Publications by authors named "Christian Juhl Terkelsen"

111 Publications

Performance of quantitative flow ratio in patients with aortic stenosis undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2021 Feb 3. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Department of Cardiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

Objectives: This study aims to evaluate the diagnostic performance of quantitative flow ratio (QFR) pre transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) in patients with aortic valve stenosis (AS) and coronary artery disease (CAD). Post-TAVI fractional flow reserve (FFR) and instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) was used as reference.

Background: CAD is prevalent in patients with AS, but the hemodynamics of AS confounds evaluation using pressure wire-based assessments. QFR might be less sensitive to the presence of AS thereby allowing for CAD evaluation before aortic valve replacement. Further, QFR does not require the use of pressure wire and therefore has the potential for reducing costs and complications related to insertion of a coronary pressure wire.

Methods: The diagnostic performance of QFR in coronary angiograms from 28 patients undergoing TAVI was evaluated. In all patients, both FFR and iFR were measured pre- and immediately post-TAVI while QFR was measured pre-TAVI.

Results: Using post-TAVI FFR and iFR as reference the diagnostic accuracy of pre-TAVI QFR were 83% (95%CI; 68-97) and 52% (95%CI; 30-74) p = .008, respectively.

Conclusions: Pre-TAVI QFR showed a good diagnostic performance using post-TAVI FFR as reference. QFR could become a wire-free, safe, and quick way of evaluating CAD in patients with severe AS undergoing TAVI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.29518DOI Listing
February 2021

Distribution and prognostic value of left ventricular global longitudinal strain in elderly patients with symptomatic severe aortic stenosis undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2020 12 2;20(1):506. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Department of Cardiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Palle Juul-Jensens Boulevard 99, 8200, Aarhus N, Denmark.

Aims: The aim of present study was to examine the preoperative prevalence and distribution of impaired left ventricular global longitudinal strain (LVGLS) in elderly patients with symptomatic aortic stenosis (AS) undergoing transcutaneous aortic valve replacement (TAVR) and to determine the predictive value of LVGLS on survival.

Methods: We included 411 patients with symptomatic severe AS treated with TAVR during a 5-year period, where a baseline echocardiography including LVGLS assessment was available.

Results: Mean age was 80.1 ± 7.1 years and aortic valve area (AVA) index 0.4 ± 0.1 cm. 78 patients died during a median follow-up of 762 days. Mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 50 ± 13% and mean LVGLS was - 14.0%. LVEF was preserved in 60% of patients, while impaired LVGLS > - 18% was seen in 75% of the patients. Previous myocardial infarction, LVEF < 50%, LVGLS > - 14%, low gradient AS (< 4.0 m/s), tricuspid regurgitant gradient > 30 mmHg were identified as significant univariate predictors of all-cause mortality. On multivariate analysis LVGLS > - 14% (HR 1.79 [1.02-3.14], p = 0.04) was identified as the only independent variable associated with all-cause mortality. Reduced survival was observed with an impaired LVGLS > - 14% in the total population (p < 0.002) but also in patients with high AS gradient with preserved LVEF. LVGLS provided incremental prognostic value with respect to clinical characteristics, AVA and LVEF (χ 19.9, p = 0.006).

Conclusions: In patients with symptomatic AS undergoing TAVR, impaired LVGLS was highly prevalent despite preserved LVEF. LVGLS > - 14% was an independent predictor of all-cause mortality, and survival was reduced if LVGLS > - 14%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12872-020-01791-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7709407PMC
December 2020

Agreement between nonculprit stenosis follow-up iFR and FFR after STEMI (iSTEMI substudy).

BMC Res Notes 2020 Sep 1;13(1):410. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Department of Cardiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Palle Juul-Jensens Boulevard 99, 8200, Aarhus N, Denmark.

Objective: To evaluate agreement between instantaneous wave free ratio (iFR) and fractional flow reserve (FFR) for the functional assessment of nonculprit coronary stenoses at staged follow-up after ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).

Results: We measured iFR and FFR at staged follow-up in 112 STEMI patients with 146 nonculprit stenoses. Median interval between STEMI and follow-up was 16 (interquartile range 5-32) days. Agreement between iFR and FFR was 77% < 5 days after STEMI and 86% after ≥ 5 days (p = 0.19). Among cases with disagreement, the proportion of cases with hemodynamically significant iFR and non-significant FFR were different when assessed < 5 days (5 in 8, 63%) versus ≥ 5 days (3 in 15, 20%) after STEMI (p = 0.04). Overall classification agreement between iFR and FFR was comparable to that observed in stable patients. Time interval between STEMI and follow-up evaluation may impact agreement between iFR and FFR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-020-05252-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7466494PMC
September 2020

Culprit lesion morphology in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction assessed by optical coherence tomography.

Coron Artery Dis 2020 12;31(8):671-677

Department of Cardiology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark.

Aims: This study sought to evaluate the incidence of ruptured plaques and nonruptured plaques (NRP) and to compare patient characteristics and detailed plaque morphology features between the two culprit types in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients, using optical coherence tomography (OCT).

Methods And Results: Using OCT, the culprit lesions in patients with STEMI were assessed prior to stent implantation. The culprit lesion was categorized as ruptured plaques or NRP, and the plaque components were evaluated. Fifty-two patients (69.3%) presented with ruptured plaques and 23 (30.7%) with NRP. Patients with NRP were younger (58.0 ± 10.4 vs 64.7 ± 9.9 years, P = 0.01) and more often smokers (72.7% vs 37.1%, P = 0.001), compared to ruptured plaques. NRP contained significantly more fibrotic plaque (20.0% [interquartile range (IQR) 13.7-29.8] vs 11.3% [IQR 6.9-18.1], P = 0.005), but less lipidic plaque (44.0% ± 13.7 vs 59.3% ± 13.6, P < 0.001), less superficial [5.0% (IQR 2.8-7.5) vs 8.1% (IQR 5.7-11.0), P = 0.005] and profound macrophages [0.9% (IQR 0.0-1.7) vs 2.2% (IQR 0.9-4.7), P = 0.003]. The prevalence, numbers and lengths of thin-cap fibroatheroma (TCFA) were significantly lower in NRP, compared to ruptured plaques [47.8% vs 88.5%, 0 (IQR 0-1) vs 1 (IQR 1-2) and 0 mm (IQR 0-2.7) vs 4.5 mm (IQR 2.3-7.7), P < 0.001].

