Publications by authors named "Christian R S Reis"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Assessment of a recombinant protein from Leishmania infantum as a novel tool for Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) diagnosis in VL/HIV co-infection cases.

PLoS One 2021 17;16(5):e0251861. Epub 2021 May 17.

Instituto Aggeu Magalhães, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil.

Visceral Leishmaniasis and HIV-AIDS coinfection (VL/HIV) is considered a life-threatening pathology when undiagnosed and untreated, due to the immunosuppression caused by both diseases. Serological tests largely used for the VL diagnosis include the direct agglutination test (DAT), ELISA and immunochromatographic (ICT) assays. For VL diagnosis in HIV infections, different studies have shown that the use of the DAT assay facilitates the VL diagnosis in co-infected patients, since the performance of the most widely used ELISA and ICT tests, based on the recombinant protein rK39, are much less efficient in HIV co-infections. In this scenario, alternative recombinant antigens may help the development of new serological diagnostic methods which may improve the VL diagnosis for the co-infection cases. This work aimed to evaluate the use of the recombinant Lci2 antigen, related to, but antigenically more diverse than rK39, for VL diagnosis in co-infected sera through ELISA assays. A direct comparison between recombinant Lci2 and rK39 was thus carried out. The two proteins were first tested using indirect ELISA with sera from VL afflicted individuals and healthy controls, with similar performances. They were then tested with two different sets of VL/HIV co-infected cases and a significant drop in performance, for one of these groups, was observed for rK39 (32% sensitivity), but not for Lci2 (98% sensitivity). In fact, an almost perfect agreement (Kappa: 0.93) between the Lci2 ELISA and DAT was observed for the coinfected VL/HIV patients. Lci2 then has the potential to be used as a new tool for the VL diagnosis of VL/HIV co-infections.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0251861PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8128258PMC
May 2021

A new recombinant F1 antigen as a cost and time-effective tool for plague diagnosis.

J Microbiol Methods 2020 05 27;172:105903. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Departamento de Microbiologia - Instituto Aggeu Magalhães, Fiocruz, Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. Electronic address:

The Yersinia pestis capsular antigen F1 is widely used in plague laboratory diagnosis. Here, we describe the production of an F1 recombinant protein within reduced time and biosafety requirements. Its evaluation in hemagglutination tests indicated that the recombinant F1 can replace the conventional F1 protein for plague diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mimet.2020.105903DOI Listing
May 2020

Phosphorylation and interactions associated with the control of the Leishmania Poly-A Binding Protein 1 (PABP1) function during translation initiation.

RNA Biol 2018 23;15(6):739-755. Epub 2018 Mar 23.

c CHU de Quebec Research Center and Department of Microbiology-Infectious Disease and Immunology , Laval University , Quebec , QC , Canada.

The Poly-A Binding Protein (PABP) is a conserved eukaryotic polypeptide involved in many aspects of mRNA metabolism. During translation initiation, PABP interacts with the translation initiation complex eIF4F and enhances the translation of polyadenylated mRNAs. Schematically, most PABPs can be divided into an N-terminal RNA-binding region, a non-conserved linker segment and the C-terminal MLLE domain. In pathogenic Leishmania protozoans, three PABP homologues have been identified, with the first one (PABP1) targeted by phosphorylation and shown to co-immunoprecipitate with an eIF4F-like complex (EIF4E4/EIF4G3) implicated in translation initiation. Here, PABP1 phosphorylation was shown to be linked to logarithmic cell growth, reminiscent of EIF4E4 phosphorylation, and coincides with polysomal association. Phosphorylation targets multiple serine-proline (SP) or threonine-proline (TP) residues within the PABP1 linker region. This is an essential protein, but phosphorylation is not needed for its association with polysomes or cell viability. Mutations which do impair PABP1 polysomal association and are required for viability do not prevent phosphorylation, although further mutations lead to a presumed inactive protein largely lacking phosphorylated isoforms. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments were carried out to investigate PABP1 function further, identifying several novel protein partners and the EIF4E4/EIF4G3 complex, but no other eIF4F-like complex or subunit. A novel, direct interaction between PABP1 and EIF4E4 was also investigated and found to be mediated by the PABP1 MLLE binding to PABP Interacting Motifs (PAM2) within the EIF4E4 N-terminus. The results shown here are consistent with phosphorylation of PABP1 being part of a novel pathway controlling its function and possibly translation in Leishmania.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15476286.2018.1445958DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6152449PMC
November 2018

The unique Leishmania EIF4E4 N-terminus is a target for multiple phosphorylation events and participates in critical interactions required for translation initiation.

