Publications by authors named "Christian Fuhrer"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Single particle tracking of alpha7 nicotinic AChR in hippocampal neurons reveals regulated confinement at glutamatergic and GABAergic perisynaptic sites.

PLoS One 2010 Jul 9;5(7):e11507. Epub 2010 Jul 9.

Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Alpha7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (alpha7-nAChR) form Ca(2+)-permeable homopentameric channels modulating cortical network activity and cognitive processing. They are located pre- and postsynaptically and are highly abundant in hippocampal GABAergic interneurons. It is unclear how alpha7-nAChRs are positioned in specific membrane microdomains, particularly in cultured neurons which are devoid of cholinergic synapses. To address this issue, we monitored by single particle tracking the lateral mobility of individual alpha7-nAChRs labeled with alpha-bungarotoxin linked to quantum dots in live rat cultured hippocampal interneurons. Quantitative analysis revealed different modes of lateral diffusion of alpha7-nAChR dependent on their subcellular localization. Confined receptors were found in the immediate vicinity of glutamatergic and GABAergic postsynaptic densities, as well as in extrasynaptic clusters of alpha-bungarotoxin labeling on dendrites. alpha7-nAChRs avoided entering postsynaptic densities, but exhibited reduced mobility and long dwell times at perisynaptic locations, indicative of regulated confinement. Their diffusion coefficient was lower, on average, at glutamatergic than at GABAergic perisynaptic sites, suggesting differential, synapse-specific tethering mechanisms. Disruption of the cytoskeleton affected alpha7-nAChR mobility and cell surface expression, but not their ability to form clusters. Finally, using tetrodotoxin to silence network activity, as well as exposure to a selective alpha7-nAChR agonist or antagonist, we observed that alpha7-nAChRs cell surface dynamics is modulated by chronic changes in neuronal activity. Altogether, given their high Ca(2+)-permeability, our results suggest a possible role of alpha7-nAChR on interneurons for activating Ca(2+)-dependent signaling in the vicinity of GABAergic and glutamatergic synapses.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0011507PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2901346PMC
July 2010

Efficient transfection of DNA or shRNA vectors into neurons using magnetofection.

Nat Protoc 2007 ;2(12):3090-101

Department of Neurochemistry, Brain Research Institute, University of Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zürich, Switzerland.

Efficient and long-lasting transfection of primary neurons is an essential tool for addressing many questions in current neuroscience using functional gene analysis. Neurons are sensitive to cytotoxicity and difficult to transfect with most methods. We provide a protocol for transfection of cDNA and RNA interference (short hairpin RNA (shRNA)) vectors, using magnetofection, into rat hippocampal neurons (embryonic day 18/19) cultured for several hours to 21 d in vitro. This protocol even allows double-transfection of DNA into a small subpopulation of hippocampal neurons (GABAergic interneurons), as well as achieving long-lasting expression of DNA and shRNA constructs without interfering with neuronal differentiation. This protocol, which uses inexpensive equipment and reagents, takes 1 h; utilizes mixed hippocampal cultures, a transfection reagent, CombiMag, and a magnetic plate; shows low toxicity and is suited for single-cell analysis. Modifications done by our three laboratories are detailed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nprot.2007.445DOI Listing
February 2008

Tyrosine phosphatases such as SHP-2 act in a balance with Src-family kinases in stabilization of postsynaptic clusters of acetylcholine receptors.

BMC Neurosci 2007 Jul 2;8:46. Epub 2007 Jul 2.

Brain Research Institute, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.

Background: Development of neural networks requires that synapses are formed, eliminated and stabilized. At the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), agrin/MuSK signaling, by triggering downstream pathways, causes clustering and phosphorylation of postsynaptic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs). Postnatally, AChR aggregates are stabilized by molecular pathways that are poorly characterized. Gain or loss of function of Src-family kinases (SFKs) disassembles AChR clusters at adult NMJs in vivo, whereas AChR aggregates disperse rapidly upon withdrawal of agrin from cultured src-/-;fyn-/- myotubes. This suggests that a balance between protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) and protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) such as those of the Src-family may be essential in stabilizing clusters of AChRs.