Conclusions: One-third of STEMI patients had culprit lesions without an OCT-detectable ruptured plaque. Culprit lesions with NRP contained less vulnerable plaque components, such as lipid plaque, TCFAs and macrophages compared to ruptured plaques.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCA.0000000000000957DOI Listing
December 2020

Randomized Comparison of the Polymer-Free Biolimus-Coated BioFreedom Stent With the Ultrathin Strut Biodegradable Polymer Sirolimus-Eluting Orsiro Stent in an All-Comers Population Treated With Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: The SORT OUT IX Trial.

Circulation 2020 06 21;141(25):2052-2063. Epub 2020 May 21.

Department of Cardiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby Hospital, Denmark (M.M., L.J., S.D.K., S.C., C.J.T., H.E.B., T.T., A.E., E.H.C.).

Background: In patients with increased bleeding risk, the biolimus A9-coated BioFreedom stent, a stainless steel drug-coated stent free from polymer, has shown superiority compared with a bare-metal stent. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the BioFreedom stent is noninferior to a modern ultrathin strut biodegradable polymer cobalt-chromium sirolimus-eluting Orsiro stent in an all-comers patient population treated with percutaneous coronary intervention.

Methods: The SORT OUT IX trial (Scandinavian Organization for Randomized Trials With Clinical Outcome IX), was a large-scale, registry-based, randomized, multicenter, single-blind, 2-arm, noninferiority trial. The primary end point, major adverse cardiovascular events, was defined as the composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction not related to any segment other than the target lesion, or target lesion revascularization within 1 year, analyzed by intention-to-treat. The trial was powered to assess noninferiority for major adverse cardiovascular events of the BioFreedom stent compared with the Orsiro stent with a predetermined noninferiority margin of 0.021.

Results: Between December 14, 2015 and April 21, 2017, 3151 patients were assigned to treatment with the BioFreedom stent (1572 patients, 1966 lesions) or to the Orsiro stent (1579 patients, 1985 lesions). Five patients were lost to follow-up because of emigration (99.9% follow-up rate). Mean age was 66.3±10.9, diabetes mellitus was seen in 19.3% of patients, and 53% of the patients had acute coronary syndromes. At 1 year, intention-to-treat analysis showed that 79 (5.0%) patients, who were assigned the BioFreedom stent, and 59 (3.7%), who were assigned the Orsiro stent, met the primary end point (absolute risk difference 1.29% [upper limit of one-sided 95% CI 2.50%]; =0.14). Significantly more patients in the BioFreedom stent group had target lesion revascularization than those in the Orsiro stent group (55 [3.5%] vs 20 [1.3%], rate ratio 2.77 [95% CI, 1.66-4.62]; <0.0001).

Conclusions: The biolimus A9-coated BioFreedom polymer-free stent did not meet criteria for noninferiority for major adverse cardiovascular events at 12 months when compared with the ultrathin strut biodegradable polymer sirolimus-eluting Orsiro stent in an all-comers population Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02623140.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.119.040241DOI Listing
June 2020

Instantaneous wave-free ratio cutoff values for nonculprit stenosis classification in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (an iSTEMI substudy).

Coron Artery Dis 2020 08;31(5):411-416

Department of Cardiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark.

Objectives: The instantaneous wave-free ratio cutoff value of <0.90 for hemodynamic significance of coronary stenoses has been validated in stable patients. We examined different cutoff values in the evaluation of nonculprit stenoses in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

Methods: We measured instantaneous wave-free ratio across nonculprit stenoses in the acute setting and at follow-up in 120 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction and 157 nonculprit stenoses, of which, 113 patients with 147 nonculprit stenoses completed follow-up.

Methods: The prevalence of nonculprit stenosis hemodynamic significance was 52% in the acute setting and 41% at follow-up. With follow-up, instantaneous wave-free ratio as reference, acute instantaneous wave-free ratio >0.90 had a negative predictive value of 89%. Acute instantaneous wave-free ratio <0.90 had a positive predictive value of 68%. Acute instantaneous wave-free ratio >0.93 had a negative predictive value of 100%. Acute instantaneous wave-free ratio <0.86 and <0.83 had positive predictive values of 71 and 77%. Using acute instantaneous wave-free ratio <0.90 as cutoff for hemodynamic significance yielded the highest degree of classification agreement between acute and follow-up instantaneous wave-free ratio.

Conclusions: In patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, acute instantaneous wave-free ratio with the cutoff values <0.90 for hemodynamic significance appears optimal in the evaluation of nonculprit stenoses and has a high negative predictive value and a moderate positive predictive value.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCA.0000000000000879DOI Listing
August 2020

Randomised comparison of provisional side branch stenting versus a two-stent strategy for treatment of true coronary bifurcation lesions involving a large side branch: the Nordic-Baltic Bifurcation Study IV.

Open Heart 2020 19;7(1):e000947. Epub 2020 Jan 19.

Department of Cardiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

Background: It is still uncertain whether coronary bifurcations with lesions involving a large side branch (SB) should be treated by stenting the main vessel and provisional stenting of the SB (simple) or by routine two-stent techniques (complex). We aimed to compare clinical outcome after treatment of lesions in large bifurcations by simple or complex stent implantation.

Methods: The study was a randomised, superiority trial. Enrolment required a SB≥2.75 mm, ≥50% diameter stenosis in both vessels, and allowed SB lesion length up to 15 mm. The primary endpoint was a composite of cardiac death, non-procedural myocardial infarction and target lesion revascularisation at 6 months. Two-year clinical follow-up was included in this primary reporting due to lower than expected event rates.

Results: A total of 450 patients were assigned to simple stenting (n=221) or complex stenting (n=229) in 14 Nordic and Baltic centres. Two-year follow-up was available in 218 (98.6%) and 228 (99.5%) patients, respectively. The primary endpoint of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) at 6 months was 5.5% vs 2.2% (risk differences 3.2%, 95% CI -0.2 to 6.8, p=0.07) and at 2 years 12.9% vs 8.4% (HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.35 to 1.13, p=0.12) after simple versus complex treatment. In the subgroup treated by newer generation drug-eluting stents, MACE was 12.0% vs 5.6% (HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.17 to 1.17, p=0.10) after simple versus complex treatment.