RNA Biol 2015 4;12(11):1209-21. Epub 2015 Sep 4.

b CHU de Quebec Research Center and Department of Microbiology ; Infectious Disease and Immunology; Laval University ; Quebec, QC , Canada.

The eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) recognizes the mRNA cap structure and, together with eIF4G and eIF4A, form the eIF4F complex that regulates translation initiation in eukaryotes. In trypanosomatids, 2 eIF4E homologues (EIF4E3 and EIF4E4) have been shown to be part of eIF4F-like complexes with presumed roles in translation initiation. Both proteins possess unique N-terminal extensions, which can be targeted for phosphorylation. Here, we provide novel insights on the Leishmania infantum EIF4E4 function and regulation. We show that EIF4E4 is constitutively expressed throughout the parasite development but is preferentially phosphorylated in exponentially grown promastigote and amastigote life stages, hence correlating with high levels of translation. Phosphorylation targets multiple serine-proline or threonine-proline residues within the N-terminal extension of EIF4E4 but does not require binding to the EIF4E4's partner, EIF4G3, or to the cap structure. We also report that EIF4E4 interacts with PABP1 through 3 conserved boxes at the EIF4E4 N-terminus and that this interaction is a prerequisite for efficient EIF4E4 phosphorylation. EIF4E4 is essential for Leishmania growth and an EIF4E4 null mutant was only obtained in the presence of an ectopically provided wild type gene. Complementation for the loss of EIF4E4 with several EIF4E4 mutant proteins affecting either phosphorylation or binding to mRNA or to EIF4E4 protein partners revealed that, in contrast to other eukaryotes, only the EIF4E4-PABP1 interaction but neither the binding to EIF4G3 nor phosphorylation is essential for translation. These studies also demonstrated that the lack of both EIF4E4 phosphorylation and EIF4G3 binding leads to a non-functional protein. Altogether, these findings further highlight the unique features of the translation initiation process in trypanosomatid protozoa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15476286.2015.1086865DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4829273PMC
September 2016

Two related trypanosomatid eIF4G homologues have functional differences compatible with distinct roles during translation initiation.

RNA Biol 2015 ;12(3):305-19

a Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhães; Fundação Oswaldo Cruz ; Campus UFPE; Recife , PE , Brazil.

In higher eukaryotes, eIF4A, eIF4E and eIF4G homologues interact to enable mRNA recruitment to the ribosome. eIF4G acts as a scaffold for these interactions and also interacts with other proteins of the translational machinery. Trypanosomatid protozoa have multiple homologues of eIF4E and eIF4G and the precise function of each remains unclear. Here, 2 previously described eIF4G homologues, EIF4G3 and EIF4G4, were further investigated. In vitro, both homologues bound EIF4AI, but with different interaction properties. Binding to distinct eIF4Es was also confirmed; EIF4G3 bound EIF4E4 while EIF4G4 bound EIF4E3, both these interactions required similar binding motifs. EIF4G3, but not EIF4G4, interacted with PABP1, a poly-A binding protein homolog. Work in vivo with Trypanosoma brucei showed that both EIF4G3 and EIF4G4 are cytoplasmic and essential for viability. Depletion of EIF4G3 caused a rapid reduction in total translation while EIF4G4 depletion led to changes in morphology but no substantial inhibition of translation. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to disrupt interactions of the eIF4Gs with either eIF4E or eIF4A, causing different levels of growth inhibition. Overall the results show that only EIF4G3, with its cap binding partner EIF4E4, plays a major role in translational initiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15476286.2015.1017233DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4615764PMC
December 2015

The translation initiation complex eIF3 in trypanosomatids and other pathogenic excavates--identification of conserved and divergent features based on orthologue analysis.

