan (35 mg/kg)-induced diabetes (C) and after 4-5 wk of suboptimally controlled hyperglycemic and hypoinsulinemic diabetes (DHG) in the presence and absence of 300-min phlorizin (50 microg.kg-1.min-1)-induced "normoglycemia" (DNG). In each study, the dog underwent a 150-min [3-3H]glucose infusion period, followed by a 30-min treadmill exercise test (60-70% maximal oxygen capacity) to measure the rate of glucose disposal into peripheral tissues (Rdtissue). SkM biopsies were taken from the thigh (vastus lateralis) before and immediately after exercise. In the C and DHG states, the rise in plasma free fatty acids (FFA) with exercise ( approximately 40%) was similar. In the DNG group, preexercise FFA were significantly higher, but the absolute rise in FFA with exercise was similar. However, the exercise-induced increment in Rdtissue was significantly blunted (by approximately 40-50%) in the DNG group compared with the other states. In SkM, preexercise AMPKalpha1 and -alpha2 activities were significantly elevated (by approximately 60-125%) in both diabetic states, but unlike the C group these activities did not rise further with exercise. Additionally, preexercise acetyl-CoA carboxylase phosphorylation in both diabetic states was elevated by approximately 70-80%, but the increases with exercise were similar to the C group. Preexercise AMPKalpha1 and -alpha2 activities were negatively correlated with Rdtissue during exercise for the combined groups (both P < 0.02). In conclusion, the elevated preexercise SkM AMPKalpha1 and -alpha2 activities contribute to the ongoing basal supply of glucose and fatty acid metabolism in suboptimally controlled hypoinsulinemic diabetic dogs; but whether they also play a permissive role in the metabolic stress response to exercise remains uncertain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00199.2003DOI Listing
October 2003