Publications by authors named "Christian Mawrin"

225 Publications

Reassessment of SST4 Somatostatin Receptor Expression Using SST4-eGFP Knockin Mice and the Novel Rabbit Monoclonal Anti-Human SST4 Antibody 7H49L61.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Nov 30;22(23). Epub 2021 Nov 30.

Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Jena University Hospital, D-07747 Jena, Germany.

Among the five somatostatin receptors (SST1-SST5), SST4 is the least characterized, which is in part due to the lack of specific monoclonal antibodies. We generated a knockin mouse model that expresses a carboxyl-terminal SST4-eGFP fusion protein. In addition, we extensively characterized the novel rabbit monoclonal anti-human SST4 antibody 7H49L61 using transfected cells and receptor-expressing tissues. 7H49L61 was then subjected to immunohistochemical staining of a series of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded normal and neoplastic human tissues. Characterization of SST4-eGFP mice revealed prominent SST4 expression in cortical pyramidal cells and trigeminal ganglion cells. In the human cortex, 7H49L61 disclosed a virtually identical staining pattern. Specificity of 7H49L61 was demonstrated by detection of a broad band migrating at 50-60 kDa in immunoblots. Tissue immunostaining was abolished by preadsorption of 7H49L61 with its immunizing peptide. In the subsequent immunohistochemical study, 7H49L61 yielded a predominant plasma membrane staining in adrenal cortex, exocrine pancreas, and placenta. SST4 was also found in glioblastomas, parathyroid adenomas, gastric and pancreatic adenocarcinomas, pheochromocytomas, and lymphomas. Altogether, we provide the first unequivocal localization of SST4 in normal and neoplastic human tissues. The monoclonal antibody 7H49L61 may also prove of great value for identifying SST4-expressing tumors during routine histopathological examinations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms222312981DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8657703PMC
November 2021

Reduced GABAergic neuropil and interneuron profiles in schizophrenia: Complementary analysis of disease course-related differences.

J Psychiatr Res 2021 Nov 19;145:50-59. Epub 2021 Nov 19.

Department of Psychiatry, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany; Laboratory of Translational Psychiatry, Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany; German Center for Mental Health (DZP), Center for Intervention and Research on Adaptive and Maladaptive Brain Circuits Underlying Mental Health (C-I-R-C), Jena-Magdeburg-Halle, Germany; Center for Behavioral Brain Sciences, Magdeburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: GABAergic interneuron dysfunction has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), a key enzyme in GABA synthesis, may also be altered. Here, we have simultaneously evaluated GAD-immunoreactive (GAD-ir) neuropil and cell profiles in schizophrenia-relevant brain regions, and analysed disease-course related differences.

Methods: GAD65/67 immunoreactivity was quantified in specific brain regions for profiles of fibres and cell bodies of interneurons by automated digital image analysis in post-mortem brains of 16 schizophrenia patients from paranoid (n = 10) and residual (n = 6) diagnostic subgroups and 16 matched controls. Regions of interest were superior temporal gyrus (STG) layers III and V, mediodorsal (MD) and laterodorsal (LD) thalamus, and hippocampal CA1 and dentate gyrus (DG) regions.

Results: A reduction in GAD-ir neuropil profiles (p < 0.001), particularly in STG layer V (p = 0.012) and MD (p = 0.001), paralleled decreased GAD-ir cell profiles (p = 0.029) in schizophrenia patients compared to controls. Paranoid schizophrenia patients had lower GAD-ir neuron cell profiles in STG layers III (p = 0.007) and V (p = 0.001), MD (p = 0.002), CA1 (p = 0.001) and DG (p = 0.043) than residual patients. There was no difference in GAD-ir neuropil profiles between paranoid and residual subgroups (p = 0.369).

Conclusions: These results support the hypothesis of GABAergic dysfunction in schizophrenia. They show a more prominent reduction of GAD-ir interneurons in paranoid versus residual patients, suggestive of more pronounced GABAergic dysfunction in the former. Fully automated analyses of histological sections represent a step towards user-independent assessment of brain structure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychires.2021.11.028DOI Listing
November 2021

Cranial and Spinal Metastasis of a Nonfunctioning Pituitary Adenoma: Report of a Case.

J Neurol Surg A Cent Eur Neurosurg 2021 Dec 2. Epub 2021 Dec 2.

Department of Neurosurgery, University of Halle-Wittenberg, Halle (Saale), Germany.

Pituitary carcinoma is a rare disease with surgical, radiotherapeutic, and chemotherapeutic treatment options. We present the case of a female patient diagnosed with a nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma who underwent several surgical procedures, radiations, and chemotherapeutic treatments with various substances. Sixteen years after the first diagnosis, a cranial and spinal metastatic spread of the tumor occurred. We opted for an individual therapy based on anecdotal evidence. Unfortunately, the recommended off-label treatment with a somatostatin analog substance was never given due to bureaucratic delays. This case report is about the challenging aspects of individual decision-making in rare neurosurgical diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0041-1739229DOI Listing
December 2021

AKT1 -mutated meningioma cell lines respond to treatment with the AKT inhibitor AZD5363.

Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol 2021 Nov 26:e12780. Epub 2021 Nov 26.

Department of Neuropathology, Otto von Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany.