BMC Genomics 2014 Dec 23;15:1175. Epub 2014 Dec 23.

Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhães, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Avenida Professor Moraes Rego s/n, Cidade Universitária, Recife, PE 50670-420, Brazil.

Background: The initiation of translation in eukaryotes is supported by the action of several eukaryotic Initiation Factors (eIFs). The largest of these is eIF3, comprising of up to thirteen polypeptides (eIF3a through eIF3m), involved in multiple stages of the initiation process. eIF3 has been better characterized from model organisms, but is poorly known from more diverged groups, including unicellular lineages represented by known human pathogens. These include the trypanosomatids (Trypanosoma and Leishmania) and other protists belonging to the taxonomic supergroup Excavata (Trichomonas and Giardia sp.).

Results: An in depth bioinformatic search was carried out to recover the full content of eIF3 subunits from the available genomes of L. major, T. brucei, T. vaginalis and G. duodenalis. The protein sequences recovered were then submitted to homology analysis and alignments comparing them with orthologues from representative eukaryotes. Eleven putative eIF3 subunits were found from both trypanosomatids whilst only five and four subunits were identified from T. vaginalis and G. duodenalis, respectively. Only three subunits were found in all eukaryotes investigated, eIF3b, eIF3c and eIF3i. The single subunit found to have a related Archaean homologue was eIF3i, the most conserved of the eIF3 subunits. The sequence alignments revealed several strongly conserved residues/region within various eIF3 subunits of possible functional relevance. Subsequent biochemical characterization of the Leishmania eIF3 complex validated the bioinformatic search and yielded a twelfth eIF3 subunit in trypanosomatids, eIF3f (the single unidentified subunit in trypanosomatids was then eIF3m). The biochemical data indicates a lack of association of the eIF3j subunit to the complex whilst highlighting the strong interaction between eIF3 and eIF1.

Conclusions: The presence of most eIF3 subunits in trypanosomatids is consistent with an early evolution of a fully functional complex. Simplified versions in other excavates might indicate a primordial complex or secondary loss of selected subunits, as seen for some fungal lineages. The conservation in eIF3i sequence might indicate critical functions within eIF3 which have been overlooked. The identification of eIF3 subunits from distantly related eukaryotes provides then a basis for the study of conserved/divergent aspects of eIF3 function, leading to a better understanding of eukaryotic translation initiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2164-15-1175DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4320536PMC
December 2014

The eIF4E subunits of two distinct trypanosomatid eIF4F complexes are subjected to differential post-translational modifications associated to distinct growth phases in culture.

Mol Biochem Parasitol 2013 Aug 15;190(2):82-6. Epub 2013 Jul 15.

Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhães/Fiocruz, Campus UFPE, Recife, PE 50670-420, Brazil.

The eukaryotic eIF4F complex, the cap binding complex, functions during translation initiation through interactions mediated by its three subunits (eIF4E, eIF4G and eIF4A), other initiation factors and the ribosome. In trypanosomatids, various eIF4E and eIF4G homologues were identified, with two eIF4F-like complexes confirmed (EIF4E4/EIF4G3/EIF4AI and EIF4E3/EIF4G4/EIF4AI). Here, the expression pattern of these complexes was investigated during Leishmania amazonensis and Trypanosoma brucei growth. The two sets of eIF4E and eIF4G homologues were found represented by phosphorylated isoforms with multiple phosphorylation events targeting the two eIF4E homologues. Expression of these multiple isoforms was differentially affected by inhibitors of mRNA synthesis/processing and translation. Phosphorylated EIF4E4 was consistently associated with early/active growth phases in both organisms studied. In T. brucei phosphorylation of both EIF4E3 and 4, overexpressed as HA-tagged fusions, was partially mapped to their N-terminuses. Our results indicate that phosphorylation is associated with a further layer of complexity in translation initiation in trypanosomatids.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molbiopara.2013.06.008DOI Listing
August 2013

The four trypanosomatid eIF4E homologues fall into two separate groups, with distinct features in primary sequence and biological properties.