Conclusion: In the treatment of bifurcation lesions involving a large SB with ostial stenosis, routine two-stent techniques did not improve outcome significantly compared with treatment by the simpler main vessel stenting technique after 2 years.

Trial Registration Number: NCT01496638.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/openhrt-2018-000947DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6999681PMC
June 2020

Randomized Comparison of Terumo® Coated Slender™ versus Terumo® Noncoated Traditional Sheath during Radial Angiography or Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

J Interv Cardiol 2019 4;2019:7348167. Epub 2019 Mar 4.

Department of Cardiology, Aarhus University Hospital, DK-8200 Aarhus N, Denmark.

Background: The transradial approach is generally associated with few complications. However, periprocedural pain is still a common issue, potentially related to sheath insertion and/or arterial spasm, and may result in conversion to femoral access. Radial artery occlusion (RAO) following the procedure is also a potential risk. We evaluate whether the design of the sheath has any impact on these variables.

Methods: A total of 1,000 patients scheduled for radial CAG or PCI were randomized (1:1) to the use of a Slender or a Standard sheath during the procedure. Randomization was stratified according to chosen sheath size (5, 6, 7 French) and gender. A radial band was used to obtain hemostasis after the procedure, employing a rapid deflation technique. A reverse Barbeau test was performed to evaluate radial artery patency after removal of the radial band, and level of pain was assessed using a numeric rating scale (NRS).

Results: Use of the Slender sheath was associated with less pain during sheath insertion (median NRS 1 versus 2, p=0.02), whereas no difference was observed in pain during the procedure, radial procedural success rates, use of analgesics and sedatives during the procedure, and radial artery patency following the procedure. Rate of RAO was 1.5% with no difference between groups.

Conclusion: The use of the hydrophilic coated Slender sheath during radial CAG or PCI was associated with less pain during sheath insertion, whereas no difference in other endpoints was observed. A rapid deflation technique was associated with RAO of only 1.5%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/7348167DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6739780PMC
February 2020

Determining the Predominant Lesion in Patients With Severe Aortic Stenosis and Coronary Stenoses: A Multicenter Study Using Intracoronary Pressure and Flow.

Circ Cardiovasc Interv 2019 12 22;12(12):e008263. Epub 2019 Nov 22.

National Heart and Lung Institute, Hammersmith Hospital, Imperial College London, United Kingdom (Y.A., J.P.H., C.C., C.R., R.A.-L., R.P., T.W., D.F., J.M., P.S., S.S.).

Background: Patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) often have coronary artery disease. Both the aortic valve and the coronary disease influence the blood flow to the myocardium and its ability to respond to stress; leading to exertional symptoms. In this study, we aim to quantify the effect of severe AS on the coronary microcirculation and determine if this is influenced by any concomitant coronary disease. We then compare this to the effect of coronary stenoses on the coronary microcirculation.

Methods: Group 1: 55 patients with severe AS and intermediate coronary stenoses treated with transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) were included. Group 2: 85 patients with intermediate coronary stenoses and no AS treated with percutaneous coronary intervention were included. Coronary pressure and flow were measured at rest and during hyperemia in both groups, before and after TAVI (group 1) and before and after percutaneous coronary intervention (group 2).

Results: Microvascular resistance over the wave-free period of diastole increased significantly post-TAVI (pre-TAVI, 2.71±1.4 mm Hg·cm·s versus post-TAVI 3.04±1.6 mm Hg·cm·s [=0.03]). Microvascular reserve over the wave-free period of diastole significantly improved post-TAVI (pre-TAVI 1.88±1.0 versus post-TAVI 2.09±0.8 [=0.003]); this was independent of the severity of the underlying coronary stenosis. The change in microvascular resistance post-TAVI was equivalent to that produced by stenting a coronary lesion with an instantaneous wave-free ratio of ≤0.74.

Conclusions: TAVI improves microcirculatory function regardless of the severity of underlying coronary disease. TAVI for severe AS produces a coronary hemodynamic improvement equivalent to the hemodynamic benefit of stenting coronary stenoses with instantaneous wave-free ratio values <0.74. Future trials of physiology-guided revascularization in severe AS may consider using this value to guide treatment of concomitant coronary artery disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.119.008263DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6924937PMC
December 2019

Early and late risk of ischemic stroke after TAVR as compared to a nationwide background population.

Clin Res Cardiol 2020 Jul 30;109(7):791-801. Epub 2019 Oct 30.

Department of Cardiology, The Heart Center, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100, København Ø, Denmark.

Ischemic stroke is a feared complication associated with transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Data on the late risk of ischemic stroke following TAVR are scarce. This study aimed to investigate the early (0-90 days) and late (90 days-5 years) risk of ischemic cerebrovascular events (CVE) in a large, unselected cohort of patients undergoing TAVR and to compare this risk with a matched background population. Therefore, all patients undergoing first-time TAVR in Denmark were matched to a background population (controls) in a 1:4 ratio based on age, sex, atrial fibrillation (AF), and the major stroke risk factors. A total of 2455 TAVR patients were matched with 9820 controls. TAVR was associated with a significantly higher ischemic CVE risk as compared with their controls in the early phase [hazard ratio (HR) 5.35 [95% CI 3.50-8.17]; p < 0.001) but not in the late phase (HR 1.17 [95% CI 0.94-1.46]; p = 0.15). In a predefined stratified analysis, no patient-related factors were associated with this higher CVE risk in the early phase. The cumulative 90-day ischemic CVE risk was the lowest in TAVR-patients with known AF receiving oral anticoagulant (OAC) therapy (1.3% [95% CI 0.6-2.5%] and was two-fold higher in OAC-naïve TAVR-patients (2.4% [95% CI 1.8-3.3%] in patients without AF and 2.5% [95% CI 0.9-5.3%] in patients with AF). In conclusion, TAVR was associated with an increased risk of ischemic CVE in the early phase, but not in the late phase, as compared to their matched controls-OAC therapy reduced this early risk of ischemic CVE by half.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00392-019-01565-0DOI Listing
July 2020

Effect of remote ischaemic conditioning on clinical outcomes in patients with acute myocardial infarction (CONDI-2/ERIC-PPCI): a single-blind randomised controlled trial.

Lancet 2019 10 6;394(10207):1415-1424. Epub 2019 Sep 6.