Aims: Meningiomas are the most frequent primary brain tumours. Recently, knowledge about the molecular drivers underlying aggressive meningiomas has been expanded. A hotspot mutation in the AKT1 gene (AKT1 ), which is found in meningiomas at the convexity and especially at the skull base, has been associated with earlier tumour recurrence.

Methods: Here, we analysed the effects of the AKT1 mutation and treatment response to the Akt inhibitor AZD5363 in transgenic meningioma cell clones and mouse xenografts modelling convexity or skull base meningiomas.

Results: We show that the AKT mutation significantly enhances meningioma cell proliferation and colony size in vitro, resulting in significantly shortened survival times of mice carrying convexity or skull base AKT1 xenografts. Treatment of mutant cells or xenografts (150 mg/kg/d) with AZD5363 revealed a significant decrease in cell proliferation and colony size and a prolongation of mouse survival. Western blots revealed activation of AKT1 kinase (phosphorylation at Ser273 and Thr308) by the E17K mutation in human meningioma samples and in our in vitro and in vivo models.

Conclusions: Our data suggest that AKT1 mutated meningiomas are a promising selective target for AZD5363.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nan.12780DOI Listing
November 2021

Complicated Long Term Vaccine Induced Thrombotic Immune Thrombocytopenia-A Case Report.

Vaccines (Basel) 2021 Nov 17;9(11). Epub 2021 Nov 17.

Department for Transfusion Medicine, Institute for Immunology and Transfusion Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, 17487 Greifswald, Germany.

Background And Objectives: Vaccine induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) may occur after COVID-19 vaccination with recombinant adenoviral vector-based vaccines. VITT can present as cerebral sinus and venous thrombosis (CSVT), often complicated by intracranial hemorrhage. Today it is unclear, how long symptomatic VITT can persist. Here, we report the complicated long-term course of a VITT patient with extremely high titers of pathogenic anti-platelet factor 4 (PF4)-IgG antibodies.

Methods: Clinical and laboratory findings are presented, including the course of platelet counts, D-Dimer levels, clinical presentation, imaging, SARS-CoV-2-serological and immunological, platelet activating anti-PF4-IgG, as well as autopsy findings.

Results: The patient presented with extended superior sagittal sinus thrombosis with accompanying bifrontal intracerebral hemorrhage. Repeated treatment with intravenous immune globuline (IVIG) resolved recurrent episodes of thrombocytopenia. Moreover, the patient's serum remained strongly positive for platelet-activating anti-PF4-IgG over three months. After a period of clinical stabilization, the patient suffered a recurrent and fatal intracranial hemorrhage.

Conclusions: Complicated VITT with extremely high anti-PF4-IgG titers over three months can induce recurrent thrombocytopenia despite treatment with IVIG and anticoagulation. Plasma exchange, immunoadsorption, and /or immunosuppressive treatment may be considered in complicated VITT to reduce extraordinarily high levels of anti-PF4-IgG. Long-term therapy in such cases must take the individual bleeding risk and CSVT risk into account.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vaccines9111344DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8622649PMC
November 2021

Trabectedin for recurrent WHO grade 2 or 3 meningioma: a randomized phase 2 study of the EORTC Brain Tumor Group (EORTC-1320-BTG).

Neuro Oncol 2021 Oct 21. Epub 2021 Oct 21.

Department of Neuropathology, Otto-von-Guericke-University, Leipziger Straße 44, 39120 Magdeburg, Germany.

Background: No systemic treatment has been established for meningioma progressing after local therapies.

Methods: This randomized, multicenter, open-label, phase 2 study included adult patients with recurrent WHO grade 2 or 3 meningioma. Patients were 2:1 randomly assigned to intravenous trabectedin (1.5 mg/m 2 every three weeks) or local standard of care (LOC). The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints comprised overall survival (OS), objective radiological response, safety, quality of life (QoL) assessment using the QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BN20 questionnaires, and we performed tissue-based exploratory molecular analyses.

Results: Ninety patients were randomized (n=29 in LOC, n=61 in trabectedin arm). With 71 events, median PFS was 4.17 months in the LOC and 2.43 months in the trabectedin arm (hazard ratio [HR]=1.42; 80% CI, 1.00-2.03; p=0.294) with a PFS-6 rate of 29.1% (95% CI, 11.9%-48.8%) and 21.1% (95% CI, 11.3%-32.9%), respectively. Median OS was 10.61 months in the LOC and 11.37 months in the trabectedin arm (HR=0.98; 95% CI, 0.54-1.76; p=0.94). Grade ≥3 adverse events occurred in 44.4% patients in the LOC and 59% of patients in the trabectedin arm. Enrolled patients had impeded global QoL and overall functionality and high fatigue before initiation of systemic therapy. DNA methylation class, performance status, presence of a relevant co-morbidity, steroid use, and right hemisphere involvement at baseline were independently associated with OS.

Conclusions: Trabectedin did not improve PFS and OS and was associated with higher toxicity than LOC treatment in patients with non-benign meningioma. Tumour DNA methylation class is an independent prognostic factor for OS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/noab243DOI Listing
October 2021

Two Pituitary Neuroendocrine Tumors (PitNETs) with Very High Proliferation and TP53 Mutation - High-Grade PitNET or PitNEC?

Endocr Pathol 2021 Oct 20. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

Institute of Pathology, University of Hamburg, UKE, 20246, Hamburg, Germany.