Results: We have analyzed the role of PTPs in maintenance of AChR aggregates, by adding and then withdrawing agrin from cultured myotubes in the presence of PTP or PTK inhibitors and quantitating remaining AChR clusters. In wild-type myotubes, blocking PTPs with pervanadate caused enhanced disassembly of AChR clusters after agrin withdrawal. When added at the time of agrin withdrawal, SFK inhibitors destabilized AChR aggregates but concomitant addition of pervanadate rescued cluster stability. Likewise in src-/-;fyn-/- myotubes, in which agrin-induced AChR clusters form normally but rapidly disintegrate after agrin withdrawal, pervanadate addition stabilized AChR clusters. The PTP SHP-2, known to be enriched at the NMJ, associated and colocalized with MuSK, and agrin increased this interaction. Specific SHP-2 knockdown by RNA interference reduced the stability of AChR clusters in wild-type myotubes. Similarly, knockdown of SHP-2 in adult mouse soleus muscle by electroporation of RNA interference constructs caused disassembly of pretzel-shaped AChR-rich areas in vivo. Finally, we found that src-/-;fyn-/- myotubes contained elevated levels of SHP-2 protein.

Conclusion: Our data are the first to show that the fine balance between PTPs and SFKs is a key aspect in stabilization of postsynaptic AChR clusters. One phosphatase that acts in this equilibrium is SHP-2. Thus, PTPs such as SHP-2 stabilize AChR clusters under normal circumstances, but when these PTPs are not balanced by SFKs, they render clusters unstable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2202-8-46DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1924855PMC
July 2007

PICK1 interacts with alpha7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and controls their clustering.

Mol Cell Neurosci 2007 Jun 24;35(2):339-55. Epub 2007 Mar 24.

Department of Neurochemistry, Brain Research Institute, University of Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zürich, Switzerland.

Central to synaptic function are protein scaffolds associated with neurotransmitter receptors. Alpha7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) modulate network activity, neuronal survival and cognitive processes in the CNS, but protein scaffolds that interact with these receptors are unknown. Here we show that the PDZ-domain containing protein PICK1 binds to alpha7 nAChRs and plays a role in their clustering. PICK1 interacted with the alpha7 cytoplasmic loop in yeast in a PDZ-dependent way, and the interaction was confirmed in recombinant pull-down experiments and by co-precipitation of native proteins. Some alpha7 and PICK1 clusters were adjacent at the surface of SH-SY5Y cells and GABAergic interneurons in hippocampal cultures. Expression of PICK1 caused decreased alpha7 clustering on the surface of the interneurons in a PDZ-dependent way. These data show that PICK1 negatively regulates surface clustering of alpha7 nAChRs on hippocampal interneurons, which may be important in inhibitory functions of alpha7 in the hippocampus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mcn.2007.03.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3310904PMC
June 2007

Diverse molecular mechanisms involved in AChR deficiency due to rapsyn mutations.

Brain 2006 Oct 31;129(Pt 10):2773-83. Epub 2006 Aug 31.

Neurosciences Group, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Churchill Hospital, Oxford, UK.