The Hatter Cardiovascular Institute, University College London, London, UK. Electronic address:

Background: Remote ischaemic conditioning with transient ischaemia and reperfusion applied to the arm has been shown to reduce myocardial infarct size in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI). We investigated whether remote ischaemic conditioning could reduce the incidence of cardiac death and hospitalisation for heart failure at 12 months.

Methods: We did an international investigator-initiated, prospective, single-blind, randomised controlled trial (CONDI-2/ERIC-PPCI) at 33 centres across the UK, Denmark, Spain, and Serbia. Patients (age >18 years) with suspected STEMI and who were eligible for PPCI were randomly allocated (1:1, stratified by centre with a permuted block method) to receive standard treatment (including a sham simulated remote ischaemic conditioning intervention at UK sites only) or remote ischaemic conditioning treatment (intermittent ischaemia and reperfusion applied to the arm through four cycles of 5-min inflation and 5-min deflation of an automated cuff device) before PPCI. Investigators responsible for data collection and outcome assessment were masked to treatment allocation. The primary combined endpoint was cardiac death or hospitalisation for heart failure at 12 months in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02342522) and is completed.

Findings: Between Nov 6, 2013, and March 31, 2018, 5401 patients were randomly allocated to either the control group (n=2701) or the remote ischaemic conditioning group (n=2700). After exclusion of patients upon hospital arrival or loss to follow-up, 2569 patients in the control group and 2546 in the intervention group were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. At 12 months post-PPCI, the Kaplan-Meier-estimated frequencies of cardiac death or hospitalisation for heart failure (the primary endpoint) were 220 (8·6%) patients in the control group and 239 (9·4%) in the remote ischaemic conditioning group (hazard ratio 1·10 [95% CI 0·91-1·32], p=0·32 for intervention versus control). No important unexpected adverse events or side effects of remote ischaemic conditioning were observed.

Interpretation: Remote ischaemic conditioning does not improve clinical outcomes (cardiac death or hospitalisation for heart failure) at 12 months in patients with STEMI undergoing PPCI.

Funding: British Heart Foundation, University College London Hospitals/University College London Biomedical Research Centre, Danish Innovation Foundation, Novo Nordisk Foundation, TrygFonden.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(19)32039-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6891239PMC
October 2019

Chest pain in the ambulance; prevalence, causes and outcome - a retrospective cohort study.

Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med 2019 Aug 29;27(1):84. Epub 2019 Aug 29.

Department of Anesthesiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

Background: Chest pain is common in acute ambulance transports. This study aims to characterize and compare ambulance-transported chest pain patients to non-chest pain patients and evaluate if patient characteristics and accompanying symptoms accessible at the time of emergency call can predict cause and outcome in chest pain patients.

Methods: Retrospective, observational population-based study, including acute ambulance transports. Patient characteristics and symptoms are included in a multivariable risk model to identify characteristics, associated with being discharged without an acute cardiac diagnosis and surviving 30 days after chest pain event.

Results: In total, 10,033 of 61,088 (16.4%) acute ambulance transports were due to chest pain. In chest pain patients, 30-day mortality was 2.1% (95%CI 1.8-2.4) compared to 6.0% (95%CI 5.7-6.2) in non-chest pain patients. Of chest pain patients, 1054 (10.5%) were diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction, and 5068 (50.5%) were discharged without any diagnosis of disease. This no-diagnosis group had very low 30-day mortality, 0.4% (95%CI 0.2-0.9). Female gender, younger age, chronic pulmonary disease, absence of accompanying symptoms of dyspnoea, radiation, severe pain for > 5 min, clammy skin, uncomfortable, and nausea were associated with being discharged without an acute cardiac diagnosis and surviving 30 days after a chest pain event.

Conclusion: Chest pain is a common reason for ambulance transport, but the majority of patients are discharged without a diagnosis and with a high survival rate. Early risk prediction seems to hold a potential for resource downgrading and thus cost-saving in selected chest pain patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13049-019-0659-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6716930PMC
August 2019

Cardiac Myosin-Binding Protein C to Diagnose Acute Myocardial Infarction in the Pre-Hospital Setting.

J Am Heart Assoc 2019 08 26;8(15):e013152. Epub 2019 Jul 26.

Department of Cardiology Aarhus University Hospital Aarhus Denmark.

Background Early triage is essential to improve outcomes in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This study investigated whether cMyC (cardiac myosin-binding protein), a novel biomarker of myocardial necrosis, can aid early diagnosis of AMI and risk stratification. Methods and Results cMyC and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T were retrospectively quantified in blood samples obtained by ambulance-based paramedics in a prospective, diagnostic cohort study. Patients with ongoing or prolonged periods of chest discomfort, acute dyspnoea in the absence of known pulmonary disease, or clinical suspicion of AMI were recruited. Discrimination power was evaluated by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve; diagnostic performance was assessed at predefined thresholds. Diagnostic nomograms were derived and validated using bootstrap resampling in logistic regression models. Seven hundred seventy-six patients with median age 68 [58;78] were recruited. AMI was the final adjudicated diagnosis in 22%. Median symptom to sampling time was 70 minutes. cMyC concentration in patients with AMI was significantly higher than with other diagnoses: 98 [43;855] versus 17 [9;42] ng/L. Discrimination power for AMI was better with cMyC than with high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (area under the curve, 0.839 versus 0.813; P=0.005). At a previously published rule-out threshold (10 ng/L), cMyC reaches 100% sensitivity and negative predictive value in patients after 2 hours of symptoms. In logistic regression analysis, cMyC is superior to high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T and was used to derive diagnostic and prognostic nomograms to evaluate risk of AMI and death. Conclusions In patients undergoing blood draws very early after symptom onset, cMyC demonstrates improved diagnostic discrimination of AMI and could significantly improve the early triage of patients with suspected AMI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.119.013152DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6761674PMC
August 2019

Interaction of ischaemic postconditioning and thrombectomy in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

Heart 2020 01 17;106(1):24-32. Epub 2019 Jul 17.

Department of Cardiology, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Objective: The Third Danish Study of Optimal Acute Treatment of Patients with ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction - Ischaemic Postconditioning (DANAMI-3-iPOST) did not show improved clinical outcome in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with ischaemic postconditioning. However, the use of thrombectomy was frequent and thrombectomy may in itself diminish the effect of ischaemic postconditioning. We evaluated the effect of ischaemic postconditioning in patients included in DANAMI-3-iPOST stratified by the use of thrombectomy.