We report two pituitary neuroendocrine tumors (PitNETs) with very high Ki67 labeling indices, many mitoses and TP53 mutation (nearly all tumor cell nuclei were positive for p53). One of the tumors had bone and liver metastases. One was a corticotroph cell tumor; the other was a lactotroph tumor. The classification of these tumors is the subject of this discussion. Traditionally, pituitary carcinomas are only diagnosed by demonstration of metastases according to the 2017 WHO classification. In contrast, neuroendocrine neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas are classified as either well differentiated NETs that are graded as G1, G2, and G3 based on proliferation as determined by Ki67 indices of ≤ 3, 3-20 and > 20%, and/or < 2, 2-20, and > 20 mitoses per 10 high-power field respectively, or as neuroendocrine carcinomas (NECs) that are poorly differentiated neoplasms with mitoses > 20/HPF and/or a Ki67 index > 20%. With the reclassificiation of PitNETs, in our opinion, the adequate term for the well-differentiated corticotroph tumor that we report is a PitNET G3, whereas the undifferentiated prolactin tumor should be classified as PitNEC. This report expands the spectrum of pituitary neuroendocrine neoplasms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12022-021-09693-yDOI Listing
October 2021

Integrated Molecular-Morphologic Meningioma Classification: A Multicenter Retrospective Analysis, Retrospectively and Prospectively Validated.

J Clin Oncol 2021 12 7;39(34):3839-3852. Epub 2021 Oct 7.

Department of Neurosurgery, NYU Langone Hospital, New York, NY.

Purpose: Meningiomas are the most frequent primary intracranial tumors. Patient outcome varies widely from benign to highly aggressive, ultimately fatal courses. Reliable identification of risk of progression for individual patients is of pivotal importance. However, only biomarkers for highly aggressive tumors are established ( and ), whereas no molecularly based stratification exists for the broad spectrum of patients with low- and intermediate-risk meningioma.

Methods: DNA methylation data and copy-number information were generated for 3,031 meningiomas (2,868 patients), and mutation data for 858 samples. DNA methylation subgroups, copy-number variations (CNVs), mutations, and WHO grading were analyzed. Prediction power for outcome was assessed in a retrospective cohort of 514 patients, validated on a retrospective cohort of 184, and on a prospective cohort of 287 multicenter cases.

Results: Both CNV- and methylation family-based subgrouping independently resulted in increased prediction accuracy of risk of recurrence compared with the WHO classification (c-indexes WHO 2016, CNV, and methylation family 0.699, 0.706, and 0.721, respectively). Merging all risk stratification approaches into an integrated molecular-morphologic score resulted in further substantial increase in accuracy (c-index 0.744). This integrated score consistently provided superior accuracy in all three cohorts, significantly outperforming WHO grading (c-index difference = .005). Besides the overall stratification advantage, the integrated score separates more precisely for risk of progression at the diagnostically challenging interface of WHO grade 1 and grade 2 tumors (hazard ratio 4.34 [2.48-7.57] and 3.34 [1.28-8.72] retrospective and prospective validation cohorts, respectively).

Conclusion: Merging these layers of histologic and molecular data into an integrated, three-tiered score significantly improves the precision in meningioma stratification. Implementation into diagnostic routine informs clinical decision making for patients with meningioma on the basis of robust outcome prediction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.21.00784DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8713596PMC
December 2021

Correction to: Predicting the risk of postoperative recurrence and high-grade histology in patients with intracranial meningiomas using routine preoperative MRI.

Neurosurg Rev 2021 Sep 21. Epub 2021 Sep 21.

Department of Neurosurgery, University Hospital Münster, Münster, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, Building A1, 48149, Münster, North Rhine Westphalia, Germany.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10143-021-01630-1DOI Listing
September 2021

Molecular profiling of pediatric meningiomas shows tumor characteristics distinct from adult meningiomas.

Acta Neuropathol 2021 11 8;142(5):873-886. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Neuropathology, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Germany.

In contrast to adults, meningiomas are uncommon tumors in childhood and adolescence. Whether adult and pediatric meningiomas differ on a molecular level is unclear. Here we report detailed genomic analyses of 37 pediatric meningiomas by sequencing and DNA methylation profiling. Histologically, the series was dominated by meningioma subtypes with aggressive behavior, with 70% of patients suffering from WHO grade II or III meningiomas. The most frequent cytogenetic aberrations were loss of chromosomes 22 (23/37 [62%]), 1 (9/37 [24%]), 18 (7/37 [19%]), and 14 (5/37 [14%]). Tumors with NF2 alterations exhibited overall increased chromosomal instability. Unsupervised clustering of DNA methylation profiles revealed separation into three groups: designated group 1 composed of clear cell and papillary meningiomas, whereas group 2A comprised predominantly atypical meningiomas and group 2B enriched for rare high-grade subtypes (rhabdoid, chordoid). Meningiomas from NF2 patients clustered exclusively within groups 1 and 2A. When compared with a dataset of 105 adult meningiomas, the pediatric meningiomas largely grouped separately. Targeted panel DNA sequencing of 34 tumors revealed frequent NF2 alterations, while other typical alterations found in adult non-NF2 tumors were absent. These data demonstrate that pediatric meningiomas are characterized by molecular features distinct from adult tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-021-02351-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8500891PMC
November 2021

[Macroscopic and microscopic changes of the vestibulocochlear nerve after Gamma Knife treatment].