Congenital myasthenic syndromes are inherited disorders of neuromuscular transmission characterized by fatigable muscle weakness. Autosomal recessive acetylcholine receptor (AChR) deficiency syndromes, in which levels of this receptor at the neuromuscular junction are severely reduced, may be caused by mutations within genes encoding the AChR or the AChR-clustering protein, rapsyn. Most patients have mutations within the rapsyn coding region and are either homozygous for N88K or heteroallelic for N88K and a second mutation. In some cases the second allele carries a null mutation but in many the mutations are missense, and are located in different functional domains. Little is known about the functional effects of these mutations, but we hypothesize that they would have an effect on AChR clustering by a variety of mechanisms that might correlate with disease severity. Here we expressed RAPSN mutations A25V, N88K, R91L, L361R and K373del in TE671 cells and in rapsyn-/- myotubes to determine their pathogenic mechanisms. The A25Vmutation impaired colocalization of rapsyn with AChR and prevented agrin-induced AChR clusters in rapsyn-/- myotubes. In TE671 cells, R91L reduced the ability of rapsyn to self-associate, and K373del-rapsyn was significantly less stable than wild-type. The effects of mutations L361R and N88K were more subtle: in TE671 cells, in comparison with wild-type rapsyn, L361R-rapsyn showed reduced expression/stability, and both N88K-rapsyn and L361R-rapsyn showed significantly reduced co-localization with AChR. N88K-rapsyn and L361R-rapsyn could effectively mediate agrin-induced AChR clusters, but these were reduced in number and were less stable than with wild-type rapsyn. The disease severity of patients harbouring the compound allelic mutations was greater than that of patients with homozygous rapsyn mutation N88K, suggesting that the second mutant allele may largely determine severity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/brain/awl219DOI Listing
October 2006

Cholesterol and lipid microdomains stabilize the postsynapse at the neuromuscular junction.

EMBO J 2006 Sep 24;25(17):4050-60. Epub 2006 Aug 24.

Department of Neurochemistry, Brain Research Institute, University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.

Stabilization and maturation of synapses are important for development and function of the nervous system. Previous studies have implicated cholesterol-rich lipid microdomains in synapse stabilization, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We found that cholesterol stabilizes clusters of synaptic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) in denervated muscle in vivo and in nerve-muscle explants. In paralyzed muscles, cholesterol triggered maturation of nerve sprout-induced AChR clusters into pretzel shape. Cholesterol treatment also rescued a specific defect in AChR cluster stability in cultured src(-/-);fyn(-/-) myotubes. Postsynaptic proteins including AChRs, rapsyn, MuSK and Src-family kinases were strongly enriched in lipid microdomains prepared from wild-type myotubes. Microdomain disruption by cholesterol-sequestering methyl-beta-cyclodextrin disassembled AChR clusters and decreased AChR-rapsyn interaction and AChR phosphorylation. Amounts of microdomains and enrichment of postsynaptic proteins into microdomains were decreased in src(-/-);fyn(-/-) myotubes but rescued by cholesterol treatment. These data provide evidence that cholesterol-rich lipid microdomains and SFKs act in a dual mechanism in stabilizing the postsynapse: SFKs enhance microdomain-association of postsynaptic components, whereas microdomains provide the environment for SFKs to maintain interactions and phosphorylation of these components.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.emboj.7601288DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1560359PMC
September 2006

Src-family kinases stabilize the neuromuscular synapse in vivo via protein interactions, phosphorylation, and cytoskeletal linkage of acetylcholine receptors.

J Neurosci 2005 Nov;25(45):10479-93

Department of Neurochemistry, Brain Research Institute, University of Zürich, CH-8057 Zürich, Switzerland.