Mol Biochem Parasitol 2011 Mar 24;176(1):25-36. Epub 2010 Nov 24.

Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhães, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Av. Moraes Rego s/n, Campus UFPE, Recife, PE 50670-420, Brazil.

Translation initiation in eukaryotes requires eIF4E, the cap binding protein, which mediates its function through an interaction with the scaffolding protein eIF4G, as part of the eIF4F complex. In trypanosomatids, four eIF4E homologues have been described but the specific function of each is not well characterized. Here, we report a study of these proteins in Trypanosoma brucei (TbEIF4E1 through 4). At the sequence level, they can be assigned to two groups: TbEIF4E1 and 2, similar in size to metazoan eIF4E1; and TbEIF4E3 and 4, with long N-terminal extensions. All are constitutively expressed, but whilst TbEIF4E1 and 2 localize to both the nucleus and cytoplasm, TbEIF4E3 and 4 are strictly cytoplasmic and are also more abundant. After knockdown through RNAi, TbEIF4E3 was the only homologue confirmed to be essential for viability of the insect procyclic form. In contrast, TbEIF4E1, 3 and 4 were all essential for the mammalian bloodstream form. Simultaneous RNAi knockdown of TbEIF4E1 and 2 caused cessation of growth and death in procyclics, but with a delayed impact on translation, whilst knockdown of TbEIF4E3 alone or a combined TbEIF4E1 and 4 knockdown led to substantial translation inhibition which preceded cellular death by several days, at least. Only TbEIF4E3 and 4 were found to interact with T. brucei eIF4G homologues; TbEIF4E3 bound both TbEIF4G3 and 4 whilst TbEIF4E4 bound only to TbEIF4G3. These results are consistent with TbEIF4E3 and 4 having distinct but relevant roles in initiation of protein synthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molbiopara.2010.11.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6736675PMC
March 2011

Functional characterization of three leishmania poly(a) binding protein homologues with distinct binding properties to RNA and protein partners.

Eukaryot Cell 2010 Oct 30;9(10):1484-94. Epub 2010 Jul 30.

Departamento de Microbiologia, Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhães/Fiocruz, Recife, PE, Brazil.

Trypanosomatid protozoans are reliant on posttranscriptional processes to control gene expression. Regulation occurs at the levels of mRNA processing, stability, and translation, events that may require the participation of the poly(A) binding protein (PABP). Here, we have undertaken a functional study of the three distinct Leishmania major PABP (LmPABP) homologues: the previously described LmPABP1; LmPABP2, orthologous to the PABP described from Trypanosoma species; and LmPABP3, unique to Leishmania. Sequence identity between the three PABPs is no greater than 40%. In assays measuring binding to A-rich sequences, LmPABP1 binding was poly(A) sensitive but heparin insensitive; LmPABP2 binding was heparin sensitive and less sensitive to poly(A), compatible with unique substitutions observed in residues implicated in poly(A) binding; and LmPABP3 displayed intermediate properties. All three homologues are simultaneously expressed as abundant cytoplasmic proteins in L. major promastigotes, but only LmPABP1 is present as multiple isoforms. Upon transcription inhibition, LmPABP2 and -3 migrated to the nucleus, while LmPABP1 remained predominantly cytoplasmic. Immunoprecipitation assays showed an association between LmPABP2 and -3. Although the three proteins bound to a Leishmania homologue of the translation initiation factor eukaryotic initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) (LmEIF4G3) in vitro, LmPABP1 was the only one to copurify with native LmEIF4G3 from cytoplasmic extracts. Functionality was tested using RNA interference (RNAi) in Trypanosoma brucei, where both orthologues to LmPABP1 and -2 are required for cellular viability. Our results indicate that these homologues have evolved divergent functions, some of which may be unique to the trypanosomatids, and reinforces a role for LmPABP1 in translation through its interaction with the eIF4G homologue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/EC.00148-10DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2950419PMC
October 2010

The two eIF4A helicases in Trypanosoma brucei are functionally distinct.

Nucleic Acids Res 2006 10;34(9):2495-507. Epub 2006 May 10.