HNO 2021 Sep 1. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Klinik für Neurochirurgie, Universitätsklinikum Halle, Medizinische Fakultät der Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Ernst-Grube-Straße 40, 06120, Halle, Deutschland.

We report on a case in which macroscopic and microscopic changes of the vestibulocochlear nerve could be observed after radiosurgery of an intrameatal vestibular schwannoma. This case shows for the first time a morphological correlate for undesirable effects after radiosurgical treatment of a vestibular schwannoma and indicates that despite a certain distance to the actual tumor, degenerative changes in neural structures can be expected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00106-021-01104-2DOI Listing
September 2021

Variability in the distance from the end of the gray matter to the end of the conus medullaris: a case-triggered histological investigation.

J Neurosurg Spine 2021 Aug 6;35(4):446-453. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

1Department of Neurosurgery.

Objective: The background for this investigation was the dramatic course of a 14-year-old girl with a spontaneous hemorrhage in the area of the conus medullaris resulting in a complete cross-sectional syndrome with bladder and bowel dysfunction. Despite immediate surgical treatment, the patient showed close to no postoperative improvement. Subsequent histopathological examination of the removed masses revealed a cavernoma. To better understand the link between the site and symptoms of conus medullaris lesions, the authors performed a literature search and then histological examination of the conus medullaris of 18 cadaveric specimens from body donors.

Methods: After a literature search regarding the histological features of the structure of the conus medullaris did not lead to satisfying results, the authors performed histological examination of the conus medullaris in 18 cadaveric specimens from body donors. The largest (a) and smallest (b) diameters of the conus medullaris were measured, noting individual variations in the distance from the caudal ending of the gray matter to the macroscopically visible end of the conus medullaris. Correlations of these differences with sex, body height, gray matter transverse diameter, and cross-sectional area at the end of the gray matter were analyzed.

Results: Gray matter displayed in the form of a butterfly figure was found along almost the entire length of the conus medullaris. The specific slide containing the end of the gray matter was noted. The distance between the caudal ending of the gray matter in the conus and the macroscopical end of the conus medullaris was defined as the gray matter to cone termination (GMCT) distance. There were great individual variations in the distance from the caudal ending of the gray matter to the macroscopically visible end of the conus medullaris. Analysis of the correlations of these differences with sex, body height, gray matter transverse diameter, and cross-sectional area at the end of the gray matter showed no significant sex-specific differences in the GMCT distance. Patient body height and transverse diameter at the end of the gray matter were found to be correlated positively with the GMCT distance. Moreover, greater height also correlated positively with the cross-sectional area at the end of the gray matter.

Conclusions: This report is, to the authors' knowledge, the first published description of the histological structure of the conus medullaris and can serve as the basis for a better understanding of neurological deficits in patients with a conus medullaris syndrome. Findings that gray matter can be detected far into the conus medullaris, with large individual differences in the endpoint of the gray matter, are important for operative care of intramedullary masses and vascular malformations in this area. It is therefore important to use electrophysiological monitoring during these operations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.12.SPINE201890DOI Listing
August 2021

Recurrent fusions in PLAGL1 define a distinct subset of pediatric-type supratentorial neuroepithelial tumors.

Acta Neuropathol 2021 11 5;142(5):827-839. Epub 2021 Aug 5.

Institute of Neuropathology, University of Giessen, Giessen, Germany.

Ependymomas encompass a heterogeneous group of central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms that occur along the entire neuroaxis. In recent years, extensive (epi-)genomic profiling efforts have identified several molecular groups of ependymoma that are characterized by distinct molecular alterations and/or patterns. Based on unsupervised visualization of a large cohort of genome-wide DNA methylation data, we identified a highly distinct group of pediatric-type tumors (n = 40) forming a cluster separate from all established CNS tumor types, of which a high proportion were histopathologically diagnosed as ependymoma. RNA sequencing revealed recurrent fusions involving the pleomorphic adenoma gene-like 1 (PLAGL1) gene in 19 of 20 of the samples analyzed, with the most common fusion being EWSR1:PLAGL1 (n = 13). Five tumors showed a PLAGL1:FOXO1 fusion and one a PLAGL1:EP300 fusion. High transcript levels of PLAGL1 were noted in these tumors, with concurrent overexpression of the imprinted genes H19 and IGF2, which are regulated by PLAGL1. Histopathological review of cases with sufficient material (n = 16) demonstrated a broad morphological spectrum of tumors with predominant ependymoma-like features. Immunohistochemically, tumors were GFAP positive and OLIG2- and SOX10 negative. In 3/16 of the cases, a dot-like positivity for EMA was detected. All tumors in our series were located in the supratentorial compartment. Median age of the patients at the time of diagnosis was 6.2 years. Median progression-free survival was 35 months (for 11 patients with data available). In summary, our findings suggest the existence of a novel group of supratentorial neuroepithelial tumors that are characterized by recurrent PLAGL1 fusions and enriched for pediatric patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-021-02356-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8500895PMC
November 2021

Frequency of actionable molecular drivers in lung cancer patients with precocious brain metastases.

Clin Neurol Neurosurg 2021 Sep 24;208:106841. Epub 2021 Jul 24.