Postnatal stabilization and maturation of the postsynaptic membrane are important for development and function of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ), but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly characterized. We examined the role of Src-family kinases (SFKs) in vivo. Electroporation of kinase-inactive Src constructs into soleus muscles of adult mice caused NMJ disassembly: acetylcholine receptor (AChR)-rich areas became fragmented; the topology of nerve terminal, AChRs, and synaptic nuclei was disturbed; and occasionally nerves started to sprout. Electroporation of kinase-overactive Src produced similar but milder effects. We studied the mechanism of SFK action using cultured src(-/-);fyn(-/-) myotubes, focusing on clustering of postsynaptic proteins, their interaction with AChRs, and AChR phosphorylation. Rapsyn and the utrophin-glycoprotein complex were recruited normally into AChR-containing clusters by agrin in src(-/-);fyn(-/-) myotubes. But after agrin withdrawal, clusters of these proteins disappeared rapidly in parallel with AChRs, revealing that SFKs are of general importance in postsynaptic stability. At the same time, AChR interaction with rapsyn and dystrobrevin and AChR phosphorylation decreased after agrin withdrawal from mutant myotubes. Unexpectedly, levels of rapsyn protein were increased in src(-/-);fyn(-/-) myotubes, whereas rapsyn-cytoskeleton interactions were unaffected. The overall cytoskeletal link of AChRs was weak but still strengthened by agrin in mutant cells, consistent with the normal formation but decreased stability of AChR clusters. These data show that correctly balanced activity of SFKs is critical in maintaining adult NMJs in vivo. SFKs hold the postsynaptic apparatus together through stabilization of AChR-rapsyn interaction and AChR phosphorylation. In addition, SFKs control rapsyn levels and AChR-cytoskeletal linkage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2103-05.2005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6725837PMC
November 2005

Alpha7 neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are negatively regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation and Src-family kinases.

J Neurosci 2005 Oct;25(43):9836-49

Department of Neurosciences, University Medical Center, CH-1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland.

Nicotine, a component of tobacco, is highly addictive but possesses beneficial properties such as cognitive improvements and memory maintenance. Involved in these processes is the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) alpha7, whose activation triggers depolarization, intracellular signaling cascades, and synaptic plasticity underlying addiction and cognition. It is therefore important to investigate intracellular mechanisms by which a cell regulates alpha7 nAChR activity. We have examined the role of phosphorylation by combining molecular biology, biochemistry, and electrophysiology in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, Xenopus oocytes, rat hippocampal interneurons, and neurons from the supraoptic nucleus, and we found tyrosine phosphorylation of alpha7 nAChRs. Tyrosine kinase inhibition by genistein decreased alpha7 nAChR phosphorylation but strongly increased acetylcholine-evoked currents, whereas tyrosine phosphatase inhibition by pervanadate produced opposite effects. Src-family kinases (SFKs) directly interacted with the cytoplasmic loop of alpha7 nAChRs and phosphorylated the receptors at the plasma membrane. SFK inhibition by PP2 [4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine] or SU6656 (2,3-dihydro-N,N-dimethyl-2-oxo-3-[(4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-indol-2-yl)methylene]-1H-indole-5-sulfonamide) increased alpha7 nAChR-mediated responses, whereas expression of active Src reduced alpha7 nAChR activity. Mutant alpha7 nAChRs lacking cytoplasmic loop tyrosine residues because of alanine replacement of Tyr-386 and Tyr-442 were more active than wild-type receptors and insensitive to kinase or phosphatase inhibition. Because the amount of surface alpha7 receptors was not affected by kinase or phosphatase inhibitors, these data show that functional properties of alpha7 nAChRs depend on the tyrosine phosphorylation status of the receptor and are the result of a balance between SFKs and tyrosine phosphatases. These findings reveal novel regulatory mechanisms that may help to understand nicotinic receptor-dependent plasticity, addiction, and pathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3497-05.2005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6725579PMC
October 2005

A single pulse of agrin triggers a pathway that acts to cluster acetylcholine receptors.

Mol Cell Biol 2004 Sep;24(18):7841-54

Brain Research Institute, University of Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057 Zürich, Switzerland.