Methods: Patients with STEMI were randomised to conventional primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or ischaemic postconditioning plus primary PCI. The primary endpoint was a combination of all-cause mortality and hospitalisation for heart failure.

Results: From March 2011 until February 2014, 1234 patients were included with a median follow-up period of 35 (interquartile range 28 to 42) months. There was a significant interaction between ischaemic postconditioning and thrombectomy on the primary endpoint (p=0.004). In patients not treated with thrombectomy (n=520), the primary endpoint occurred in 33 patients (10%) who underwent ischaemic postconditioning (n=326) and in 35 patients (18%) who underwent conventional treatment (n=194) (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.55 (95%confidence interval (CI) 0.34 to 0.89), p=0.016). In patients treated with thrombectomy (n=714), there was no significant difference between patients treated with ischaemic postconditioning (n=291) and conventional PCI (n=423) on the primary endpoint (adjusted HR 1.18 (95% CI 0.62 to 2.28), p=0.62).

Conclusions: In this post-hoc study of DANAMI-3-iPOST, ischaemic postconditioning, in addition to primary PCI, was associated with reduced risk of all-cause mortality and hospitalisation for heart failure in patients with STEMI not treated with thrombectomy.

Trial Registration Number: NCT01435408.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2019-314952DOI Listing
January 2020

Rationale and design of DanGer shock: Danish-German cardiogenic shock trial.

Am Heart J 2019 08 6;214:60-68. Epub 2019 May 6.

Heart Center, Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Objective: The DanGer Shock trial test the hypothesis that left ventricular (LV) mechanical circulatory support with Impella CP transvalvular microaxial flow pump improves survival in patients with ST segment elevation acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock (AMICS) compared to conventional guideline-driven treatment. This paper describes the rationale and design of the randomized trial, in addition to the baseline characteristics of the population screened and enrolled so far.

Methods: The DanGer Shock study is a prospective, multicenter, open-label trial in patients with AMICS randomized 1:1 to Impella CP or current guideline-driven therapy with planned enrollment of 360 patients. Patients comatose after out of hospital cardiac arrest are excluded. Eligible patients are randomized immediately following shock diagnosis. Among patients randomized to receive Impella CP, the device is placed prior to angioplasty. The primary endpoint is all-cause mortality at 180 days. Baseline characteristics of patients screened and randomized in the DanGer Shock as of June 2018 are compared with 2 contemporary AMICS studies.

Results: As of end of June 2018, 314 patients were screened and 100 patients were randomized. Patients had median arterial lactate of 5.5 mmol/L (interquartile range 3.7-8.8 mmol/L), median systolic blood pressure of 76 mmHg (interquartile range 70-88 mmHg), and median LV ejection fraction of 20% (interquartile range 10%-30%).

Conclusion: The DanGer Shock trial will be the first adequately powered randomized trial to address whether mechanical circulatory LV support with Impella CP can improve survival in AMICS. Baseline characteristics of the first 100 randomized patients indicate a population in profound cardiogenic shock.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ahj.2019.04.019DOI Listing
August 2019

Unreported exclusion and sampling bias in interpretation of randomized controlled trials in patients with STEMI.

Int J Cardiol 2019 08 1;289:1-5. Epub 2019 May 1.

Department of Cardiology, The Heart Centre, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Denmark; University of Lund, Sweden.

Aims: To assess the impact of sampling bias due to reported as well as unreported exclusion of the target population in a multi-center randomized controlled trial (RCT) of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).

Methods And Results: We compared clinical characteristics and mortality between participants in the DANAMI-3 trial to contemporary non-participants with STEMI using unselected registries. A total of 179 DANAMI-3 participants (8%) and 617 contemporary non-participants (22%) had died (Log-Rank: P < 0.001) after a median follow-up of 1333 days (range: 1-2021 days). In an unadjusted Cox regression model all groups of non-participants had a higher hazard ratio to predict mortality compared to participants: eligible excluded (n = 144) (hazard ratio: 3.41 (95% CI: (2.69-4.32)), ineligible excluded (n = 472) (hazard ratio: 3.42 (95% CI: (2.44-4.80), eligible non-screened (n = 154) (hazard ratio: 3.37 (95% CI: (2.36-4.82)), ineligible non-screened (n = 154) (hazard ratio: 6.48 (95% CI: (4.77-8.80).

Conclusion: Sampling bias had occurred due to both reported and unreported exclusion of eligible patients and the difference in mortality between participants and non-participants could not be explained only by the trial exclusion criteria. Thus, screening logs may not be suited to address the risks of sampling bias.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2019.04.064DOI Listing
August 2019

Everolimus-Eluting Versus Biolimus-Eluting Stents With Biodegradable Polymers in Unselected Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Randomized Noninferiority Trial With 1-Year Follow-Up (SORT OUT VIII Trial).

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2019 04;12(7):624-633

Department of Cardiology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the thin-strut biodegradable-polymer everolimus-eluting platinum-chromium stent (EES) with the biodegradable-polymer biolimus-eluting stainless-steel stent (BES).

Background: Currently available drug-eluting coronary stents have been refined to reduce the risk for coronary events following implantation.

Methods: This randomized, multicenter, all-comers, noninferiority trial was undertaken at 3 sites in western Denmark. Patients with clinical indications for percutaneous coronary intervention were eligible for inclusion. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to either EES or BES. The primary endpoint, target lesion failure, was a composite of safety (cardiac death and myocardial infarction not clearly attributable to a nontarget lesion) and efficacy (target lesion revascularization) at 12 months, analyzed using intention-to-treat principles. The trial was powered to assess target lesion failure noninferiority of the EES compared with the BES with a predetermined noninferiority margin of 3%.

Results: A total of 1,385 patients were assigned to treatment with EES and 1,369 patients to treatment with BES. The analysis showed that 55 patients (4.0%) assigned to the EES and 60 (4.4%) assigned to the BES met the primary endpoint (absolute risk difference 0.4%; upper limit of 1-sided 95% confidence interval: 1.7%; p < 0.001).

Conclusions: At 1-year follow-up, the EES was found to be noninferior to the BES with respect to target lesion failure. (Everolimus-eluting SYNERGY Stent Versus Biolimus-Eluting Biomatrix NeoFlex Stent-SORT-OUT VIII; NCT02093845).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2018.12.036DOI Listing
April 2019

One-Year Outcomes of a European Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation Cohort According to Surgical Risk.