Department of Neuropathology, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Brain metastases frequently occur during the course of disease in patients suffering from lung cancer. Occasionally, neurological symptoms caused by brain metastases (BM) might represent the first sign of systemic tumor disease (so called precocious metastases), leading to the detection of the primary lung tumor. The biological basis of precocious BM is largely unknown, and treatment options are not well established for this subgroup of patients. Therefore, we retrospectively analyzed 33 patients (24 non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)), 9 small cell lung cancer (SCLC)) presenting with precocious BM focusing on molecular alterations potentially relevant for the tumor's biology and treatment. We found five FGFR1 amplifications (4 adenocarcinoma, 1 SCLC) among 31 analyzed patients (16.1%), eight MET amplifications among 30 analyzed tumors (7 NSCLC, 1 SCLC; 26.7%), three EGFR mutations within 33 patients (all adenocarcinomas, 9.1%), and five KRAS mutations among 32 patients (all adenocarcinomas; 15.6%). No ALK, ROS1 or RET gene rearrangements were detected. Our findings suggest that patients with precocious BM of lung cancer harbor EGFR mutations, MET amplifications or FGFR1 amplifications as potential targeted treatment options.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clineuro.2021.106841DOI Listing
September 2021

Clinical Characteristics and Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Based Prediction of the KLF4 Mutation in Meningioma.

World Neurosurg 2021 10 31;154:e665-e670. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Neurosurgery, Center for Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital, University of Cologne, Cologne, Germany.

Background: Meningioma is the most common primary brain tumor in adults. In recent years, several non-neurofibromin 2 mutations, i.e., AKT1, SMO, TRAF7, and KLF4 mutations, specific for meningioma have been identified. This study aims to analyze the clinical impact and imaging characteristics of the KLF4 mutation in meningioma.

Methods: Clinical, neuropathologic, and imaging data of 170 patients who underwent meningioma resection between 2013 and 2018 were retrospectively collected and tumors were analyzed for the presence of the KLF4 mutation. We collected imaging characteristics, performed volumetric analysis of tumor size and peritumoral edema (PTBE), and calculated the edema index (EI, i.e., ratio of PTBE to tumor volume). Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to identify cut-off EI values to predict the mutational status of KLF4.

Results: Eighteen (10.6%) of the meningiomas carried the KLF4 mutation; these were significantly associated with a secretory subtype (P < 0.001) and sphenoid wing location (P = 0.029). Smaller tumor size (P = 0.007), an increased PTBE (P = 0.012), and an increased EI (P = 0.001) proved to be significantly associated with the KLF4 mutation. In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, EI predicted the KLF4 mutation with an area under the curve of 0.728 (P = 0.0016).

Conclusions: The KLF4 mutation is associated with a distinct small tumor subtype, prone to substantial PTBE. EI is a reliable parameter to predict the KLF4 mutation in meningioma, thus providing a tool for improvement of pre- and perioperative medical management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wneu.2021.07.119DOI Listing
October 2021

EANO guideline on the diagnosis and management of meningiomas.

Neuro Oncol 2021 11;23(11):1821-1834

Department of Neurology, Clinical Neuroscience Center, University Hospital and University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Meningiomas are the most common intracranial tumors. Yet, only few controlled clinical trials have been conducted to guide clinical decision making, resulting in variations of management approaches across countries and centers. However, recent advances in molecular genetics and clinical trial results help to refine the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to meningioma. Accordingly, the European Association of Neuro-Oncology (EANO) updated its recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of meningiomas. A provisional diagnosis of meningioma is typically made by neuroimaging, mostly magnetic resonance imaging. Such provisional diagnoses may be made incidentally. Accordingly, a significant proportion of meningiomas, notably in patients that are asymptomatic or elderly or both, may be managed by a watch-and-scan strategy. A surgical intervention with tissue, commonly with the goal of gross total resection, is required for the definitive diagnosis according to the WHO classification. A role for molecular profiling including gene panel sequencing and genomic methylation profiling is emerging. A gross total surgical resection including the involved dura is often curative. Inoperable or recurrent tumors requiring treatment can be treated with radiosurgery, if the size or the vicinity of critical structures allows that, or with fractionated radiotherapy (RT). Treatment concepts combining surgery and radiosurgery or fractionated RT are increasingly used, although there remain controversies regard timing, type, and dosing of the various RT approaches. Radionuclide therapy targeting somatostatin receptors is an experimental approach, as are all approaches of systemic pharmacotherapy. The best albeit modest results with pharmacotherapy have been obtained with bevacizumab or multikinase inhibitors targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, but no standard of care systemic treatment has been yet defined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/noab150DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8563316PMC
November 2021

Quantitative susceptibility mapping in the thalamus and basal ganglia of systemic lupus erythematosus patients with neuropsychiatric complaints.