Agrin triggers signaling mechanisms of high temporal and spatial specificity to achieve phosphorylation, clustering, and stabilization of postsynaptic acetylcholine receptors (AChRs). Agrin transiently activates the kinase MuSK; MuSK activation has largely vanished when AChR clusters appear. Thus, a tyrosine kinase cascade acts downstream from MuSK, as illustrated by the agrin-evoked long-lasting activation of Src family kinases (SFKs) and their requirement for AChR cluster stabilization. We have investigated this cascade and report that pharmacological inhibition of SFKs reduces early but not later agrin-induced phosphorylation of MuSK and AChRs, while inhibition of Abl kinases reduces late phosphorylation. Interestingly, SFK inhibition applied selectively during agrin-induced AChR cluster formation caused rapid cluster dispersal later upon agrin withdrawal. We also report that a single 5-min agrin pulse, followed by extensive washing, triggered long-lasting MuSK and AChR phosphorylation and efficient AChR clustering. Following the pulse, MuSK phosphorylation increased and, beyond a certain level, caused maximal clustering. These data reveal novel temporal aspects of tyrosine kinase action in agrin signaling. First, during AChR cluster formation, SFKs initiate early phosphorylation and an AChR stabilization program that acts much later. Second, a kinase mechanism rapidly activated by agrin acts thereafter autonomously in agrin's absence to further increase MuSK phosphorylation and cluster AChRs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MCB.24.18.7841-7854.2004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC515067PMC
September 2004

The postsynaptic submembrane machinery at the neuromuscular junction: requirement for rapsyn and the utrophin/dystrophin-associated complex.

J Neurocytol 2003 Jun-Sep;32(5-8):709-26

Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-7290, USA.

Neuromuscular synapse formation is brought about by a complex bi-directional exchange of information between the innervating motor neuron and its target skeletal muscle fiber. Agrin, a heparin sulfate proteoglycan, is released from the motor nerve terminal to activate its muscle-specific kinase (MuSK) receptor that leads to a second messenger cascade requiring rapsyn to ultimately bring about AChR clustering in the muscle membrane. Rapsyn performs many functions in skeletal muscle. First, rapsyn and AChRs co-target to the postsynatic apparatus. Second, rapsyn may self associate to stabilize and promote AChR clustering. Third, rapsyn is essential for AChR cluster formation. Fourth, rapsyn is required to transduce the agrin-evoked MuSK phosphorylation signal to AChRs. Finally, rapsyn links AChRs to the utrophin-associated complex, which appears to be required for AChR stabilization as well as maturation of the neuromuscular junction. Proteins within the utrophin-associated complex such as alpha-dystrobrevin and alpha-syntrophin are also important for signaling events that affect neuromuscular synapse stability and function. Here we review our current understanding of the role of the postsynaptic-submembrane machinery involving rapsyn and the utrophin-associated complex at the neuromuscular synapse. In addition we briefly review how these studies of the neuromuscular junction relate to GABAergic and glycinergic synapses in the CNS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1023/B:NEUR.0000020619.24681.2bDOI Listing
July 2004

Agrin regulates rapsyn interaction with surface acetylcholine receptors, and this underlies cytoskeletal anchoring and clustering.

J Biol Chem 2003 Feb 16;278(9):7350-9. Epub 2002 Dec 16.

Department of Neurochemistry, Brain Research Institute, University of Zürich, CH-8057 Zürich, Switzerland.

The acetylcholine receptor (AChR)-associated protein rapsyn is essential for neuromuscular synapse formation and clustering of AChRs, but its mode of action remains unclear. We have investigated whether agrin, a key nerve-derived synaptogenic factor, influences rapsyn-AChR interactions and how this affects clustering and cytoskeletal linkage of AChRs. By precipitating AChRs and probing for associated rapsyn, we found that in denervated diaphragm rapsyn associates with synaptic as well as with extrasynaptic AChRs showing that rapsyn interacts with unclustered AChRs in vivo. Interestingly, synaptic AChRs are associated with more rapsyn suggesting that clustering of AChRs may require increased interaction with rapsyn. In similar experiments in cultured myotubes, rapsyn interacted with intracellular AChRs and with unclustered AChRs at the cell surface, although surface interactions are much more prominent. Remarkably, agrin induces recruitment of additional rapsyn to surface AChRs and clustering of AChRs independently of the secretory pathway. This agrin-induced increase in rapsyn-AChR interaction strongly correlates with clustering, because staurosporine and herbimycin blocked both the increase and clustering. Conversely, laminin and calcium induced both increased rapsyn-AChR interaction and AChR clustering. Finally, time course experiments revealed that the agrin-induced increase occurs with AChRs that become cytoskeletally linked, and that this precedes receptor clustering. Thus, we propose that neural agrin controls postsynaptic aggregation of the AChR by enhancing rapsyn interaction with surface AChRs and inducing cytoskeletal anchoring and that this is an important precursor step for AChR clustering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M210865200DOI Listing
February 2003