Circ Cardiovasc Interv 2019 01;12(1):e006724

Department of Cardiology, Swiss Cardiovascular Center Bern, Switzerland (S.W.).

Background: Transcatheter aortic valve implantation is increasingly being used in patients at lower risk for surgery. We aimed to assess the distribution of surgical risk score categories in current clinical practice and their relationship with clinical outcomes and the calibration and discrimination power of both the logistic EuroSCORE (logES) and EuroSCORE II. The SOURCE 3 study is a European prospective registry of patients with severe aortic stenosis treated with the commercially available SAPIEN 3 transcatheter heart valve.

Methods And Results: Out of 1785 patients, 518 patients (low-surgical risk) had a baseline logES <10%, 691 (intermediate-surgical risk) had a logES 10% to 20%, and only 576 patients (high-surgical risk) had a logES ≥20%. Even if low-risk patients were younger compared with the other groups, the mean age was about 80 years old in each risk category. At 1 year, all-cause mortality was 10.3%, 11.4%, and 17.1% in low-, intermediate-, or high-surgical risk patients, respectively, while cardiac mortality was 5.3%, 7.7%, and 11.4%, respectively. Observed mortality rates were substantially lower than that predicted with logES. The observed/predicted mortality ratio was 0.26 in low-surgical risk patients, 0.08 in intermediate-surgical risk patients, and 0.12 in high-surgical risk patients. Similar observations were obtained with EuroSCORE II.

Conclusions: In this real-world setting, two-thirds of SAPIEN 3 transcatheter heart valve treated transcatheter aortic valve implantation patients had a logES <20 but were still considered appropriate transcatheter aortic valve implantation candidates by the heart team, mainly because of older age and less frequently because of conditions not captured by risk scores. logES and EuroSCORE II had poor discrimination and calibration power in this transcatheter aortic valve implantation cohort.

Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://clinicaltrials.gov . Unique identifier: NCT02698956.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.118.006724DOI Listing
January 2019

A multicentre, randomized, controlled open-label trial to compare an Accelerated Rule-Out protocol using combined prehospital copeptin and in-hospital high sensitive troponin with standard rule-out in patients suspected of acute Myocardial Infarction - the AROMI trial.

Trials 2018 Dec 12;19(1):683. Epub 2018 Dec 12.

Department of Cardiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Palle Juul-Jensens Boulevard 99, 8200, Aarhus N, Denmark.

Background: Suspicion of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is among the most common reasons for admission to hospital in Denmark. Owing to this suspicion, an estimated 50,000 patients are admitted every year. Only 15-20% are finally diagnosed with AMI, whereas 40% are discharged after rule-out of AMI and without initiation of any treatment or need for further admission. In patients discharged after rule-out, the current diagnostic protocol, using consecutive troponin measurements, results in an average length of stay (LOS) of 8-12 h. This leads to overcrowding in both the emergency departments and coronary care units. Measuring copeptin and high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) upon hospital arrival has shown potential for early rule-out of AMI. However, the diagnostic performance may be improved by accelerating the copeptin measurement of blood sampled already in the pre-hospital phase. Additional evidence on LOS reduction and safety of the rule-out strategy in a large cohort of all-comers is needed.

Methods/design: The rule-out potential is being evaluated in a randomized controlled trial including 4800 patients admitted to hospital for suspicion of AMI. Patients are randomized to either standard rule-out (consecutive troponin measurements) or accelerated rule-out (copeptin measured in a blood sample acquired before hospital admission, combined with troponin measured in the first blood sample upon admission).

Discussion: Sampling blood for copeptin analysis already in the pre-hospital phase and combining this with a later hs-cTn measurement may be the optimal timing for achieving the best diagnostic performance in an AMI rule-out protocol/strategy. Moreover, we are directly comparing pre-hospital and in-hospital blood sample results to address this issue of timing, and we also are comparing single-marker strategies with dual-marker strategies. If the combination of copeptin and hs-cTn is confirmed to rule out AMI safely, implementation of this fast rule-out protocol could optimize patient flow, reduce health care expenses and enable allocation of resources to patients with confirmed illness. In future, when point-of-care analyses of copeptin and hs-cTn are available, hospitalization of the large proportion of patients with symptoms raising suspicion of AMI could potentially be avoided.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02666326 . Registered on January 24, 2016.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13063-018-2990-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6291993PMC
December 2018

[Transcatheter aortic valve implantation in Denmark].

Ugeskr Laeger 2018 Oct;180(20A)

During the latest decade, transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has evolved from being indicated only in patients with severe aortic stenosis and prohibitive or high surgical risk, to be an alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement in patients with intermediate surgical risk. Improvements of the peri-procedural management have resulted in marked reduction of complications and an increasing number of patients treated with TAVI every year in Denmark. By a minimalist approach, TAVI can be performed in local anesthaesia, with same day mobilisation and discharge within few days, without affecting the safety.
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October 2018

Impact of diabetes on clinical outcomes after revascularization with sirolimus-eluting and biolimus-eluting stents with biodegradable polymer from the SORT OUT VII trial.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2019 03 23;93(4):567-573. Epub 2018 Sep 23.

Department of Cardiology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark.

Objectives: In this substudy of the SORT OUT VII trial, the clinical outcomes among patient with diabetes mellitus treated with Orsiro sirolimus-eluting stent (O-SES; Biotronik, Bülach, Switzerland) or Nobori biolimus-eluting stent (N-BES; Terumo, Tokyo, Japan) were compared.

Background: Diabetes is associated with increased risk of target lesion failure (TLF) after percutaneous coronary intervention.

Methods: In total, 2525 patients were randomized to stent implantation with O-SES (n = 1261, diabetes: n = 236) or N-BES (n = 1264, diabetes: n = 235). The primary endpoint, TLF, was a composite of cardiac death, target-lesion myocardial infarction (MI), or target lesion revascularization (TLR) within 2 years.

Results: At 2 year, TLF did not differ between O-SES vs N-BES in diabetic (9.3% vs 9.4%; RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.54-1.78) patients. The individual components of the primary endpoint did not differ among stent type. In diabetics, cardiac death occurred in 3% of O-SES-treated and in 3.8% of N-BES-treated patients (RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.29-2.08), MI occurred in 3.0% of O-SES-treated and in 3.8% of N-BES-treated patients (RR 0.76, 95% CI 0.28-2.06) and TLR occurred in 5,5% of O-SES-treated and in 6.0% of N-BES-treated patients (RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.43-1.95).