Neuroimage Clin 2021 22;30:102637. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an auto-immune disease characterized by multi-organ involvement. Although uncommon, central nervous system involvement in SLE, termed neuropsychiatric SLE (NPSLE), is not an exception. Current knowledge on underlying pathogenic mechanisms is incomplete, however, neuroinflammation is thought to play a critical role. Evidence from neurodegenerative diseases and multiple sclerosis suggests that neuroinflammation is correlated with brain iron accumulation, making quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) a potential hallmark for neuroinflammation in vivo. This study assessed susceptibility values of the thalamus and basal ganglia in (NP)SLE patients and further investigated the in vivo findings with histological analyses of postmortem brain tissue derived from SLE patients. We used a 3T MRI scanner to acquire single-echo T*-weighted images of 44 SLE patients and 20 age-matched healthy controls. Of the 44 patients with SLE, all had neuropsychiatric complaints, of which 29 were classified as non-NPSLE and 15 as NPSLE (seven as inflammatory NPSLE and eight as ischemic NPSLE). Mean susceptibility values of the thalamus, caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus were calculated. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded post-mortem brain tissue including the putamen and globus pallidus of three additional SLE patients was obtained and stained for iron, microglia and astrocytes. Susceptibility values of SLE patients and age-matched controls showed that iron levels in the thalamus and basal ganglia were not changed due to the disease. No subgroup of SLE showed higher susceptibility values. No correlation was found with disease activity or damage due to SLE. Histological examination of the post-mortem brain showed no increased iron accumulation. Our results suggest that neuroinflammation in NPSLE does not necessarily go hand in hand with iron accumulation, and that the inflammatory pathomechanism in SLE may differ from the one observed in neurodegenerative diseases and in multiple sclerosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.nicl.2021.102637DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8053812PMC
July 2021

Crispr/Cas-based modeling of NF2 loss in meningioma cells.

J Neurosci Methods 2021 05 19;356:109141. Epub 2021 Mar 19.

Department of Neuropathology, Otto-von-Guericke-University, Germany; Center for Behavioral Brain Studies (CBBS), 39120, Magdeburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Background: Alterations of the neurofibromatosis type 2 gene (NF2) occur in more than fifty percent of sporadic meningiomas. Meningiomas develop frequently in the setting of the hereditary tumor syndrome NF2. Investigation of potential drug-based treatment options has been limited by the lack of appropriate in vitro and in vivo models.

New Methods: Using Crispr/Cas gene editing, of the malignant meningioma cell line IOMM-Lee, we generated a pair of cell clones characterized by either stable knockout of NF2 and loss of the protein product merlin or retained merlin protein (transfected control without gRNA).

Results: IOMM-Lee cells lacking NF2 showed reduced apoptosis and formed bigger colonies compared to control IOMM-Lee cells. Treatment of non-transfected IOMM-Lee cells with the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibitor GSK2256098 resulted in reduced colony sizes. Orthotopic mouse xenografts showed the formation of convexity tumors typical for meningiomas with NF2-depleted and control cells.

Comparison With Existing Methods: No orthotopic meningioma models with genetically-engineered cell pairs are available so far.

Conclusion: Our model based on Crispr/Cas-based gene editing provides paired meningioma cells suitable to study functional consequences and therapeutic accessibility of NF2/merlin loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneumeth.2021.109141DOI Listing
May 2021

Clear cell meningiomas are defined by a highly distinct DNA methylation profile and mutations in SMARCE1.

Acta Neuropathol 2021 02 14;141(2):281-290. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Department of Pathology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, USA.

Clear cell meningioma represents an uncommon variant of meningioma that typically affects children and young adults. Although an enrichment of loss-of-function mutations in the SMARCE1 gene has been reported for this subtype, comprehensive molecular investigations are lacking. Here we describe a molecularly distinct subset of tumors (n = 31), initially identified through genome-wide DNA methylation screening among a cohort of 3093 meningiomas, of which most were diagnosed histologically as clear cell meningioma. This cohort was further supplemented by an additional 11 histologically diagnosed clear cell meningiomas for analysis (n = 42). Targeted DNA sequencing revealed SMARCE1 mutations in 33/34 analyzed samples, accompanied by a nuclear loss of expression determined via immunohistochemistry and a decreased SMARCE1 transcript expression in the tumor cells. Analysis of time to progression or recurrence of patients within the clear cell meningioma group (n = 14) in comparison to those with meningioma WHO grade 2 (n = 220) revealed a similar outcome and support the assignment of WHO grade 2 to these tumors. Our findings indicate the existence of a highly distinct epigenetic signature of clear cell meningiomas, separate from all other variants of meningiomas, with recurrent mutations in the SMARCE1 gene. This suggests that these tumors may arise from a different precursor cell population than the broad spectrum of the other meningioma subtypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-020-02247-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7847462PMC
February 2021

MRI phenotyping of underlying cerebral small vessel disease in mixed hemorrhage patients.

J Neurol Sci 2020 Dec 9;419:117173. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Department of Neurology, Otto-von-Guericke University, Leipziger Straße 44, 39120 Magdeburg, Germany; German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases (DZNE), Leipziger Straße 44, 39120 Magdeburg, Germany; Center for Behavioral Brain Sciences (CBBS), Universitätsplatz 2, 39106 Magdeburg, Germany. Electronic address:

Objective: To investigate underlying cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) in patients with mixed cerebral hemorrhages patterns and phenotype them according to the contribution of the two most common sporadic CSVD subtypes: cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) vs. hypertensive arteriopathy (HA).

Methods: Brain MRIs of patients with intracerebral hemorrhages (ICHs) and/or cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) were assessed for the full spectrum of CSVD markers using validated scales: ICHs, CMBs, cortical superficial siderosis (cSS), white matter hyperintensities, MRI-visible perivascular spaces (PVS). PVS predominance pattern was grouped as centrum-semiovale (CSO)-PVS predominance, basal-ganglia (BG)-PVS predominance, CSO-PVS and BG-PVS equality. Patients with mixed cerebral hemorrhages were classified into mixed CAA-pattern or mixed HA-pattern according to the existence of cSS and/or a CSO-PVS predominance pattern and comparisons were performed.

