Publications by authors named "Christian Ifedili Okafor"

2 Publications

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Sociodemographic and Clinical Characteristics of Highly Active Antiretroviral Treatment-Naïve Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Seropositive Patients in Uyo, Nigeria: Are the Demographics Changing?

Niger Med J 2020 Nov-Dec;61(6):345-350. Epub 2020 Dec 19.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, University of Calabar, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria.

Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection poses a great health and economic burden, especially in developing nations where a high burden of disease has been described. A previous study in Uyo shows that some characteristics associated with a higher prevalence of HIV infection include female gender, exposure to tertiary level of education, and late disease presentation. This study aimed at determining the sociodemographic and the clinical characteristics of highly active antiretroviral treatment-naïve (HAART-naïve) HIV-seropositive patients at Uyo, Nigeria.

Materials And Methods: This was a cross-sectional comparative study of 210 respondents, composed of 105 HAART-naïve HIV-seropositive patients (subjects) and an equal number of sex- and age-matched HIV-negative individuals (controls). Data were collected using pretested interviewer-administered questionnaires and hospital records. Anthropometry and blood pressure (BP) were measured for all the respondents, while clinical and immunologic staging were done for subjects. Data obtained were analyzed using SPSS v 20. ≤ 0.05 was taken as statistically significant.

Results: The mean age of the respondents was 34.5 ± 9.2 years, and the male-to-female ratio was 1:2.3, with no difference between the subjects and controls ( = 0.880 for age and = 0.943 for gender). Mean body mass index and mean diastolic BP were significantly lower in the subjects ( < 0.001 and 0.037, respectively). Female gender, secondary level of educational attainment, and unskilled employment were significantly associated with HIV infection. Majority of the respondents presented in clinical Stage 1 or 2 disease, with CD4 count >350 cells/ml.

Conclusion: The burden of HIV infection is higher in females and in those with sociodemographic characteristics suggestive of lower socioeconomic status, however, majority of these appeared to present in early disease.
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December 2020

Comparison of the performance of two measures of central adiposity among apparently healthy Nigerians using the receiver operating characteristic analysis.

Indian J Endocrinol Metab 2011 Oct;15(4):320-6

Endocrine Unit, Department of Medicine, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu, Nigeria.

Objective: To compare the performance of waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) in predicting the presence of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension and generalized obesity) in an apparently healthy population.

Materials And Methods: We recruited 898 apparently healthy subjects (318 males and 580 females) of the Igbo ethnic group resident in Enugu (urban), Southeast Nigeria. Data collection was done using the World Health Organization Stepwise approach to Surveillance of risk factors (STEPS) instrument. Subjects had their weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, systolic and diastolic blood pressures measured according to the guidelines in the step 2 of STEPS instrument. Generalized obesity and hypertension were defined using body mass index (BMI) and JNC 7 classifications, respectively. Quantitative and qualitative variables were analyzed using t-test and Chi-square analysis, respectively, while the performance of WC and WHR was compared using the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. P value was set at <0.05.

Results: The mean age of the subjects was 48.7 (12.9) years. Central obesity was found in 76.9% and 66.5% of subjects using WHR and WC, respectively. WC had a significantly higher area under the curve (AUC) than WHR in all the cardiovascular risk groups, namely, generalized obesity (AUC = 0.88 vs. 0.62), hypertension alone (AUC = 0.60 vs. 0.53), and both generalized obesity and hypertension (AUC = 0.86 vs. 0.57).

Conclusion: WC performed better than WHR in predicting the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. Being a simple index, it can easily be measured in routine clinic settings without the need for calculations or use of cumbersome techniques.
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October 2011