Conclusion: TLF did not differ between O-SES- and N-BES-treated diabetic patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.27891DOI Listing
March 2019

Evaluation of Coronary Artery Stenosis by Quantitative Flow Ratio During Invasive Coronary Angiography: The WIFI II Study (Wire-Free Functional Imaging II).

Circ Cardiovasc Imaging 2018 03;11(3):e007107

From the Department of Cardiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Denmark (J.W., S.W., M.-B.V., B.K.A., E.N.H., C.F.M., L.N.A., J.K.S., S.D.K., M.M., A.K., C.J.T., L.R.K., L.J., J.F.L., H.E.B., E.H.C., N.R.H.); Med-X Research Institute, School of Biomedical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China (S.T., Y.Z.); Department of Cardiology, Hospitalsenheden Vest, Regionshospitalet Herning, Denmark (L.N., M.B.); Department of Cardiology, Hospitalsenheden Midt, Regionshospitalet Silkeborg, Denmark (J.K.J.); and Department of Radiology, Leiden University Medical Center, The Netherlands (J.H.C.R.).

Background: Quantitative flow ratio (QFR) is a novel diagnostic modality for functional testing of coronary artery stenosis without the use of pressure wires and induction of hyperemia. QFR is based on computation of standard invasive coronary angiographic imaging. The purpose of WIFI II (Wire-Free Functional Imaging II) was to evaluate the feasibility and diagnostic performance of QFR in unselected consecutive patients.

Methods And Results: WIFI II was a predefined substudy to the Dan-NICAD study (Danish Study of Non-Invasive Diagnostic Testing in Coronary Artery Disease), referring 362 consecutive patients with suspected coronary artery disease on coronary computed tomographic angiography for diagnostic invasive coronary angiography. Fractional flow reserve (FFR) was measured in all segments with 30% to 90% diameter stenosis. Blinded observers calculated QFR (Medis Medical Imaging bv, The Netherlands) for comparison with FFR. FFR was measured in 292 lesions from 191 patients. Ten (5%) and 9 patients (5%) were excluded because of FFR and angiographic core laboratory criteria, respectively. QFR was successfully computed in 240 out of 255 lesions (94%) with a mean diameter stenosis of 50±12%. Mean difference between FFR and QFR was 0.01±0.08. QFR correctly classified 83% of the lesions using FFR with cutoff at 0.80 as reference standard. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.86 (95% confidence interval, 0.81-0.91) with a sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value of 77%, 86%, 75%, and 87%, respectively. A QFR-FFR hybrid approach based on the present results enables wire-free and adenosine-free procedures in 68% of cases.

Conclusions: Functional lesion evaluation by QFR assessment showed good agreement and diagnostic accuracy compared with FFR. Studies comparing clinical outcome after QFR- and FFR-based diagnostic strategies are required.

Clinical Trial Registration: URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02264717.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCIMAGING.117.007107DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5895131PMC
March 2018

Relation of Bleeding Events to Mortality in Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction Treated by Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (a DANAMI-3 Substudy).

Am J Cardiol 2018 04 12;121(7):781-788. Epub 2018 Jan 12.

Department of Cardiology, Rigshospitalet-Copenhagen University Hospital, Denmark.

Bleeding events in relation to treatment of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) have previously been associated with mortality. In this study, we investigated the incidence and prognosis of, and variables associated with serious bleedings within 30 days after primary percutaneous coronary intervention in patients from The Third Danish Study of Optimal Acute Treatment of Patients with ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction (DANAMI-3) (n = 2,217). Hospital charts were read within 30 days postadmission to assess bleeding events using thrombolysis in myocardial infarction (TIMI) and Bleeding Academic Research Consortium criteria. TIMI minor/major bleeding (TMMB) occurred in 59 patients (2.7%). Variables associated with TMMB were female gender (hazard ratio [HR] 3.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.2 to 6.7, p <0.0001), symptom-to-catheterization time >3 hours (HR 1.9, 95% CI 1.1 to 3.3, p = 0.02), use of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor (HR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2 to 3.7, p = 0.01), and increasing S-creatinine (HR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.2, p = 0.001). Undergoing 2 in-hospital procedures were not associated with increased risk of TMMB. TMMB was strongly associated with 30-day mortality in multivariable analysis (HR 4.8, 95% CI 2.2 to 10.4, p <0.0001) but not with mortality days 31 to 365. When excluding fatal bleedings from the analysis, a TMMB was no longer associated with 30-day mortality. In conclusion, we found that in a contemporary STEMI-population, the incidence of 30-day TMMB was low. A TMMB was strongly associated with 30-day mortality but not with mortality days 31 to 365. If patients survived a serious bleeding, their short- and long-term prognoses were not affected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2017.12.019DOI Listing
April 2018

One-year rehospitalisation after percutaneous coronary intervention: a retrospective analysis.

EuroIntervention 2018 Oct;14(8):926-934

Department of Cardiology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark.

Aims: The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence and causes of rehospitalisation within one year after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in a country where the National Health Service provides universal tax-supported healthcare, guaranteeing residents free hospital access.

Methods And Results: Between January 2010 and September 2014, 17,111 patients were treated with PCI in two University Hospitals in Western Denmark. Patients who were readmitted within one year after PCI were identified. The overall one-year readmission rate was 50.4%. The cause was angina/myocardial infarction (MI) in 4,282 patients (49.7%), and other reasons in 4,334 (50.3%). Predictors of angina/MI-related readmissions were female gender (odds ratio [OR] 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07-1.25), diabetes (OR 1.14, 95% CI: 1.04-1.26), age (per 10-year increase) (OR 0.86, 95% CI: 0.83-0.88), and indication for index PCI (stable angina pectoris as reference): ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (OR 1.34, 95% CI: 1.23-1.47) and non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (OR 1.18, 95% CI: 1.08-1.29). Predictors for other readmissions were female gender (OR 1.09, 95% CI: 1.01-1.18), diabetes (OR 1.29, 95% CI: 1.18-1.42), age (OR 1.30, 95% CI: 1.26-1.34) and Charlson comorbidity index ≥3 (OR 3.03, 95% CI: 2.71-3.27).