Results: We included 110 patients with CAA (strictly lobar ICHs/CMBs), 33 with HA (strictly deep ICHs/CMBs) and 97 with mixed lobar/deep ICHs/CMBs. Mixed patients were more similar to HA with respect to their MRI-CSVD markers, vascular risk profile and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) measures. In the mixed patients, 33 (34%) had cSS, a CSO-PVS predominance pattern, or both, and were defined as mixed CAA-pattern cases. The mixed CAA-pattern patients were more alike CAA patients regarding their MRI-CSVD markers, CSF and genetic profile.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that the heterogeneous group of patients with mixed cerebral hemorrhages distribution can be further phenotyped according to the predominant underlying CSVD. cSS presence and a CSO-PVS predominance pattern could serve as strongly suggestive markers of a contribution from CAA among patients with mixed hemorrhages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2020.117173DOI Listing
December 2020

Reduced habenular volumes and neuron numbers in male heroin addicts: a post-mortem study.

Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2021 Aug 1;271(5):835-845. Epub 2020 Oct 1.

Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University of Magdeburg, 39120, Magdeburg, Germany.

The Habenula is increasingly being investigated in addiction. Reduced volumes of other relevant brain regions in addiction, such as nucleus accumbens, globus pallidus and hypothalamus have been reported. Reduced volumes of the habenula as well as reduced neuronal cell count in the habenula have also been reported in mood disorders and an overlap between mood disorders and addiction is clinically widely recognized. Thus, our aim was to investigate possible volume and neuronal cell count differences in heroin addicts compared to healthy controls. Volumes of the medial (MHB) and lateral habenula (LHB) in heroin addicts (n = 12) and healthy controls (n = 12) were assessed by morphometry of 20 µm serial whole brain sections. Total brain volume was larger in the heroin group (mean 1466.6 ± 58.5 cm vs. mean 1331.5 ± 98.8 cm), possibly because the heroin group was about 15 years younger (p = 0.001). Despite larger mean whole brain volume, the mean relative volume of the MHB was smaller than in healthy non-addicted controls (6.94 ± 2.38 × 10 vs.10.64 ± 3.22 × 10; p = 0.004). A similar finding was observed regarding relative volumes of the LHB (46.62 ± 10.90 × 10 vs. 63.05 ± 16.42 × 10 p = 0.009). In parallel, neuronal cell numbers were reduced in the MHB of heroin-addicted subjects (395,966 ± 184,178 vs. 644,149 ± 131,140; p < 0.001). These findings were not significantly confounded by age and duration of autolysis. Our results provide further evidence for brain-structural deficits in heroin addiction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00406-020-01195-yDOI Listing
August 2021

Musculoskeletal Ultrasound Can Aid in Diagnosis and Follow-up of a Patient With Eosinophilic Fasciitis.

J Clin Rheumatol 2021 Dec;27(8S):S784-S785

From the Department of Internal Medicine III, Jena University Hospital-Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Jena.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/RHU.0000000000001477DOI Listing
December 2021

Risk of tumor recurrence in intracranial meningiomas: comparative analyses of the predictive value of the postoperative tumor volume and the Simpson classification.

J Neurosurg 2020 07 17;134(6):1764-1771. Epub 2020 Jul 17.

1Department of Neurosurgery.

Objective: In meningiomas, the Simpson grading system is applied to estimate the risk of postoperative recurrence, but might suffer from bias and limited overview of the resection cavity. In contrast, the value of the postoperative tumor volume as an objective predictor of recurrence is largely unexplored. The objective of this study was to compare the predictive value of residual tumor volume with the intraoperatively assessed extent of resection (EOR).

Methods: The Simpson grade was determined in 939 patients after surgery for initially diagnosed intracranial meningioma. Tumor volume was measured on initial postoperative MRI within 6 months after surgery. Correlation between both variables and recurrence was compared using a tree-structured Cox regression model.

Results: Recurrence correlated with Simpson grading (p = 0.003). In 423 patients (45%) with available imaging, residual tumor volume covered a broad range (0-78.5 cm3). MRI revealed tumor remnants in 8% after gross-total resection (Simpson grade I-III, range 0.12-33.5 cm3) with a Cohen's kappa coefficient of 0.7153. Postoperative tumor volume was correlated with recurrence in univariate analysis (HR 1.05 per cm3, 95% CI 1.02-1.08 per cm3, p < 0.001). A tree-structured Cox regression model revealed any postoperative tumor volume > 0 cm3 as a critical cutoff value for the prediction of relapse. Multivariate analysis confirmed the postoperative tumor volume (HR 1.05, p < 0.001) but not the Simpson grading (p = 0.398) as a predictor for recurrence.

Conclusions: EOR according to Simpson grading was overrated in 8% of tumors compared to postoperative imaging. Because the predictive value of postoperative imaging is superior to the Simpson grade, any residual tumor should be carefully considered during postoperative care of meningioma patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3171/2020.4.JNS20412DOI Listing
July 2020

Ependymoma relapse goes along with a relatively stable epigenome, but a severely altered tumor morphology.