Centro de Pesquisas Aggeu Magalhães, Fundação Oswaldo Cruz, Avenue Moraes Rego s/n, Campus UFPE, Recife PE 50670-420, Brazil.

Protozoan parasites belonging to the family Trypanosomatidae are characterized by an unusual pathway for the production of mRNAs via polycistronic transcription and trans-splicing of a 5' capped mini-exon which is linked to the 3' cleavage and polyadenylation of the upstream transcript. However, little is known of the mechanism of protein synthesis in these organisms, despite their importance as agents of a number of human diseases. Here we have investigated the role of two Trypanosoma brucei homologues of the translation initiation factor eIF4A (in the light of subsequent experiments these were named as TbEIF4AI and TbEIF4AIII). eIF4A, a DEAD-box RNA helicase, is a subunit of the translation initiation complex eIF4F which binds to the cap structure of eukaryotic mRNA and recruits the small ribosomal subunit. TbEIF4AI is a very abundant predominantly cytoplasmic protein (over 1 x 10(5) molecules/cell) and depletion to approximately 10% of normal levels through RNA interference dramatically reduces protein synthesis one cell cycle following double-stranded RNA induction and stops cell proliferation. In contrast, TbEIF4AIII is a nuclear, moderately expressed protein (approximately 1-2 x 10(4) molecules/cell), and its depletion stops cellular proliferation after approximately four cell cycles. Ectopic expression of a dominant negative mutant of TbEIF4AI, but not of TbEIF4AIII, induced a slow growth phenotype in transfected cells. Overall, our results suggest that only TbEIF4AI is involved in protein synthesis while the properties and sequence of TbEIF4AIII indicate that it may be the orthologue of eIF4AIII, a component of the exon junction complex in mammalian cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkl290DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1459412PMC
June 2006

Translation initiation in Leishmania major: characterisation of multiple eIF4F subunit homologues.

Mol Biochem Parasitol 2005 Mar;140(1):23-41

Departamento de Biologia Celular, Universidade de Brasilia, Brasilia 70910-900, D.F., Brazil.

In eukaryotes protein synthesis initiates with the binding of the multimeric translation initiation complex eIF4F - eIF4E, eIF4A and eIF4G - to the monomethylated cap present on the 5' end of mRNAs. eIF4E interacts directly with the cap nucleotide, while eIF4A is a highly conserved RNA helicase and eIF4G acts as a scaffold for the complex with binding sites for both eIF4E and eIF4A. eIF4F binding to the mRNA recruits the small ribosomal subunit to its 5' end. Little is known in detail of protein synthesis in the protozoan parasites belonging to the family Trypanosomatidae. However, the presence of the highly modified cap structure, cap4, and the spliced leader sequence on the 5' ends of all mRNAs suggests possible differences in mRNA recruitment by ribosomes. We identified several potential eIF4F homologues by searching Leishmania major databases: four eIF4Es (LmEIF4E1-4), two eIF4As (LmEIF4A1-2) and five eIF4Gs (LmEIF4G1-5). We report the initial characterisation of LmEIF4E1-3, LmEIF4A1-2 and LmEIF4G3. First, the expression of these proteins in L. major promastigotes was quantitated by Western blotting using isoform specific antibodies. LmEIF4A1 and LmEIF4E3 are very abundant, LmEIF4G3 is moderately abundant and LmEIF4E1/LmEIF4E2/LmEIF4A2 are rare or not detected. In cap-binding assays, only LmEIF4E1 bound to the 7-methyl-GTP-Sepharose resin. Molecular modelling confirmed that LmEIF4E1 has all the structural features of a cap-binding protein. Finally, pull-down assays were used to investigate the potential interaction between the eIF4A (LmEIF4A1/LmEIF4A2) and eIF4G (LmEIF4G1-3) homologues. Only LmEIF4G3, via the HEAT domain, bound specifically both to LmEIF4A1 as well as to human eIF4A. Therefore for each factor, one of the L. major forms seems to fulfil, in part at least, the expected characteristics of a translational initiation factor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.molbiopara.2004.12.001DOI Listing
March 2005
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