Conclusions: In an unselected patient cohort treated with PCI, half of the patients were rehospitalised within one year, highlighting the impact of comorbidity in patients with ischaemic heart disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4244/EIJ-D-17-00800DOI Listing
October 2018

Nonculprit Stenosis Evaluation Using Instantaneous Wave-Free Ratio in Patients With ST-Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2017 12 29;10(24):2528-2535. Epub 2017 Nov 29.

Department of Cardiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine the level of agreement between acute instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) measured across nonculprit stenoses in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and iFR measured at a staged follow-up procedure.

Background: Acute full revascularization of nonculprit stenoses in STEMI is debated and currently guided by angiography. Acute functional assessment of nonculprit stenoses may be considered.

Methods: Immediately after successful primary culprit intervention for STEMI, nonculprit coronary stenoses were evaluated with iFR and left untreated. Follow-up evaluation with iFR was performed at a later stage. iFR <0.90 was considered hemodynamically significant.

Results: One hundred twenty patients with 157 nonculprit lesions were included. Median acute iFR was 0.89 (interquartile range [IQR]: 0.82 to 0.94; n = 156), and median follow-up iFR was 0.91 (interquartile range: 0.86 to 0.96; n = 147). Classification agreement was 78% between acute and follow-up iFR. The negative predictive value of acute iFR was 89%. Median time from acute to follow-up evaluation was 16 days (IQR: 5 to 32 days). With follow-up within 5 days after STEMI, no difference was observed between acute and follow-up iFR, and classification agreement was 89%. With follow-up ≥16 days after STEMI, acute iFR was lower than follow-up iFR, and classification agreement was 70%.

Conclusions: Acute iFR evaluation appeared valid for ruling out significant nonculprit stenoses in patients with STEMI undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention. The time interval from acute to follow-up iFR influenced classification agreement, suggesting that inherent physiological disarrangements during STEMI may contribute to classification disagreement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2017.07.021DOI Listing
December 2017

Association of common genetic variants related to atrial fibrillation and the risk of ventricular fibrillation in the setting of first ST-elevation myocardial infarction.

BMC Med Genet 2017 11 21;18(1):138. Epub 2017 Nov 21.

Department of Cardiology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen University Hospital, Blegdamsvej 9, 2100, Copenhagen Ø, Denmark.

Background: Cohort studies have revealed an increased risk for ventricular fibrillation (VF) and sudden cardiac death (SCD) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). In this study, we hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) previously associated with AF may be associated with the risk of VF caused by first ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).

Methods: We investigated association of 24 AF-associated SNPs with VF in the prospectively assembled case-control study among first STEMI-patients of Danish ancestry.

Results: We included 257 cases (STEMI with VF) and 537 controls (STEMI without VF). The median age at index infarction was 60 years for the cases and 61 years for the controls (p = 0.100). Compared to the control group, the case group was more likely to be male (86% vs. 75%, p = 0.001), have a history of AF (7% vs. 2%, p = 0.006) or hypercholesterolemia (39% vs. 31%, p = 0.023), and a family history of sudden death (40% vs. 25%, p < 0.001). All 24 selected SNPs have previously been associated with AF. None of the 24 SNPs were associated with the risk of VF after adjustment for age and sex under additive genetic model of inheritance in the logistic regression model.

Conclusion: In this study, we found that the 24 AF-associated SNPs may not be involved in increasing the risk of VF. Larger VF cohorts and use of new next generation sequencing and epigenetic may in future identify additional AF and VF risk loci and improve our understanding of genetic pathways behind the two arrhythmias.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12881-017-0497-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5699191PMC
November 2017

Detection of early changes in the coronary artery microstructure after heart transplantation: A prospective optical coherence tomography study.

J Heart Lung Transplant 2018 04 23;37(4):486-495. Epub 2017 Oct 23.

Department of Cardiology, Aarhus University Hospital Skejby, Aarhus, Denmark.

Background: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) enables in-vivo cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) microstructure characterization. Early coronary artery microstructure changes after heart transplantation (HTx) may provide valuable mechanistic information regarding CAV development. Our in this study was to describe and characterize changes in the coronary artery microstructure during the first year after HTx using serial OCT scans.

Methods: Twenty-six patients were enrolled at routine baseline coronary angiography 3 months after HTx. Coronary OCT scans were performed on all 3 major vessels at baseline and were repeated 12 months after HTx. We contoured the vessel layers for absolute and relative measurements. Lipid plaques, calcified plaques, layered fibrotic plaques (LFPs) and bright spots were analyzed by delineating circumferential borders and measuring angulation of total circumference.

Results: A total of 8,789 frames from 71 vessels were analyzed after 3 and 12 months (vessel length 79 ± 24 mm vs 82 ± 23 mm, respectively, p = 0.39). Mean intima area increased by 20% from 3 months to 12 months (1.6 [1.2 to 2.7] mm vs 1.9 [1.3 to 3.2] mm, p < 0.0001). Mean lumen area decreased by 2% (9.1 [7.5 to 11.6] mm vs 8.9 [6.9 to 10.9] mm, p < 0.01). LFPs showed an almost 5-fold increase at follow-up (1.0% [0% to 6.5%] vs 4.8% [0% to 24.5%], p < 0.0001). Bright spots were also detected more frequently at 12 months (0% [0% to 2.8%] vs 0.8% [0% to 6.8%], p < 0.001). We found no significant difference in extent of lipid plaque (p = 0.78) or calcified plaque (p = 0.37) during follow-up. The intima area change and LFP progression during follow-up correlated strongly (r = 0.51, p < 0.0001).

Conclusions: Early CAV formation during the first year after HTx is characterized by a pronounced intima layer thickening strongly associated with LFP progression. In contrast, the extent of lipid plaque and calcifications remained stable. LFP formation may be a key mechanism in CAV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.healun.2017.10.014DOI Listing
April 2018

[Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation for patients with out-of-hospital refractory cardiac arrest].

Ugeskr Laeger 2017 Oct;179(44)

Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is associated with high mortality and morbidity. Treatment options remain few in refractory cases, but extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (eCPR) is increasingly applied to improve the outcome. This article summarizes the use, experience and outcome of eCPR focussing on current knowledge of criteria for selection of relevant patients for treatment.
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October 2017

Restenosis in a Collapsed Magnesium Bioresorbable Scaffold.

Circ Cardiovasc Interv 2017 10;10(10)

From the Department of Cardiology, Aarhus University Hospital, Skejby, Denmark.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.117.005677DOI Listing
October 2017