Laminin-1 redistributes postsynaptic proteins and requires rapsyn, tyrosine phosphorylation, and Src and Fyn to stably cluster acetylcholine receptors.

J Cell Biol 2002 May 28;157(5):883-95. Epub 2002 May 28.

Department of Neurochemistry, Brain Research Institute, University of Zürich, CH-8057, Switzerland.

Clustering of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) is a critical step in neuromuscular synaptogenesis, and is induced by agrin and laminin which are thought to act through different signaling mechanisms. We addressed whether laminin redistributes postsynaptic proteins and requires key elements of the agrin signaling pathway to cause AChR aggregation. In myotubes, laminin-1 rearranged dystroglycans and syntrophins into a laminin-like network, whereas inducing AChR-containing clusters of dystrobrevin, utrophin, and, to a marginal degree, MuSK. Laminin-1 also caused extensive coclustering of rapsyn and phosphotyrosine with AChRs, but none of these clusters were observed in rapsyn -/- myotubes. In parallel with clustering, laminin-1 induced tyrosine phosphorylation of AChR beta and delta subunits. Staurosporine and herbimycin, inhibitors of tyrosine kinases, prevented laminin-induced AChR phosphorylation and AChR and phosphotyrosine clustering, and caused rapid dispersal of clusters previously induced by laminin-1. Finally, laminin-1 caused normal aggregation of AChRs and phosphotyrosine in myotubes lacking both Src and Fyn kinases, but these clusters dispersed rapidly after laminin withdrawal. Thus, laminin-1 redistributes postsynaptic proteins and, like agrin, requires tyrosine kinases for AChR phosphorylation and clustering, and rapsyn for AChR cluster formation, whereas cluster stabilization depends on Src and Fyn. Therefore, the laminin and agrin signaling pathways overlap intracellularly, which may be important for neuromuscular synapse formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.200202110DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2173406PMC
May 2002

Clustering of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors: from the neuromuscular junction to interneuronal synapses.

Mol Neurobiol 2002 Feb;25(1):79-112

Department of Neurochemistry, Brain Research Institute, University of Zürich, Switzerland.

Fast and accurate synaptic transmission requires high-density accumulation of neurotransmitter receptors in the postsynaptic membrane. During development of the neuromuscular junction, clustering of acetylcholine receptors (AChR) is one of the first signs of postsynaptic specialization and is induced by nerve-released agrin. Recent studies have revealed that different mechanisms regulate assembly vs stabilization of AChR clusters and of the postsynaptic apparatus. MuSK, a receptor tyrosine kinase and component of the agrin receptor, and rapsyn, an AChR-associated anchoring protein, play crucial roles in the postsynaptic assembly. Once formed, AChR clusters and the postsynaptic membrane are stabilized by components of the dystrophin/utrophin glycoprotein complex, some of which also direct aspects of synaptic maturation such as formation of postjunctional folds. Nicotinic receptors are also expressed across the peripheral and central nervous system (PNS/CNS). These receptors are localized not only at the pre- but also at the postsynaptic sites where they carry out major synaptic transmission. In neurons, they are found as clusters at synaptic or extrasynaptic sites, suggesting that different mechanisms might underlie this specific localization of nicotinic receptors. This review summarizes the current knowledge about formation and stabilization of the postsynaptic apparatus at the neuromuscular junction and extends this to explore the synaptic structures of interneuronal cholinergic synapses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1385/MN:25:1:079DOI Listing
February 2002