Brain Pathol 2021 01 28;31(1):33-44. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Department of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

The molecular biology of ependymomas is not well understood and this is particularly true for ependymoma relapses. We aimed at finding out if and to which extent, relapses differ from their corresponding primary tumors on the morphological, chromosomal and epigenetic level. We investigated 24 matched ependymoma primary and relapsed tumor samples and, as a first step, compared cell density, necrosis, vessel proliferation, Ki67 proliferative index, trimethylation at H3K27 and expression of CXorf67. For the investigation of global methylation profiles, we used public data in order to analyze copy number variation profiles, differential methylation, methylation status and fractions of hypo- and hypermethylated CpGs in different epigenomic substructures. Morphologically, we found a significant increase with relapse in cell density and proliferation. H3K27 trimethylation and CXorf67 expression remained stable between primary and relapse tumor samples, and the analysis of DNA methylation profiles neither revealed significant differences in copy number variations nor differentially methylated regions. Significant differences in the methylation status were found for CpG islands, but also in N Shelves or S Shelves, depending on the molecular subgroup. The fraction of probes changing their methylation in the epigenomic substructures appeared subgroup-specific. Most changes occur in CpG islands, for which relapsed tumors demonstrate higher methylation values than primary tumors. The morphological differences reflect increased aggressiveness upon ependymoma relapse, but, despite slight changes, this observation does not appear to be sufficiently explained by epigenetic changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bpa.12875DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8018105PMC
January 2021

Quality assurance in neuropathology: Experiences from the round robin trials on mutation and promoter methylation testing launched by the Quality Assurance Initiative Pathology (QuIP) in 2018 and 2019.

Clin Neuropathol 2020 Sep/Oct;39(5):203-211

We here report on the first neuropathological round robin trials initiated by the Quality Assurance Initiative Pathology (QuIP) in Germany in the years 2018 and 2019. Testing services as external laboratory controls were offered for IDH1-R132H immunohistochemistry in 2018 followed by a molecular trial for and mutations in 2019 including the rare mutational variants. Also in 2019, a trial on promoter methylation testing was offered. On a national scale, trial offers were well received with around 40 participating institutions. The international announcement of the molecular mutational trial achieved only moderate European outspread. Success rates in all three trials were excellent (IDH1-R132H immunohistochemistry 2018: 94%, 18 out of 20 possible points required; mutational status 2019: 100%, 19 out of 20 possible points required; promoter methylation 2019: 94%, 19 out of 20 possible points required) indicating that quality standards are high in the broad majority of the institutions. Trial participation also involved filling in a questionnaire asking for background information on local testing procedures. We here present a first assessment of the information collected providing unique insights in the landscape of molecular testing in neuropathology. Derived from this information we identify future challenges and provide an outlook on the development of quality assurance in the field of neuropathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5414/NP301278DOI Listing
July 2021

Nonmetastatic Medulloblastoma of Early Childhood: Results From the Prospective Clinical Trial HIT-2000 and An Extended Validation Cohort.

J Clin Oncol 2020 06 24;38(18):2028-2040. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Department of Neuropathology, Institute for Pathology, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany.

Purpose: The HIT-2000-BIS4 trial aimed to avoid highly detrimental craniospinal irradiation (CSI) in children < 4 years of age with nonmetastatic medulloblastoma by systemic chemotherapy, intraventricular methotrexate, and risk-adapted local radiotherapy.

Patients And Methods: From 2001-2011, 87 patients received systemic chemotherapy and intraventricular methotrexate. Until 2006, CSI was reserved for nonresponse or progression. After 2006, local radiotherapy was introduced for nonresponders or patients with classic medulloblastoma (CMB) or large-cell/anaplastic medulloblastoma (LCA). DNA methylation profiles of infantile sonic hedgehog-activated medulloblastoma (SHH-INF) were subdivided into iSHH-I and iSHH-II subtypes in the HIT-2000-BIS4 cohort and a validation cohort (n = 71) from the HIT group and Russia.

Results: Five years after diagnosis, patients with desmoplastic medulloblastoma (DMB) or medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity (MBEN; n = 42) had 93% progression-free survival (5y-PFS), 100% overall survival (5y-OS), and 93% CSI-free (5y-CSI-free) survival. Patients with CMB/LCA (n = 45) had 37% 5y-PFS, 62% 5y-OS, and 39% 5y-CSI-free survival. Local radiotherapy did not improve survival in patients with CMB/LCA. All DMB/MBEN assessed by DNA methylation profiling belonged to the SHH-INF subgroup. Group 3 patients (5y-PFS, 36%; n = 14) relapsed more frequently than the SHH-INF group (5y-PFS, 93%; n = 28) or group 4 patients (5y-PFS, 83%; n = 6; < .001). SHH-INF split into iSHH-I and iSHH-II subtypes in HIT-2000-BIS4 and the validation cohort, without prognostic impact (5y-PFS: iSHH-I, 73%, iSHH-II, 83%; = .25; n = 99). Intelligence quotient (IQ) was significantly lower in patients after CSI (mean IQ, 90 [no radiotherapy], 74 [CSI]; = .012).

Conclusion: Systemic chemotherapy and intraventricular methotrexate led to favorable survival in both iSHH subtypes of SHH-activated DMB/MBEN with acceptable neurotoxicity. Survival in patients with non-wingless (WNT)/non-SHH disease with CMB/LCA was not improved by local radiotherapy. Patients with group 4 disease had more favorable survival rates than those with group 3 medulloblastoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.19.03057DOI Listing
June 2020
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